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Sacramento County . 



The Leading Men and Women of the County Who Have Been Identified 

With Its Growth and Development From the Early 

Days to the Present 




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What is termed "history" is made up of several factors, which 
sometimes move concurrently and sometimes are divergent. There 
are many matters of record, which of course are not disputable, but 
in the recital of which the narrative is tinctured by the opinions or 
prejudices of the narrator or the historian or of the source of his 
information. Tradition and personal recollection play another large 
part in history, and things that are accepted for decades and even for 
centuries as facts become in the course of time a matter of dispute and 
even of rejection. The path of the historian therefore is not one of 
roses. If he be wise he will as far as possible submit each statement 
to the test of scrutiny and comparison and hold fast to that which he 
considers as proven, or if he does not reject it, state that the matter is 
not fully authenticated. 

Had the writer been far-seeing, when he came to California in 
187-1-, he would have jotted down the i:)ersonal recollections and experi- 
ences of a large number of the pioneers with whom he became ac- 
quainted and who were then in the prime of a vigorous life and with 
a vivid recollection of what they had passed through and of the condi- 
tions they found prevailing here when they arrived. Some of these 
men came as early as 1846 before the discovery of gold, and he has 
listened for hours to their tales of adventure and experience, but did 
not at that time realize that the lips that recited them would one day 
l)e stilled in death and many important matters connected with the 
early history of the state would be buried in oblivion. A book em- 
bodying these recollections would have been a most fascinating work, 
for a glamour always hangs over the history of the days of the Argo- 
nauts that seems to grow in interest as time progresses. Many of 
these reminiscences were probably tinged with romance, but that 
hardly lessened their interest. 

In the compilation of this volume the writer has endeavored to 
present facts collated by him, without bias or prejudice, and as nearly 
authenticated as possible. Perhaps some statements may provoke 
criticism from those who hold a different point of view, or who have 
received information conflicting with them; and it would be too much 
to expect that the book would be entirely free from faults or defects, 
but he can truly say that he has done his best with the resources at 
his command and sifted the evidence to the best of his ability, and can 
only ask the indulgence of the public with regard to his shortcomings. 

In the compilatiou of this work, the author has consulted a number 
of authorities, and had the valuable assistance of a number of persons 
in collecting data. The works of Dr. Morse, Thompson and West, and 
Winfield J. Davis have been drawn upon freely, as have those of 
other authorities. To Hon. W. A. Anderson he is indebted for the 
valuable chapter on "The Bench and Bar," and other reminiscences, 
and to E. B. Willis, N. E. White, J. A. Woodson and others for 
suggestions and information. In a work of this kind it is impossible 
to incorporate all incidents, however interesting to the parties con- 
cerned, and where it has not been practicable to secure accurate data, 
some things have been omitted, rather than run the risk of incor- 
rect statement. He therefore trusts that the public will accept the 
work in the spirit in which it was written. 

W. L. Willis. 


Introditctory 5 

Sacramento the Peer of any County in California — Her Part in History of 
State Important— A Second Valley of the Nile— Splendid Soil Sprinkled 
with Gold Dust — Great Crops Shipped Abroad — Here Began Real History 
of California — Hither Came Argonauts of 1S49 — Deer and Antelope Then to 
be Seen— Wild Oats Taller Than Man's Head— Sparsely Settled Plains- 
Remarkable Transformation Made by Citizens. 


Sacramento County 10 

Location — Tonnage on River — Fertility of Soil — Growing of Fruit — Soil and 
Streams — Necessity of Levees — Water Available for Factories — Raising 
of Wheat Superseded by Horticulture — Asparagus and Celery Profitable 
on Tule Lands — Old Spanish Grants — Present Property Valuations — The 
Capital City a Place of Beauty — Many Attractions for Visitors — Steam and 
Electric Railroads Increasing in Number. 


Mining 1(5 

Discovery of Gold — Early Process of Mining with Shovel and Pick — Latest 
Methods of Dredging — ^Shall Dredger Mining be Regulated by State — 
Hydraulic Process Opposed by Orchardists — Finally Prohibited by Legis- 


Climate ]7 

Snow Never Seen Except upon Distant Sierras — Temperature Compared with 
Southern Italy and Los Angeles — Cherries Usually Blossom in February 
and Ripen in April — Average Rainfall — Sunstroke Unknown — Summer 
Evenings Delightful — Oranges Shipped Earlier than in Southern California- 
Sacramento Rainfall Monthly, Seasonal and Annual from 1S49 to 1912 — 
Sacramento Temperature Average Since 1S7S — Relative Humidity — Per- 
centage of Sunstroke — Extreme Temperatures — Extremes of Wind. 


Gen. John A. Sutter 30 

Early Life — Travels in West — Agreement with Governor Alvarado — Settle- 
ment on the American River in 1839 — Proximity to Digger Indians — Declared 
a Mexican Citizen in 1841 — Given a Grant to New Helvetia — American Flag 
Hoisted in 1846 — ^Kindness to the Immigrants — Heavy Losses by Desertion 
of Laborers and by Thefts — Tardy Recognition of His Services by State. 


The Fort Restored _ 34 

First Effort at Restoration — Public-Spirited Work of General Martlne — Enter- 
prise Promoted by Native Sons — Pioneers Also Active in Work — Present 
Condition of Fort. 


The Discovery of Gold _ 37 

Early Explorers Referred to Presence of Gold — Cause of Immigration of 
Mormons to West — Settlement on Mormon Island — Gold Mined There — 
Other Reports from Explorers — Marshall's Discovery Accidental — His Later 
Life — The Results of the Discovery — First White Child Born in California. 


City and County Elections , -11 

First Election — Officers Chosen — Hardin Biglow the First Mayor — First 
Meeting of Council — Success of Biglow in Preventing Disastrous Flood in 
1850 — Growth of Business — Report of Assessor — Decline of Valuations — 
Sacramento Incorporated February 27, 18S0 — Boundaries Defined— New 


Charter Granted 1851 — Date of Elections — Amount of Salaries — Tax for 
Support of Free Schools — Consolidation of City and County Government — 
Repeal of First Act — Adoption of New Charter — Horace Smith Second Mayor 
— Later Elections. 


The Squatter Eiot 49 

Cause of the Trouble — History of the Affair — Leading Participants in the 


First Things 55 

First Mail Received in Sacramento — First Directory — First Prison Brig — 
First Store at Sutter's Fort — First Census — First Paper — First Banquet — 
First Ball— First Railroad — First Agricultural Association — First Frame and 
First Brick Houses in Sacramento — First Fire Department — First Street 
Cars — First Court House — First Criminal Trial. 


The Revolution 61 

Conditions Culminating in the Revolution — The Bear Flag Party — Ide's 
Proclamation — Making of the First Bear Flag — American Flag Hoisted at 

Ix THE Beginning 65 

Founding of Suttervllle — Eclipsed by Sacramento — Description of City by 

Bayard Taylor — Freighting to the Mines — High Cost of Living — Commis- 
sioners Elected — Gaming Prevalent — Influence of Clergymen Beneficial — 
Organization of City Government — Burdens of Early Councils — Sufferings of 
Penniless Newcomers — Odd Fellows and Masons Prompt to Relieve Desti- 
tution — January Flood of 18.50 — Admission of California to the Union — Epi- 
demic of Cholera — Disasters Overcome by People. 


Political 81 

Democratic Convention of 1854 — Dissention and Dispute — Mass Meeting 
of Republicans — State Convention of New Party — The Spittoon Convention — 
Governor Foote of Mississippi Prominent in Public Life. 


County Government — : 87 

Organization of County in 1850 — Its Boundaries — Elections — Officers. 


City Officers - 97 

List of City Officials from 1849 — Mayor Wounded in Squatter Riot — City and 
County Consolidated from 1858 to 1862 — City Governed by Board of Trus- 
tees (3) from 1863 to 1894 — New Charter Adopted in 1894 — Trustees In- 
creased to Nine. 


Floods 105 

Reclamation of River Lands Costly — Efforts of Aborigines to Provide Safety 
from Floods — Overflow of 1850 — Levee Hurriedly Built by Biglow — Flood 
of 1852— Optimism of People — Flood of 1853 Less Destructive — Heavy Mis- 
fortunes Attending Flood of 1861 — Another Flood Early in 1862 — J and K 
Streets Raised for Protection Against Floods — Last Flood of Any Conse- 
quence in 1904. 


Sacramento County Senators - - - 117 

Changes in Districts — John Bidwell Elected Senator in 1849— Republican 
Nominee for Governor in 187.5 — Prohibition Nominee for Governor in 1890 
and for President in 1892 — Elisha O. Crosby a Senator in 1849 — Henry E. 
Robinson a Prominent Pioneer Legislator — Bequeathed Large Sum to the 
Poor of San Francisco — Ferguson Senator in 1856-58 — Other Pioneer Legis- 


lators — Curtis Senator Three Terms and Assemblyman One Term — Creed 
Haymond Senator 18T5-7S— Pioneer Orchardist, Joseph Routier, a Senator in 
1883-85— The Popular Judge, Elijah C. Hart, Elected Senator in 1893— Gillis 
Doty Elected in 1897— The Pioneer Physician, J. C. McKee, Elected in 1905— 
Charles B. Bills Chosen in 1909. 


Sacramento County Assemblymen _ 122 

Cornwall Elected to Assembly in 1849 — A Pioneer of 1848 in Sacramento- 
Assemblyman Henley a Pioneer Banker — McKinstry Later Justice of the 
Supreme Court — Assemblyman Bigler Later Elected Governor of California — 
Charles Robinson Later Governor of Kansas — Assemblyman J. Neely 
Johnson Governor of California in 1855 — Other Influential Men in Assem- 
bly — Contested Election of Charles Buncombe — Charles Crocker an Assem- 
blyman in 1861 — Stephens a Member in 1869 — Clunie, Member in 1875, After- 
ward Congressman — Judge Anderson Assemblyman in 1893 — Recent Repre- 
sentation in Assembly. 

California State Library 

First Steps Toward Library — Gradual Development — Seven Departments — • 
Books for the Sightless Sent Throughout the State — County Libraries of 
Great Helpfulness. 


City Free Library 133 

Association Organized in 1857 — Building Erected in 1872— Turned Over to 
City — Leading Papers on Pile — Books Increasing in Number — Library Sup- 
ported by Public Tax — Residents of Entire County Given Library Privileges — 
Librarian Has Management of Institution. 


Government Offices 135 

Sacramento Postoffice — Facilities Always Less Than Needs — City Deliv- 
ery Service — Rural Service — United States Land Otflce — Internal Revenue 
Office— United States Weather Bureau Station. 


Charitable Institutions 137 

Need of Relief for Early Emigrants — First Organized Relief Instituted by 
Odd Fellows — Hospital Built in 1850 by Masons and Odd Fellows— Other 
Pioneer Hospitals — First Public Hospital — County Physicians — Southern Pa- 
cific Hospital — Protestant Orphan Asylum — The Marguerite Home — Other 
Hospitals — Mater Misericordiae Hospital — Wentworth-Igo Hospital — White 
Hospital — Home of the Merciful Saviour — Howard Benevolent Association — 
Catholic Ladles' Relief Society No. 1 — The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion — Cemeteries. 


The Press 147 

Monterey Californian First Newspaper of California — California Star Second 
Newspaper — Two Papers United in 1848 — Pacific News the Third Newspaper 
— Alta California Started in 1849 — Sacramento Transcript Started in 1850 — 
First Daily Outside of San Francisco — Consolidated with Placer Times — 
Removed to San Francisco — Absorbed into the Alta California — Settlers and 
Miners Tribune — Sacramento Index — Sacramento Daily Union — Launched in 
1851 — Weekly Started in 1852 — Consolidation of Union and Record — Sunday 
Edition Added — Many Expensive Improvements in Union Plant — Democratic 
State Journal — Brief Life of a Baptist Paper — California Statesman — Other 
Early Sheets — State Tribune Appeared in 1855-56 — Daily Morning Bee Born 
February 3, 1857 — Wide Influence of Paper — Many Sheets of Brief Life— Sun- 
day Leader First Appeared in 1875 — Occidental Medical Times Started as 
Sacramento Medical Times in 1887 — Nord California Herold (German) an 
Influential Paper in its Field— Folsom Telegraph an Old and Prominent 
Journal — Gait Gazette in Southern End of County — The Sunday News Begun 
in 1893 — Now Widely Read and Influential — Tlae Sacramento Star of Modern 
Inception and Growing Prosperity. 


Educational Matters lfc>5 

Schools Have Shown Steady Growth — School in Sacramento in Summer 
of 1849— C. T. H. Palmer Taught In August — Rev. J. A. Benton His Suc- 
cessor in October — First Public School Opened February 20, 1854 — Attend- 
ance Increased Rapidlj — City Schools First Controlled by Assessor — 
Accommodations Insufflcient — Colored Schools Apportioned F'unds in 1856 — 
Enrollment of One Thousand in All Schools in 18611 — Twelve Hundred Pupils 
in 1864 — Fourteen Schools and Fifteen Hundred Pupils in 1866 — School Li- 
brary Started in 1867 — Twenty-two Hundred Pupils and Seventeen Schools 
by End of 1869— Thirty-four Hundred Pupils Enrolled in 1880- Later 
Boards — The High School — The Colored Pupils — Other Items — Sacramento 
Business College. 


Railroads 182 

First Railroad in State — Previous Attempts — Judah the First to Demon- 
strate Feasibility of Sierra Nevada Route — Convention Held in 1859 — Judah 
Sent to Washington to Promote Railroad Enterprise — More Thorough Sur- 
veys with Barometer — Judah Discouraged by San Francisco Capitalists — 
Stock Largely Subscribed by Sacramento Citizens — Topographical Features 
of the Sierras — Government Assistance to Railroad — Donation by California 
— Ability of Originators of Movement — First Train Schedule — Celebration at 
Shoveling of First Dirt — Equipment for Road — Difficulties Many — Courage 
of Promoters Undaunted — Last Spike Driven — Western Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany — Other Important Roads — Enthusiasm on Entrance of California Pacific 
in Sacramento — The Sacramento Valley Railroad — Various Railroad Enter- 
prises—Southern Pacific Shops— First Shop Erected in 1863— Magnitude of 
Present Plant — Electric Roads. 


Navigation 201 

Sacramento River First Medium of Transportation — Immense Amount of 
Traffic on the River — Red Bluff the Head of Navigation — Russians the First 
to Navigate the River — Crowning Success with Sailing Vessels in Trip of 
the Whiton — Little Sitka the First Steamboat on the River — Voyage of the 
Steamer New World — Twenty-eight Steamers on River in 1850 — California 
Steam Navigation Company Organized in 1854 — Bought in 1869 by Central 
Pacific — Sacramento Wood Company — Sacramento Transportation Com- 
pany — California Transportation Company — Farmers Transportation Com- 
pany — Explosions Frequent in Early Days — ^Yolo Bridges. 


Local Judiclvry and Attorneys _, _ 211 

Common Law Established in Sacramento — Alcaldes and Justices of the Peace 
— Superior Tribunal and Courts of First Instance — Court of Sessions Created 
in 1850 — Early Courts Superseded by Superior Court — Jurists Identified 
with County — Deceased Attorneys of County — Attorneys Now Practicing 
in Sacramento. 


Members of the Har 219 

Early Lawyers Eminent in Public Affairs — B. B. Crocker Supreme Court 
Justice and Pounder of Crocker Art Gallery — Governor Johnson — Chief Jus- 
tice W. H. Beatty — United States Senator Cornelius Cole — Col. E. D. Baker 
Killed in Civil War— H. W. Halleck Commander-in-Chief of Union Army- 
Col. E. J. C. Kewen Financial Agent for the Noted William Walker — J. C. 
Zabriskie the First City Attorney — Frank D. Ryan, A Native Son, One of 
Sacramento's Finest Lawyers — The Name of George Cadwalader Prominent 
in Supreme Court Reports— Successful Career of A. C. Freeman — Peter H. 
Burnett the First Governor of California — The Genius of Albert M. John- 
son — Judge Catlin Influential in Securing State Capitol for Sacramento — 
Henry Edgerton, Orator, Statesman, Lawyer — Remembered Now by Pew — 
Never Attained the Goal of His Ambition — A Pioneer of 1853 — Prosecuting 
Attorney of Napa County — Orator at Reception of General Grant — Presi- 
dential Elector — State Senator — N. Greene Curtis a Pioneer of 1850 from 
Tennessee — True to Union in Civil War, Senator Several Terms — Counsel 
in Many Important Cases — James W. Coffroth, Senator from Old Tuolumne — 


Fond of Humor— Helpful to Young Lawyers— John H. McKune a Factor in 
Constructing Law and Ethics of California — A Pioneer of Sacramento — 
Land Commissioner, State Assemblyman, District Judge and Code Commis- 
sioner — Newton Booth, Governor of State — Entertained Many Famous 
Guests — William A. Anderson — Success Reached by Sterling Qualities of 
Mind and Heart — Resident of Sacramento from 1S49 — City Attorney, As- 
semblyman and Police Judge. 


Fraternal Societies 246 

Masons Among Early Trappers in West — Peter Lassen the First Masonic 
Missionary — Connecticut No. T.") the First Lodge in Sacramento — Grand Lodge 
of California Organized in 1S50 — Present Lodges of City — Chapter, Council, 
Commandery and Scottish Rite — Eastern Star — Colored Lodges — Lodges of 
Odd Fellows — Encampment, Grand Canton and Sovereign Grand Lodge — 
Rebekahs— Knights of Pythias— I. O. R. M.— A. O. U. W.— U. A. O. D.— N. S. 
G. W. — K. of H. — 'Y. M. I. — Hebrew Benevolent Association — Sons of Veter- 
ans — Other Organizations. 


Criminal Records 264 

The Fate of Roe — First Lynching In Sacramento — Robbery and Grand Lar- 
ceny Punishable with Death in Early Days— Chinaman Hanged for Murder 
of His Wife — Other Executions — Unknown Fate of William Wells — Quick 
Justice for Murder of Sailor — Killing of OfBcer Scott — Mysterious Murder 
of a Rancher on Grand Island — Grocer and Wife Murdered — Escape of 
Convicts — A Later Attempt Foiled — A Sicilian Murder. 


The Great Railroad Strike, - 279 

Disastrous Results of Strike of 1894 — Begun in Pullman Near Chicago- 
Extended to Coast — Baggage and Freight and Mail Delayed — Troops Ordered 
Out — Incidents of the 4th of July — Troops Camped in Capitol Park on .5th 
of July — More Soldiers on the 11th — Train Wrecked and Several Killed — 
Revulsion of Feeling — Trial of Wreckers. 


The Churches -.-- - 291 

Grace Episcopal the First Church in Sacramento — Organization and His- 
tory — Foreclosure of Mortgage in 1877 — Organization of St. Paul's— Present 
Stone Edifice — Other Episcopal Churches — Roman Catholic Organizations — 
Majestic Cathedral the Most Spacious Church in California — First Congre- 
gational Church — Presbyterian Churches— Methodist Episcopal Activities 
Started by "Father" Owen — German Evangelical Lutheran Organized in 1867 
—Handsome Edifice of Scientists— Other Denominations and Their Useful 
Services to the Community. 


Reminiscences - 308 

Railroad Building in Early Days — Experiences of James G. Patterson — 
Experiences of McConnell as Storekeeper — The Great Ball of 1849 — Refresh- 
ments Unique — Interesting Incidents at the Ball. 


Township History 317 

Township Alabama — American— Brighton — Center — Cosumnes — Dry Creek 
— Franklin — Georgiana — Lee — Mississippi — Natoma — San Joaquin — Sutter — 
Riverside — Granite — Origin of Local Names — Levees — Funded Debt. 


Capital and Capitol..-. 358 

Constitutional Convention of 1849 — Election of Senators, Assemblymen and 
Two Congressmen in 1849 — First Legislature at San Jose — Gwln and Fremont 
First United States Senators — Proclamation of General Riley — Seat of State 
Government at San Jose and Then at Vallejo — Removed to Sacramento Jan- 
uary 12, 18.52 — Legal Technicalities Involved in Removal of Capital — All Ses- 
sions in Sacramento Since 1854 Excepting That of 1862— Later Attempts to 


Remove Capital — Building of Capitol — Total of Ten Blocks in Capitol Park — 
Most Attractive Grounds of Any Capitol Park — Group of Statuary — Trees and 
Shrubbery of Every Kind — Grand Army Plat with Trees from Battlefields of 
Civil War — Sacramento's Contribution to the List of Governors. 


The Military 364 

State Militia Organized in 1850 — Four Divisions and Eight Brigades — 
Changed in 1852 to Seven Districts — Six Divisions and Twelve Brigades 
Created in 1855 — One Division and Six Brigades in 1862 — Successive Briga- 
dier-Generals — Fourth Regiment — Sutter Rifle Corps — Sacramento Guards — 
Young Men's Pioneer Guard — Sacramento Cadets — Independent City Guard — 
Sacramento Hussars — Otner Companies — Grand Army of the Republic — Span- 
ish War Veterans. 


Fire Department 373 

Organized in 1850— Fires of That Year— Great Fire of 1853-— Catastrophe of 
1854 — Loss of Western Hotel in 1875 — Other Fires — First Fire Company in 
State — Mutual Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 — Other Volunteer Organiza- 
tions — Paid Fire Department — Established 1872 — Three Companies — Chief 
Engineers — Services of Guthrie — Stations 4 and 5 — Most Modern Equip- 
ment — Exempt Firemen. 

Early Business Enterprises. ..._ 

Business and Professional Men — Every Line of Industry Represented 
— Groceries and Provisions — Breweries — Beet Sugar Factory — Broom Fac- 
tories — Wagon and Carriage Shops — Foundries — Flouring Mills — Wheat No 
Longer the Principal Crop — Land Now Too Valuable for Grain — Export Flour 
Trade an Industry of the Past. 


Banks and Bankers 38S 

Banks of Sacramento Second to None in Stability — National Bank of D. O. 
Mills & Co.— Early History of the Bank— Capital Savings Bank— Odd Fellows 
Savings Bank — California National Bank — People's Savings Bank — Farmers 
and Mechanics Savings Bank — Sacramento Savings Bank One of Oldest in 
City — Capital Banking and Trust Co. — Sacramento Valley Bank and Trust 
Co. — Fort Sutter National Bank — Banks and Bankers 1851-1871 — Sacra- 
mento Clearing House. 


Public Utilities 398 

First Franchise for Gas Works — City First Lighted With Gas December 17, 
1855 — Various Changes in Companies — Advance in Methods of Manufactur- 
ing Gas — The Telephone — First Appearance of Sunset Telephone Company — 
First Express System of Telephone — Early Rate $6 per Month — Capital Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company — Water Works — First Bonds Issued in 1853 — 
Original Plant Soon Too Small for Needs of City — New Works Started in 
1872 and Completed in 1873. 


The Crocker Art Gallery .- 404 

Gathered in Europe at Great Expense — Deeded to City in 1885 — Building 
Adequate to House Magnificent Collection — California Artists Represented — 
Portraits of Prominent Californians — California Museum Association — First 
Exhibition a Social and Financial Success — Appreciation of Mrs. Crocker's 
Gift — Festival in Her Honor — Ladies Museum Association. 


Associations and Clubs .• 40S) 

Sacramento Pioneers — Chamber of Commerce— Sacramento Valley Develop- 
ment Association— The Saturday Club— The Tuesday Club— The Sutter Club 
— Dramatic and Musical — State Agricultural Society — Sacramento Athletic 
Club— Sacramento Boat Club — Other Clubs. 



Adams, Harry W 961 

Ahern, David 546 

Ahern, William M 809 

Albright, Sidney S 690 

Amaya, Daniel D 760 

Anderson, Alden 789 

Anderson, Andrew 878 

Anderson, Charles W 819 

Anderson, Lars P 1023 

Anderson, Ludwig 1026 

Andrew, William J 654 

Angrave, Joseph W 991 

Aram, Eugene 883 

Armstrong, Robert 676 

Arnold, Alphonse 962 

Atkinson, Edmund C 833 

Atkinson, F. L 746 

Azevedo, Joseph F. 857 


Baker, Harry W 992 

Barfoot, Spencer 993 

Bassett, W Walter 997 

Beckman, William 1020 

Beckwith, Chailes M 782 

Bedwell, John F 667 

Beede; Jeremiah K 653 

Bellmer, Edgar H 1055 

Bennett, Hariison 963 

Bethel, Fiank J . 609 

Bettens, R M 1022 

Bickle, Thomas V 858 

Bills. Charles B 994 

Bishop, Fled J 776 

Bock, George 1019 

Boggess, Jiles S 661 

Bohl, Peter 964 

Bonte, H. S 1042 

Borchard, Alfred 680 

Boss, Ira C 808 

Bostwick, George W 829 

Bowsher, Amos L 774 

Bradford, William B 574 

Bramhall, Robert N , M D 860 

Brauer, Herman . 723 

Breuner, Louis F 692 

Brickell, Jerome P 620 

Brickell, Thomas E 638 

Brown, Alfred J 967 

Brown, Edward S 861 

Brown, Egbert A 864 

Brown, John Q 863 

Brunschwiler, Joseph I 866 

Bullock, George S.. 867 

Burns, George A.... 975 

Butler, Guy W 870 


Calligori, Vincent 841 

Cameron, Archibald M 980 

Campbell, Alden W 825 

Caples, George W 1024 

Carlaw, Andrew 871 

Carmichael, Daniel W 445 

Carraghar, Will J 872 

Carroll, Daniel H 793 

Carroll, Jeremiah 773 

Gate, Daniel R 873 

Cavitt, George W 932 

Chambers, Vactor T 981 

Chaplin, William 874 

Chinn, Fredeiick C 766 

Christian, James T , M. D 979 

Cippa, Fred T 670 

Clark, George H 788 

Clayton, Marion P 803 

Clayton, Mrs. Sarah E 803 

Clifton, Archie W 875 

Coffin, Edward M 1018 

Cohen, Isidoi 571 

Cohn, Philip C 475 

Coolot, Augustin E 1053 

Cooper, John F 558 

Cope, O. Harold 813 

Cornell, Joseph D 504 

Cox, Frederick 976 

Coyle, Thomas J 842 

Crocker, Charles H 877 

Croke, Frank C 683 

Crowell, Montfort K 811 

Cuff, Clarence C 820 

Cutter, George H 996 

Dalton, Alfred, Jr. 

Dargitz, J. P 
DaRoza, Edward L 
Davis, Charles K 
Day, Stephen S 
Dehn, Henry 
Derby, Charles M 
Derby, Frank M 
Diepenbrock, Melchior H 

Dike, Uburto L 1000 

Doan, Warren E 998 

Donahue, John... 934 

Donnelly, James H 1017 

Donnelly, Peter F 895 

Dozier, Melville, Jr 657 

Driver, Elisha S. 648 

Dunn, Chauncey H 484 


Ebel, Mark H 759 

Eckhardt, Henrv 689 

Ehret, Louis D 770 

Eldred, Charles H 1013 
Elkus, Louis 999 

Elliott, James F 935 

Ellis, Charles J 982 

Ellis, Rev. John H 1001 

Ellis, Rev. William F 752 

Emigh, Clay W 797 

Emigh, James L 796 


Fairbank, Herbert A 523 

Fairfield, Willard A 936 

Fancher, Frederick B 801 

Farren, John 937 

Fical, Charles A 1042 

Ficks, George W 750 

Filcher, Joseph A 1014 

Fischer, Jacob J 897 

Fisher, J. Hayes, M. D 1047 

Fisk, Katherine B 745 

Fitzgerald, Petei A 573 

Folger, Alfred G 898 

Foster, Stephen 938 

Foster, Walter T 884 

Fox, David F.. 685 

Frasinetti, James 747 

Fratt, Francis W 1043 

Frommer, Bernard 941 


Gallup, William R 1025 

Gardner, Mrs. Anna G -.-- 951 

Geary, William 887 

Geiger, Charles C 788 

Gerber, Edward H 888 

Gerber, John A., Jr 1016 

Gerber, William E 947 

Gibson, Francis 985 

Gillespie, Edward, Sr 950 

Godard, Charles W 986 

Gore, William R 886 

Gormley, William F 891 

Gouiden, James 944 

Grace, Thomas 427 

Graham, Charles H 987 

Grant, William E "Ti- 

Green, Charles F 436 

Green, George 988 

Gregory, Frank 705 

Gregory, T. T C 1029 

Griffeth, Clarence M 664 

Griffin, M. W 989 


Hall, Thomas B 839 

Halloran, Martin 837 

Harlow, John M '''36 

Hart, James V 488 

Hartmann, Geoige P 696 

Haynes, Edward 818 

Haynie, Stephen W 695 

Hencken, William 472 

Henry, L.... 1011 

Hicks, John B 949 

Hinkle, Isa&c 917 

Hinsey, William W 743 

Hippie, Geoige W 545 

Hobrecht, Joseph C 956 

Hodson, Burton M 767 

Hook, George 955 

Hopkins, A S 831 

Hopkins, O G 491 

Hotchkiss, George W 647 

Hulings, Burton F 798 

Hullin, Nicholas T 762 

Humbert, Hubeit J 524 

Hummel, Joseph F 952 

Huntress, James S 513 

Hutton, Frank O 1012 

Irvine, Richard C 900 


Jacobs, Julius S 850 

Jenks, William M 733 

Johns, Fred J 614 

Johnson, Grove L 500 

Johnson, Hiram W 836 

Johnson, Joseph \V 588 

Johnston. John \\ 953 

Johnston, William A 529 

Jones, Edward S 849 

Jones, Thomas R 507 

Junior, Eugene A 493 


Kaufman, August 768( 

Kaufman, Carl 763 

Kavanaugh, Edward C 619 

Keach, George 919 

Kennedy, William M 663 

Kessler. Adam B 1056 

Kestler, Gustave A 739 

Keyes. Henry C 880 

Kiesel. Frederick W 815 

Kilgariff, Henry J 503 

Kimball, Moses N 881 

Kitt, Fred T ..^ 946 

Kleinsorge, Charles B 1003 

Klune. J. Bernhard 830 

Knight, Ralph 499 

Knight, William L. 622 

Koch, Bernhardt P 892 

Koch, Otto J 784 

Kohler. Ferdinand 890 

Krebs, Harry G 944 

Lafferty, Frank A 

Langley, William A 

Larkin, John N 

LaRue, Hon. Hugh M... 
LaRue, Hugh M., Jr 
Latourrette, Johnl 

Lavenson, Gus 

Lawton, John 

Lawton, William D 
Leonard, Albert... 
Leonard, Harry W 
Levering, Charles D 

Lewis, Thomas 

Limbaugh, Leonard M 
Lindsay, Arthur H 
Lindsay, William K.. M 
Lothhammer, Charles 

Lowry, Felton 

Lubin, David 

Lubin, S. J 

Luce, Niron 

. 644 

,. 729 













. 928 

. 628 

. 833 


. 922 

McCurdy, Arthur H... 

McDougal, George 

McDougall, Donald 

McElwaine, R 

McEwen, Edward J 
McFarland, Ray D 
McKenzie, Francis R 
McKevitt, Frank H 
McKinstry, J. K ... 
McMahon, John... 
McWilliams, Hugh 
Mackinder, Willis A 

. 466 



Mangan, James 


Manning, Frank J.. 


Martin, Fred L 


Marty, Benjamin 


Mathews, Herschel B 


Mauldin, Hugh 

. 778 

Mayden, John L 


Mayer, George H 


Mealer, Thomas J 


Meister, Albeit 

. 800 

Meredith, Craddoc 


Meyer, Frank 


Meyer, William A 


Mikle, Pleas G 


Mikulich, Andrew 


Mill, Russell W 


Miller, Frank C 


Miller, John H , Jr 


Miller, O. H 

Morrill, William D 


Morris, Edward 


Morrison, Alexander W 


Muddox, Harry C 


Muddox, Ralph H 


Murphy, Patiick H 



Nagle, John L 
Nathan, Charles P 
Nauman, Harrj A 
Nelson, Jacob 
Nethercott, George 
Noble, George W 
Noyes, Charles T 

O'Kelly, T. J 1051 

O'Neil, Tliomas W 822 

Owen, Harry D 740 


Patterson, John L 552 

Paule, Charles 442 

Peck, F. S ... 783 

Perkins, Chailes C 806 

Pfund, Edwaid F 1030 

Phillips, Sidney M 494 

Phinney, Cassius M 902 

Phinney. George A 1035 

Pierce, John A 684 

Pike, John E T 742 

Pipher, Joseph E 456 

Powers, William M 610 

Prouty, Simon 1031 

Prouty, William H 1037 


Quaas, William H 457 


RalfE, Otto 978 

Randle, George N 452 

Raper, Robert 641 
Read, Heibeit J 1U04 

Rees, Fredeiick G 6b ^ 

Reese, Ed waul E 603 

Reese, Johu 95j 

Reynolds, Aarou B ii65 

Richards, William F "21 

Riley, Jolin TIS 

Robb, Charles S 'J32 

Roberts, John H 4"i"j 

Rooney, Stephen J 693 

Ross-Roan, Mrb Maij 469 

Ruhstallei, Frank J S'll 

Runyon, Solomon 9ii5 

Russell, Scimuel W 460 

Rutter, James j">6 

Ryan, Frank D J20 

Ryan, Henry P 670 

Ryan & Cippa 670 

Rydberg, Herman 675 


St. Joseph's Academy 606 

Saner, Joseph 635 

Sargent, Franklin H 856 

Sawyer, John H 1038 

Schad, Isidor 539 

Schad, Thomas 540 

Schaden, Alfred 1039 

Scheld, Philip 547 

Scheunert, Wilhelm R. H 550 

Schneider, Casper V 1049 

Schnetz, Henry 701 

Selliiiger, George P 802 

Sellon, George C 828 

Seymour, Henry I 826 

Shannon, Hunter W. S 940 

Sharpe, Elton D 958 

Shaw, F. E., M. D 613 

Sheehan, Edgar M 549 

Shields, Peter J 755 

Silva, Charles F 439 

Silva, Manuel S , M. D 709 

Sisson, Benjamin L 876 

Slight, Samuel B 960 

Smiley, Hugh J 557 

Smith, Mrs. Anna 924 

Smith, Herbert F . 669 

Steffens, Joseph 853 

Stewart, Louis H 562 

Strachan, Hugh M 971 

Strachan, James 845 

Strand, William A 673 

Studarus, John 565 

Sullivan, Daniel U 753 

Swinney, John A 605 

Switzer, Herbert C 1007 


Taverner, George M 595 

Telfer, C. Allison 846 

Thlsby, George 632 

Thomson, Fredenck F 795 

Thorp, Harry 433 

Thorp, Sidnev G 541 

Timm, Richard 717 

Townsend, George H 908 

Trainor, Isaac J 531 

Twitchell, Edward 535 

Uren, Stephen 925 


Wachhorst, Eugene 1005 

Wahrhaftig, Moses S 968 

Walke, Adolph 931 

Walker, Joseph E 594 

Walton, Fredenck S lO.iO 

Warner, Willai d 913 

Warren, Lloyd G 600 

Washburn, O F 930 

Watson, William S, M D 9L5 

Weisman, William J 910 

Welch, Benjamin 567 

Wentz, John H 711 

Wentzel, Charles E 928 

Werner, Charles 616 

Wiesenhofer, Frank X 792 

Wilder, James A 598 

Wiley, David E 916 

Williams, Lincoln P 969 

Willis, William L 593 

Wilson, Jesse W 517 

Wise, Philip 929 

Woodburn, Elwood J 794 

Woods, John L 597 

Wulff, Henry F. G 911 

Yardley, Herbert E 
Yell, Archibald 
Yoerk, Charles A 
Young, Charles J 
Younger, Andrew 
Yule, William /"L^ 





"Serene I fold my hands and wait, 
Nor care for wind, nor tide, nor sea ; 
I rave no more 'gainst time or fate. 
For lo ! my own shall come to me. 

"The stars come nightly to the sky. 
The tidal wave unto the sea; 
Nor time, nor space, nor deep, nor high. 
Can keep my own away from me. ' ' 

— John Burroughs. 

Sncli has been for many years the attitude of a large part of this 
grand state, the empress that sits throned on the shores of the Pacific, 
conscious of her cliarm and confident of the future that awaits her, 
and that is drawing as a magnet tlie dwellers of colder climes and 
more inhospitable shores to the land of sunshine and flowers. And 
such has long been the attitude of Sacramento county, the peer of any 
in California. But a transformation has begun and the future will 
witness the unfolding of the bud of beauty into a pja-fect flower that 
shall surpass the most sanguine expectations. Witn a city that will 
expand in the future into the largest inland city on the coast, all her 
advantages will keep pace with her evolution and she will take her 
proper place among the gems that grace the diadem of the great 
empire of the Pacific coast, the magnificent state that took for her 
motto "Eureka," and might well have added to it "Excelsior." 

It may he safely said of Sacramento county that she has played 
a more important part in the history of the state than any other 
county within the borders of California. Embracing in her confines 
the most precious gifts of the lofty Sierras and the foothills at their 
base — the fertile alluvial soil washed down from their hillsides and 
canyons to fill up the inland sea of which she was once a part — making 
her a second valley of the Nile, no whit inferior to the original in 
fertility and jiroductiveness, she is almost without a peer. But the 
mountains and foothills were not niggardly in their munificent gifts, 
for in addition to her splendid soil they sprinkled it liberally with 
golden dust and nuggets that enriched many a one of the Argonauts 
and of the generation that succeeded them, and is to this day pouring- 
millions into the pockets of the men who are mining the precious metal 
on the lands adjoining the American river. 

Sitting majestically on the banks of the magnificent river that 
forms her western boundary, she has beheld for half a century barges 


and steamers bringing her choicest products down tlie bosom of the 
river to the sea, to supply the markets of the coast cities and of lands 
beyond the ocean. With the summer's sun and the winter's rain, aided 
by the balmy winds of spring and autumn, her crops follow each other 
in annual succession, and are sent abroad to feed the less fortunate 
dwellers of Occident and Orient and to spread the fame of her wealth 
of resources to distant lands. Well has she played her part so far, 
but it is an insig-nificant one compared to that which she will play in 
the near future, when instead of a few thousands, this magnificent 
valley of the Sacramento sliall su]>port millions of happy, prosperous 
men, women and children of the mighty empire that is llevehnjing so 
rapidly on the western coast of our country. And now has come to her 
a quickeniB,:^fof perception that will have far-reaching results. Her 
own has cqijifto her. She realizes the value of her birthright and will 
take advantage of it to the fullest extent. Agriculture, horticulture, 
commerce and manufacturing all feel the impulse resultant on the real- 
ization of lier ])ower and opportimity, and lier watchword is "Onward." 

In the days before the American occupation, Gen. John A. Sutter, 
the pioneer of pioneers of the state, saw with the vision of a prophet 
the futu]-e of the country, and built his fort near the confluence of the 
Sacramento and American rivers, to become, a few years later, the 
objective point of the wagon trains which wended their weary way 
across the trackless wilderness of this vast continent. Here many a 
company of im|^grants, worn out with their long journey and often 
half starved ana in distress, arrived and were fed and relieved from 
the stores of the generous-hearted old pioneer, and rested and recu- 
perated under the protection of his fort. Here was for many years 
the point where the gold seekers, landing from their long and danger- 
ous voyage around the Horn, arrived on boats from San Francisco, 
and fitted themselves out for the mines. Here, too, was the supply 
point for these seekers foi' gold after they had begun with pick, shovel 
and rocker, to delve their fortunes from the rich placers of the foot- 
hills. Here, then, began the making of tlie history of the Golden state. 

It was to Sacramento, too, that Marshall, long before the irrup- 
tion of the dwellers of every clime hastening to be first on the ground 
to gather the treasure, brought for Sutter's inspection the bright 
pieces of yellow metal found in the race at Coloma, and it was from 
Sacramento that, after that conference, the news went forth to the 
world that the gold placers of California held out the ojjportunity of 
acquiring wealtli to all who possessed the nerve and confidence to come 
and seek for it. 

The history of a nation, a state, a country or a city, has a numbej- 
of natural divisions, each interdeijendent with regard to the others, 
and which form a harmonious whole when lu'ought into proper relation 
to each other. Political, governmental, industrial and commercial, 
each has its province in promoting the general welfare of a community 


Not more interesting and romantic was the search of Jason auu 
his Argonauts for the Golden Fleece than was that of his prototypes 
who braved the wilderness with its hostile Indians, or endured the 
tedium and the dangers of the voyage round the Horn in search of the 
precious metal with, which California was endowed. There is a fas- 
cination which never grows old or lessens as one listens to the remin- 
iscences of the old pioneers and their tales of their journeyings to the 
new Eldorado under the lure of gold; and one lives over again with 
them the exciting experiences they met with, both on their way and 
after their arrival. Such a polyglot community never was"drawn to- 
gether, surely, banded in one common aim, but still each one pursuing 
his own way independently and striving to acquire wealth as quickly 
as possible and return to his old home. A few did so, l^ut with the 
majority the case was different. They never dreanied i^i^t they were 
to be founders of a great state which would hold theii*' Snemory in 
reverence and respect them for their sturdy, earnest qualities. Alas, 
they are fast dwindling in numbers and only a few brief years will see 
them among us no more. 

The lure of gold is one of the strongest incentives to man, induc- 
ing him to leave home and its loved ones, to brave well-known and 
certain danger and to tempt fate in the most daring manner. Perhaps 
the spice of danger and adventure lends force to the lure, although 
optimism must necessarily be the most potent factor. Other men have 
made fortunes quickly and comparatively easily, why not he ? We hear 
only of the successful ones, but rarely of the unsuccessful, their priva- 
tions or sufferings, and the dazzle of gold blinds us to the reverse side 
of the question. The struggles and privations of the thousands who 
joined in the mad rush to Alaska in the last decade are very little 
known or considered. Rotten ships, condemned years before, were 
chartered to take them on the treacherous sea voyage, laden to the 
gunwales with passengers and freight, and with the chances against 
their proceeding a hundred miles on their journey before experiencing 
shipwreck. And yet men fought and pleaded for a chance to brave 
the perils of the journey and the certain suffering from cold and 
hunger and other perils after their arrival in the land of the Great 
White Silence. So it was in the days of '49. The long six months' 
journey across the plains and lofty mountains, with only a trail to 
follow, the dangers of Indians, floods, tire and starvation could not 
deter the dauntless ones who took up their journey of more than two 
thousand miles through the wilderness, many of them with their wives 
and children. 

Right here it is only just to give their due to the women — the 
pioneer mothers of whom we hear so little — the women who forsook 
home and kindred to follow their husbands through all trials and 
dangers to the imknown la-nds and to assist with their labors and coun- 
sel, and with the children of the rising generation, in the shaping and 


moulding of a great empire whose fame was destined to reach the 
uttermost parts of the earth. Like the pioneer women of the great west 
and the Mississippi valley, they have not received their meed of praise 
and recognition of the important part they played in empire building. 
While the men labored, the women had to make the home as comfort- 
able as conditions allowed, to rear and care for and clothe the children 
and to endure all sorts of privations. Theirs the test of patience and 
courage to meet and overcome, to cheer and encourage under adverse 
circumstances, and well the pioneer women did their part. Not the 
least of their tests was the scarcity of female companionship, as for 
several years but few women came to this coast, and they were widely 
scattered after their arrival. The coming of a woman to a mining 
camp was a great event and roused all the latent chivalry of the rough 
men of the community, who vied in doing her honor and making her 
comfortable and mitigating the conditions around her. She was placed 
upon a pedestal and surrounded by adoring subjects. A man would be 
safer in committing murder than in insulting or injuring her. 

Pioneers have told the writer of the appearance of the country 
adjoining Sacramento on the south in the days of '49 and '50. "A 
man could ride over the plains ra horseback," they say, "and tie the 
wild oats across his saddle bow, as they rose often above the head of a 
man on foot. Droves of antelope were to be seen on the plains and 
deer were to be found in the groves along the river, while in the tules 
and along the sloughs and lakes in the southern part of the county 
herds of elks passed most of their time." And yet, with those- fertile 
plains at their doors, such was tlie fixity of the idea that had taken 
hold of men's minds and impelled them to the mines, that they scoffed 
at the few wise ones who planned to take up land and go to farming. 
"What!" they would say, "would you go out there and drudge, when 
you could go to the mines and pick up gold ? Wliy, you would starve 
to death out there ! Not any land for me. ' ' 

But among them were men who had left the farm in the east to 
come to California. These men saw that while many lucky ones made 
their fortunes more or less quickly in the mines, there were thousands 
of others who lived from hand to mouth or went broke in quest for 
gold. They looked on the face of the country and, like the Israelites, 
"found it good." They realized that the soil that would ])rodu('e such 
crops without cultivation would produce bounteously when properly 
cultivated. They realized too that the gold diggers must be fed, and 
that feeding them would bring its reward in rich profits. They knew 
the stock must have hay in the winter as well as in the summer, when 
every spear of grass was dried up in the absence of rain. So the wise 
men took up tracts of land. Some of them purchased large grants 
which had been given by the Mexican government, as had Sutter's. 
They prepared to feed the hungry, and their descendants are carrying 
out their plans today. The land which the miners, in their ignorance 


of the effects of climatic conditions in the valley, designated as a 
desert, has proved "a land flowing- with milk and honey," and has 
promoted the growth of an industrious and ))rosi)erous community 
which has done its share in the upbuilding of the great commonwealth 
that extends along the shore of the Pacific for a distance almost as 
great as that of the Atlantic states on the ocean that washes the east- 
ern shore of oiir country. 

The great possibilities of our county are only in their first stage 
of development. The days of the stock and cattle men and of the 
herds that covered the land are gone. The days of wheat-raising that 
followed them are almost past and the era of intensive farming has 
come. The small home of a few acres, where the work that in the days 
of the wheat farmers was distributed over a quarter or half section 
is now concentrated on ten or twenty acres, has begun to take the place 
of the big ranch. Instead of sparsely settled plains where the farm 
house, barns and corrals were the only signs of habitation, and the 
rancher depended on the peddler's wagon to supply him with vege- 
tables and fruit ; where perhajjs a few straggling fowls were to be seen 
around the barn yard, and the rancher brought out from the town his 
butter, eggs, condensed milk and bacon, are now to be seen the orchard 
and vineyard, with perhaps a patch of alfalfa yielding green feed the 
year around for the cows and chickens. "The old order changeth, 
yielding place to new." The country is daily growing nearer to the 
city. The tele]3hone, the parcels post, the rural delivery which brings 
to the farmer his daily paper and his letters and keeps him in touch 
with the markets on which he depends for the sale of his products — 
all are making the farm more attractive to the rising generation. The 
immense holdings of the wheat barons are passing away and in place 
of the scattered bunk-houses where in winter the men who ran the 
gang-plows and sowed the seed and in summer the harvester gangs 
passed their nights, are the small farms of settlers, with comfortable 
homes growing in beauty and attractiveness and the children are to 
be found who will grow up as the next generation of our citizens. The 
schoolhouse, the cornerstone of our nation's greatness, begins to dot 
the landscape and the church and postoffice soon are seen, a nucleus 
for the thriving communities that are springing up and will soon cover 
the state thickly, as they do in the east. We are coming into our own 
at last. 




Sacramento county is situated on the river from which it is 
named (Rio Sacramento, liver of the Sacrament), being bounded on 
the north by Placer county, on the east by Eldorado and Amador, on 
the south by San Joaquin and on the west by Yolo and Solano. Sacra- 
mento City is the county town as well as the capital of the state. The 
city is in 38° 35' north latitude and 121° 30' west longitude from 
(Greenwich. The county contains nine hundred and eighty-eight square 
miles, only a little less than the area of Rhode Island. The popu- 
lation of the county according to the census of 1910 is sixty-seven 
thousand eight hundred and six, but it is rapidly increasing, owing 
to the era of rapid development which has set in during the past five 
years. The coming of a new transcontinental railj-oad — the Western 
Pacific — and the approaching entry of the Great Northern and Santa 
Fe, as well as several interurban electric lines either already con- 
structed or in course of construction, have greatly hastened its ra])id 
progress and prosperity. The magnificent river that flows along its 
western boundary bears on its bosom, it is stated, almost as much 
freight annually as the mighty Mississippi does. While the figures 
are not at hand to verify this statement, it is certain that the tonnage 
of grain, wood, fnait, vegetables and other products of the State which 
are carried on the river by steamers and barges totals an immense 
amount and relieves the railroads of a very great amount of freight dur- 
ing the busy season, and is a decided factor in keeping down freight 
charges in the valley. The river flows through a country unsurpassed in 
fertility in the whole world and producing a vast variety of grain, fruit 
and vegetables. On the river and the islands bounded by its various 
channels and tributaries, in addition to the fruit orchards that have 
been celebrated for their fine fruit for nearly a half century jiast, 
asparagus and celery growing have of late years become a most 
important and yearly increasing interest, the former furnishing many 
thousands of cases of canned product, which is shipped all over the 

Sacramento County was one of the large wheat growing counties 
many years ago, but as wheat growing became less profitable and the 
land became more valuable, it gradually became utilized for vineyard 
and orchard ijroduction, for which most of the land in the county is 
admirably adapted. Hence of late years Sacramento has become the 
chief shipping point for all kinds of fruit except the citrus varieties, 
and as its soil and climate have been found to be of the best for the 
citrus fruits, their production has been rapidly increasing, both in 
quantity and quality, the latter being found to be inferior to none 


raised elsewhere. A peculiar feature of the climatoloi^y of Sacranieuto 
and the adjoining counties on the east and north is found in what 
is known as the thermal belt in the foothills and higher portion of 
the plain, where the citrus fruits ripen to jjerfection and so much 
earlier than in other sections that they are from a month to six weeks 
earlier than those in the southern part of the State. They are there- 
fore marketed before the frosts come, reaching the eastern markets 
before the holiday season and of course bringing the highest prices. 
Besides these, all varieties of deciduous fruit grow in profusion and 
perfection, tlie shipments in 1909 reacliing as high as two hundred 
carloads in one day, and on one day in July, 1912, totaling two hundred 
and twenty carloads. 

The city of Sacramento is thirty-one feet above the sea level, 
the river below Colusa having a verj' gradual fall. The mountains 
which form the walls of the valley are visible on both sides of the city, 
and the panorama of the river, plain, foothills and mountains as seen 
from the dome of the capitol is a grand one, Mt. Shasta and Lassen 
Peak, more than two hundred miles away, being visible on some clear 
days. The climate of the city and county is tempered by the Sierra 
Nevadas and the Coast Range, and the humidity of the air in the 
summer is perceptibly lessened by being shut out from tlie ocean to 
a large degree by the Coast Range. For this reason, while the ther- 
mometer on some days in summer shows a high reading, the absence of 
moisture in the atmosphere renders it much more comfortable 
than in a moister climate, and sunstrokes and heat prostrations are 
practically unknown. Sacramento valley is about one hundred and 
fifty miles long, with a breadth of about fifty to sixty miles, and is 
walled in by two ranges of mountains, the Sierra Nevadas on tlie 
east, and the Coast Range on the west. Thej" gradually approach 
each other until they come together in Shasta county. At the head 
of the valley Mount Shasta stands, looking down from his snowy 
heights like a hoary sentinel placed there to watch over the welfare 
of the country below. Beneath him winds the Sacramento river, on 
its way to water the fertile plains to the south. The alluvial lands 
along the rivei' slowly merge into the plains, and they gradually rise 
until they meet the foothills with which the valley is fringed, the foot- 
hills in turn giving way to the higher ranges, the loftiest peaks of 
which are Pyramid Peak, ten thousand and fifty-two feet in altitude, 
and Alpine, ten thousand and twenty-six feet, in the Sierra Nevadas; 
and Mount Johns, eight thousand feet high, in the Coast Range. To 
the southwest fifty-three miles rises Mount Diablo, in a detached 
range, three thousand eight hundred and fifty-six feet high, while the 
Marysville Buttes, from forty to fifty miles north, rise two thousand 
feet out of the level plain and cover an area of fifty-five square miles. 
Adjoining the alluvial lands along the river are the plains, the soil of 
which is a sandv loam, a reddish land containing some clay, and a 


heavy black olayish soil known as adobe. There are also gravelly 
ridges running nearly north and south through the center of the 
county and also east of the Cosumnes river, which comes down from 
Amador county and entering the eastern part of Sacramento county, 
flows into the Mokelumne river on the southern boundary. Around 
Folsom, on the eastern edge and three miles from the Eldorado 
boimdary, the soil becomes of a deep red color and is a gold-bearing 
gravel which turned out many millions in the early days,, and is still 
mined with great profit. All these varieties of land grow fine grapes 
and other fruits, which are mostly shipped to the east, bringing good 
prices. Along the rivers, corn, hops and vegetables are grown in 
large quantities, the hop crop being an important industry in the 
county. Large quantities of vegetables are shipped to Utah, Idaho 
and Montana, and some even as far east as Chicago and New York. 
The American river, coming down from Eldorado county, runs 
through Folsom and empties into the Sacramento just above Sacra- 
mento City. 

The greater part of the surface of the county is level, or nearly 
so. As it approaches the Cosumnes it becomes more hilly, falling 
again to Deer creek, which runs along the west side of the Cosumnes 
river bottom, and becoming rolling land on the other side of the 
Cosumnes, until it reaches the lower foothills. On the Cosumnes are 
hop yards, orchards, corn and alfalfa fields. Dry creek on the south 
forms part of the southern boundary and empties into the Mokelumne, 
which also forms a ])art of the southern boundary. Thus the county 
is abundantly watered in its various localities by four rivers and their 
tributary streams. The American, Cosumnes and Mokelumne are all 
torrential streams rising in the high Sierras and with a large area 
of land contributing to their watershed. Down the canyons, there- 
fore, through which tliey flow, rushes annually an immense volume of 
water on its way to the ocean. In the early days this often over- 
flowed the alluvial lands along the Sacramento river, carrying death 
and destruction along its course. Several of these floods were disas- 
trous to Sacramento City in its early history. Judging from the t^les 
of the pioneers, the flood in the winter of 1862 must have covered not 
only the river bottoms, but also a large portion of what is familiarly 
known as "the plains," for the writer has heard old settlers tell of 
transporting their provisions and other merchandise from Sacramento 
during that winter on flatboats or barges almost to the town of Elk 
Grove. An idea of the immense volume of water that found its way 
to the sea on that occasion may be gained from the fact that it not 
only covered the great tule basin of Yolo county, but also a large 
portion of the plains east and south of the city to a width of manv 
miles. Since that time the settlers liave learned the lesson that 
safetv can be found only in liigh and wide levees, ]iro])erly constructed 
to withstand the wind and water. 


But man, while always striving against the elements and the 
forces of nature, often succeeds in the herculean task of subduing 
them and turning the master into the servant. These same torrential 
streams, which, unbridled, sweep man and his works fi'om their jjath 
like feathers, are being harnessed and confined to do his bidding and 
foster his prosperity. The great dam at Folsom, built by the state, 
furnishes power to the state's prison as well as electricity for light- 
ing the grounds. It has also for many years supplied Sacramento 
city and county with light and power. In the near future the water 
of those streams will be used again and again to turn mills and 
machinery for factories, and the electrical power generated by the 
rivers will be, even more than in the past, transmitted to long 
distances — a factor in building up the prosperity of many a com- 

The day will come, moreover, when immense reservoirs will l)e 
constructed, either by the government or the state, for the im|)ound- 
ing of the flood water from the rain and melting snow and its dis- 
tribution during the long, dry summer over the thirsty land, doubling 
and trebling the crops and bringing greater prosperity to the valley. 
Then too will the rivers, instead of bringing down destriictive torrents 
upon the valley, remain within their banks and the Sacramento, with 
its channel deepened, will once more see the ships of distant nations 
iiringing their commerce to our door. 

Many centuries ago a vast sea occupied the place now known as 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys. The action of sun, rain 
and air slowly disintegrated the surrounding mountains and erosion • 
set in, the detritus forming soil which was washed down into the 
inland sea, eventually filling up the great basin. It is no wonder then, 
that, like the valley of the Nile, which was formed in the same way, 
the valley of the Sacramento became one of the richest and most fer- 
tile in the world. For nearly half a century it was one of the great 
wheat-producing sections of the United States. As the soil became 
exhausted for wheat-raising under the one-crop system, the farmer 
began to find it necessary to change the crop. He found that it would 
not only raise all varieties of fruit and berries, but that on a much 
smaller acreage he could raise a far more profitable crop, as well as 
a more certain one. So in a few years Sacramento developed into a 
great fruit shipping center and today the Florin district is one of the 
largest, if not the largest of the strawberry-growing centers in the 
state. Sacramento also leads in the production of the Tokay grajie, 
the color and quality of which always secures for it in the eastern 
market the highest price. 

Nor must the tule lands along the Sacramento river in the south- 
western part of the county be overlooked. Alluvial lands of the richest 
quality, for some distance back from the river they have been re- 
claimed and thousands of acres planted with orchards of deciduous 


fruits or sown with alfalfa and used as dairy farms. Of lat« years 
they are being- reclaimed faster and asparagus and celery have been 
found to be very successful and profitable crops, the former being 
canned in immense quantities and sent east to supply the markets of 
the world. 

In fact e^•erything that can be produced in a semi-tropical country 
can be grown in the Sacramento valley, and even some fruits and 
other ]:)roducts that really belong to tropical climes. Rice is being 
grown with great success and of the finest quality in Butte county, as 
well as to a limited extent in Sacramento county, a large portion of 
the soil of which is admirably fitted for its culture. Hemp and ramie 
bid fair to become profitable textile products and much of the land 
is suitable for flax. Hops are also an imi^ortant product, being grown 
of the finest quality along the Sacramento and the Cosumnes rivers. 

A large portion of the area of Sacramento, which is now in pri- 
vate ownership through subdivision, was in the early days comjirised 
in the old Spanish grants. The boundaries and other matters were 
the cause of much costly and vexatious litigation. The grants were 
as follows: 

The Rancho Rio de los Americanos, or Leidesdorff grant, lying 
along the American river and country around Folsom. 

The Sutter Grant, or New Helvetia. 

The Sheldon Grant, embracing the estates of Jared Sheldon and 
William Daylor, on the Cosumnes river, originally known as the 
Rancho Omochumnes. 

The Hartnell Grant, also on the Cosumnes river. 

The Rancho San Jon de los Moquelumnes, generally known as tlic 
Chabolla Grant, on the lower Cosumnes around Hicksville and running 
to the Mokelumne river. 

The Arroyo Seco Grant, in Alabama township, on Dry creek. 

The Rancho San Juan, on the north side of the American river 
and embracing the Carmichael colony, Fair Oak.s and a part of 

The Rancho del Paso, formerly known as the Norris Grant and 
now generally spoken of as the Haggin Grant. This stood for more 
than fifty years as a barrier to the extension of the city on the north 
and has only been subdivided within the past three years, the last of 
the great land holdings in this county. 

The Rancho Sacayac, on the north side of the Cosumnes, between 
the Sheldon grant and the east line of the county. 

The Rancho Cazadores, on the northwest side of the Cosumnes, 
o])posite the Chabolla grant. 

Sacramento is fourth among the counties of the state in jwint of 
property valuation, Los Angeles standing first, according to the re- 
port of State Controller Nye for the year 1912, San Francisco being 
second and Alameda third. The report states that the valuation of 


property in Sacramento county is $86,589,795, an increase of over 
$5,000,000 above the valuation for 1911. The increase is largely due 
to the increase of values of j^roperty in Sacramento City, and also the 
subdivision, sale and improvement of many tracts in the county. Thus 
is evidenced a steady growth of property in the county, which is really 
just beginning to exhibit the advantages of soil and climate, coupled 
with comparatively low prices of acreage land and the opportunity 
for a home market in a large city close by, which it has for many 
years possessed, but has only recently advertised. 

The pioneer who in the early days crossed the dark river to the 
"undiscovered bourne from which no traveler returns," would look 
with astonishment on the present city. The city of tents has grown 
to large dimensions, covering many square miles and containing many 
stately edifices and blocks of beautiful homes. The cottonwoods and 
willows of the early days have given place to long lines of stately and 
umbrageous elms that embower in a grateful shade the residences 
along the streets, tempering the heat of the summer days and afford 
ing a restful prospect to the eye. Strangers visiting the city generally 
remark on the beauty thus enhanced, and a visit to the Capitol dome 
often induces them to say: "What a beautiful city!" Even old resi- 
dents who have lieen absent for the past ten years look in astonish- 
ment at the rapid changes. For in the past five years especially has 
the place doffed the garb of a country town and blossomed out as a 
live, progressive city. The ways of '49 have disappeared. Finely 
improved streets have rapidly come to the front, nearly one hundred 
miles of asphalt, oiled macadam and some old graveled streets having 
taken the place of the mud holes of twenty years ago. A splendid 
system of electric car service has sprung up, connecting the old city 
with the suburbs, and is still extending its ramifications. The old one 
and two-story buildings of early days are fast giving way to edifices 
of five to eight stories, of the most modern style of architecture. The 
new courthouse, costing nearly $600,000, is nearing completion, and 
the splendid new city hall houses the various departments of the city 
government. The stately Capitol with its magnificent park is the ad- 
miration of all visitors, and the art gallery and Sutter's Fort are al- 
ways points of attraction to our visitors. Modern hotels furnish ac- 
commodation to thousands of tourists and others and the city is often 
spoken of as the "loveliest city on the coast." Investors from the 
east and elsewhere are looking over the ground and several large 
firms are starting extensive business adventures here. The recent an- 
nexation of the suburbs has greatly widened Sacramento's prospects 
and the fact becomes more evident each day that she is destined in 
the near future to become a great city. Her geographical situation, 
the immensely rich lands that surround her, the great quantities of 
fruit and other ]iroducts grown around her and shipped from here all 
over the country, are all advertising her to the world and bringing 


people to her from the frozen east to enjoy her climate and other 

To smn up its advantages : Sacramento has the geographical ad- 
vantage not only of river transportation, but of being the natural 
center for all transcontinental railroads entering Northern California. 
Two already pass through the city, two more will certainly do so in 
the near future and two more now projected will probably do so. It 
will be the center of many i-adiating electric roads which will bring 
city and country into close touch and settle thickly adjacent territory. 
The logical shipjnng point of all the fruit and other products of two 
great valleys is here. The richest and most productive area in the 
world is naturally tributary to Sacramento. The three great alluvial 
basins of the Sacramento river, capable when reclaimed of supporting 
several millions, are adjacent to or near Sacramento, their natural 
market or shipping point. The immense amount of power capable of 
being developed in the Sierra Nevadas renders it certain that many 
factories will ultimately be centered here, giving employment to thou- 



The discovery of gold at Coloma on the South Fork of the Ameri- 
can river was soon heralded to the world and a cosmopolitan assembly 
soon poured into California by land and sea and in a frenzied race for 
riches overspread the land, i)eopling the g-ulches and ravines that had 
never before been trodden by the foot of white man. Reasoning 
logically that the gold on the rivei- bars had some source more or less 
distant, they explored every gully and canyon abo\'e and below 
Coloma. finding diggings in all of them and many of them very 
rich. The country around Folsom was especially rich, and a large 
population soon centered there, making it a lively raining camp, which 
at one time cast considerably over two thousand votes. The bars and 
banks on the American river for miles above and below the town 
were very rich and were worked over by the early miners and later 
by hydraulic process. In the jiast few years gold dredging has be- 
come prevalent in that territory as well as in Butte county. While it 
is impossible to obtain statistics of the amount of gold obtained by 
dredging, the owners being secretive, it is known that it runs into the 
millions. While the amount is so large, it is regrettable that it cannot 
be obtained except at the sacrifice of much of the best land in the 
state, which is transformed by the dredgers from rich orchards and 
vineyards into unsightly heaps of cobblestones, and ])ractically re- 
moved for many years from the assessment rolls of the county as a 
revenue ])roducer for the ])ublic weal. Much damage, it is claimed, 


has been done to the American and other rivers by the "slickens" 
from the dredges filling up the river beds and fouling the water, and 
there are many who advocate the passage of laws regulating, if not 
restraining, the oj^eration of dredger mining. 

Hydraulic mining succeeded the pick, shovel, rocker and long torn 
of the early miners and was continued for a number of years. The 
shoaling of the river beds and the frequent floods and breaking of 
levees that covered the adjacent lands with sand and debris, aroused 
the attention of the dwellers in the valley and a bitter controversy 
was begun between the hydraulic miners and the citizens of the coun- 
ties affected. An association was formed, denominated the "Anti- 
Debris Association," composed of citizens of the counties along the 
Sacramento river. It was pointed out that valuable orchards were 
being destroyed along and below the entry of the tributaries of the 
Sacramento which carried down the detritus from the hydraulic 
mines; that the bed of the Sacramento and its tributaries was being 
raised by the deposits of the debris and navigation was impeded, if 
not utterly destroyed in the summer, while the floods, the result of 
the raising of the river plane, carried destruction to the low lands 
and the towns along their banks. Marysville was a great sufferer 
from broken levees and inundations and today the town lies below 
the level of the bottom of the river on which it is situated, while 
thousands of formerly fertile acres of adjacent lands are a waste of 
gravel and sand many feet deep. The association secured ap]:)ropria- 
tions for its support from the supervisors of the counties of which its 
membership was composed and a long legal battle was begun with 
the object of compelling the hydraulic miners to cease their opera- 

At last its contest was successfi;! and finally an injunction was 
obtained, prohibiting hydraulic mining unless the debris could be suc- 
cessfully impounded to the satisfaction of the association. 



The climate of Sacramento county cannot be surpassed in the 
state. To the denizen of the east, where frost, snow and ice reign 
for from four to six months ; where the farmer works for six months 
in the year to provide for his stock during the other six, our climate 
is a revelation. True he misses the merry jingle of the sleigh bells, 
the exhilarating sport of gliding over the ice on skates, and the other 
winter sports; neither is he frozen to death in blizzards, nor does he 
have to build cyclone cellars to which he may retreat while his house 
is being picked up and blown into the next county. His winter sports 
he can easily enjoy, if he desires, by boarding the cars and riding a 


few hours into the Sierras. But as a general thing, when he has once 
settled in Sacramento county, he prefers to remain where three-quar- 
ters of the winter is sunshine and the rest supplies him with rain for 
the ground to store up and utilize in producing crops. Seldom indeed 
does the thermometer fall below the freezing point, and many children 
grow up in Sacramento without having ever seen any snow, except on 
the far distant Sierras. With a climate rivaling, if not excelling, the 
far-famed climate of Italy, in a land that, like Italy, produces the or- 
ange, the lemon, the olive and the vine, why should not the emigrant 
from the east pronounce it perfect and sit down content to enjoy his 
life here? Is the picture too highly drawn? Ask the man from Maine, 
or the states bordering on the great lakes, or the northwest, who, 
after traveling through cold and storm, crosses . the lofty Sierras — 
sentinels on the east that ward off the snow from the great central 
valleys of California — drops down in a couple of hours from the sum- 
mit, to tind the peach and almond trees in blossom in the foothills and 
the earth green with the footprints of the spring, who hears the 
hum of the bees, and inhales the air, fragrant with blossoms, almost 
before his eyes have become used to the absence of the glittering crys- 
tals of the snow and ice of the mountain ranges. 
' ' What is so rare as a day in June, 
Then, if ever, come perfect days." 
Thus wrote Lowell, the sweet singer. But Sacramento does not need 
to wait till June. She has perfect days, yes, many of them, while the 
streams of the New England states and the western states are still 
prisoned in icy fetters, and the people snowbound or delving in the 
great snow drifts that make the roads impassable. 

We hear mucli of the vaunted climate of southern Italy and Los 
Angeles. There is no wish to disparage the merits of either. The 
dwellers of Sacramento county are glad to know that those places are 
so blessed in climatic conditions. However, we present a few trgnrep 
in comparison. They are authentic and furnish food for reflection. 

Statistics, gathered from United States Government Weather 
Bureau for past fifteen years : 

Southern Italy. — Average winter temperature, 47.3; average 
spring temperature, 57.3; average summer temperature, 73.7; average 
autumn temperature, 61.9; average yearly temperature, 60.0; average 
highest temperature, 85; average lowest temperature, 20; average 
clear days, 220. 

Los Angeles. — Average winter temperature, 52.0 ; average -spring 
temperature, 60.0 ; average summer temperature, 70.0 ; average autumn 
temperature, 65.0; average yearly temperature, 62.0; average highest 
temperature 109; avei-age lowest temperature, 28; average clear 
days, 250. 

Sacramento. — Average winter temperature, 48.0 ; average spring 
temperature, 60.0; average summer temperature, 75.0; average au- 


tumn temperature, 61.0; average yearly temperature, 61.0; average 
highest temperature, 100; average lowest temperature, 29; average 
clear days, 238. 

The record of the blossoming of fruit trees for tweuty-Iive years 
])revious to 1894 showed the earliest date to have been January 20, 
1888, and the latest March 8, 1871. No later data are at hand, but 
the seasons have varied very little for cycles of ten years since the 
settlement of the state and the growing of fruits, so that these figures 
may be regarded as a fair average of conditions. Cherries ripen and 
are shipped from here in Api'il and on exceptional seasons a few 
boxes have l)een shipped earlier, the usual period of blossoming, how- 
ever, being aliout the 15th of February. The long, dry summer ripens 
all kinds of fruit perfectly, and but rarely do the autumn rains come 
early enough to damage the fruit crop not already marketed. The 
farmer leaves his hay or grain in the stack for months if necessary, 
secure that it will not be damaged by untimely rains. Each season 
thus brings its own work. As the fall months advance and the winter 
begins, the rains make their appearance. The summer fallow is mois- 
tened and the grain is sown and harrowed. The winter plowing is 
begun as soon as the rain has penetrated the soil to the proper depth 
and when the seeding is completed the farmer leaves the rainfall to 
complete the work. 

In the matter of rainfall, Sacramento county enjoys the happy 
medium, the average rainfall being nearly twenty-one inches. Taken 
in connection with the fertility of the soil, and the conditions sur- 
rounding the valley and influencing its climate, the fact is that a crop 
failure in this county has never been recorded, and that it was the 
boast of the past generation of farmers that irrigation was not nec- 
essary in order to secure a crop. That boast was made in the days 
of wheat raising and does not apply so strictly to fruit raising and 
later methods of farming. Still in most sections of the county the 
raising of grapes and deciduous fruits and nuts is in many cases made 
profitable by thorough cultivation without resorting to irrigation. 

While this is true, there are several irrigation systems of ditches 
from which water can be obtained on reasonable terms, and which 
is found necessary for the production of citrus fruit and alfalfa. 

The absence, or rather scarcity, of humidity in the atmosphere at 
Sacramento during the summer time is a great factor in making the 
heat more endurable when the thermometer shows a reading that is 
high. As is well known, a high degree of atmospheric humidity in- 
tensifies the suffering when the temperature reaches one hundred de- 
grees or more. In fact, in the country east of the Rocky Mountains, 
where showers are more or less frequent in the summer, there is more 
suffering when the thermometer rises to ninety degrees, and the air 
is charged with moisture, than there would be in Sacramento when it 
marked one hundred degrees or m.ore. In one case fatalities from 


sunstroke are verj^ common, while in the other sunstroke is unknown. 
The breeze from the ocean which ascends the Sacramento river in the 
summer afternoons has a cooling eifect on the atmosphere and renders 
the evenings delightful for outdoor amusements. It is a rare thing 
in Sacramento, in fact not more than two or three nights in the year, 
that a person cannot sleep comfortably under a sheet or even under 
a blanket or two. The spring and fall weather are delightful and 
winter almost seems a misnomer when one enjoys the sunny days 
when a coat seems almost a burden. No wonder, in such a climate, 
that the fruit trees haste to break into blossom and fill the air with 
their fragrance. To the easterner, impelled by the cold of his native 
state to seek a more balmy climate, Sacramento offers one not to be 
excelled by any other place, in winter or summer. 

Sacramento presents further advantages to the settler. As has 
lieen stated, all kinds of fruits of the temperate zone, all semi-tropical 
fruits, and even some tropical fruits ripen here in perfection. But a 
])eculiar climatic condition prevails in the foothill section of the 
Sierras of Sacramento and the adjacent counties. It is known as the 
thermal belt. The southern part of the state has been extensively 
advertised as the home of the orange and the lemon. AVhile this is 
true, it is equally true that Sacramento and adjoining counties are 
also the home of the orange and all other citrus fruits and the ship- 
ment of such fruits is a constantly increasing factor in their ])ros- 
perity. Many hundreds of carloads of oranges, lemons and pomelos 
or grape fruit are shipjied to the east annually. The very decided 
advantage that Sacramento has over the southern part of the state is 
that her oranges ripen from a month to six weeks earlier than in the 
south and her crop is practically disposed of in the eastern market for 
the Tlianksgiving and holiday trade at high jirices, before the southern 
iranges are ripe enough to begin shipment. Such being the case, the 
freezing of the orange crop is a thing unknown in Sacramento county, 
nor do the later varieties ever suffer from frost. 

Olives thrive and bear profitable crops in Sacramento county, 
where there are many orchards of them. As fine a quality of oil as 
is to be found in the state is made at Fair Oaks, and both there and 
in several other places is the business of pickling the ripe olive made 
a paying industry. 

We are indebted to Nathaniel R. Taylor, local forecaster of tlie 
United States Weather Bureau in this city, for very valuable data 
concerning the climate and rainfall in this coiintry from 1849 until the 
jiresent time. We often hear ]:)ersons make the assertion that our 
climate is changing; that this thing or that is not as it was forty or 
fifty years ago. While it is true that there is a different amount of 
rainfall and temperature during individual years, it will be seen that 
taken in cycles of five or ten years, the average weather of the seasons 
shows but little variation, and there is no great amount of change for 


tlie past fifty years. The increase in irrigation which has been made 
during the past few years, and which will increase rapidly within the 
next decade may make a perceptible change in the course of time, as 
the creation of the Salton sea has brought about an increased rainfall 
in the southern part of the state, but as yet no noticeable change has 
occurred here. As will be seen by the foregoing table, our climate is 
if anything better than the vaunted climate of Italy and is not mate- 
rially different from that of Los Angeles, upon which so much stress 
is laid by the inhabitants of the south. Taken all in all, the climate 
of our glorious state is unequaled by that of any similar extent of 
country in the world, and the Californian who desires a change of 
climate can easily obtain it in a few hours, without lea^dng his own 

As will be seen by the table of absolute maxinmm and absolute 
minimum temperature for the last thirty years, taken in cycles of ten 
years, the average maximum for the ten years from 1881 to 1891, in- 
clusive, is 103.4'; that from 1891 to 1901 is 104.2'; and that from 
1901 to 1911 is 103.6'. On the other side, the average minimum from 
1881 to 1891 was 26.5'; from 1891 to 1901, it was 27.6'; and from 
1901 to 1911 it was 29.4'. 

The following table gives the monthly, seasonal and annual rain- 
fall from 1849 to January 1, 1912, and will be found a very valuable 
one for reference. As will be seen by it, the average seasonal rainfall 
for the sixty-two years is 19.48 inches, and the annual rainfall is 19.24 

Sacramento rainfall, monthly, seasonal and annual, 1849-1911: 

1849-50.— July, 0; August, 0- September, 0.25; October, 1.50; No- 
vember, 2.25; December, 12.50; January, 4.50; February, 0.50; March, 
10.00; April, 4.25; May, 0.25; June, 0; seasonal, 36.00; year, 1850; 
annual, 19.50. 

1850-51.— July, 0; August, 0; September, 0; October, 0; No- 
vemlier, T. ; December, T. ; January, 0.65; February, 0.35; March, 
1.88; April, 1.14; May, 0.69; June, 0; seasonal, 4.71; year, 1851; 
annual, 15.10. 

1851-52.— July, 0; August, 0; September, 1.00; October, 0.18; No- 
vember, 2.14; December, 7.07; January, 0.58; February, 0.12; March, 
6.40; A])ril, 0.19; May, 0.30; Jime, 6; seasonal, 17.98; year, 1852; 
annual, 26.99. 

1852-53.— July, T. ; August, 0; September, T.; October, 0; No- 
vember, 6.00; December, 13.40; January, 3.00; February, 2.00; March, 
7.00; April, 3.50; May, 1.45; June, T.; seasonal, 36.35; year, 1853; 
annual, 19.99. 

1853-54.— July, 0; August, 0; September, T.; October, T.; No- 
vember, 1.50; December, 1.54; January, 3.25; February, 8.50; March, 
3.25; April, 1.50; May, 0.21; June, 0.31; seasonal, 20.06; year, 1854; 
annual, 19.83. 


1854-55.— July, ; August, T. ; September, T. ; October, 1.01 ; No- 
vember, 0.65; December, 1.15; January, 2.67; February, 3.46; March, 
4.20; April, 4.32; May, 1.15; Jime, 0.01; seasonal, 18.62; year, 1855; 
annual, 18.56. 

1855-56. — July, ; Augaist, ; Sejjtember, T. ; October, ; No- 
vember, 0.75 ; December, 2.00 ; January, 4.92 ; February, 0.69 ; March, 
1.40; April, 2.13; May, 1.84; June, 0.03; seasonal, 13.76; year, 1856; 
annual, 14.26. 

1856-57.— July, 0; August, 0; September, T.; October, 0.20; No- 
vember, 0.65; December, 2.40; January, 1.38; February, 4.80; March. 
0.68; April, T. ; May, T. ; June, 0.3.5; seasonal, 10.-16; year, 1857; 
annual, 12.91. 

1857-58.— July, 0; August, T.; September, 0; October, 0.66; No- 
vember, 2.41; December, 2.63; January, 2.44; February, 2.46; March, 
2.88; April, 1.21; May, 0.20; June, O.iO; seasonal, 14.99; year, 1858; 
annual, 16.80. 

1858-59.— July, 0.01; August, T. ; Septembei', T. ; October, 3.01; 
November, 0.15; December, 4.34; January, 0.96; February, 3.91; 
March, 1.64; April, 0.98; May, 1.04; June," 0; seasonal, 16.04; year, 
1859; annual, 16.86. 

1859-60.— July, 0; August, 0; September, 0.02; October, 0; No- 
vember, 6.48; December, 1.83; January, 2.31; Feliruary, 0.93; March, 
5.11; Ain-il, 2.87; May, 2.49 ; June, 0.02; seasonal, 22.06; year, 1860; 
annual, 19.79. 

1860-61.— July, 0.63; August, 0; September, 0.06; October, 0.91; 
November, 0.18; December, 4.28; January, 2.67; P"'ebruary, 2.92; 
March, 3.32; April, 0.48; May, 0.59; June, 0.14; seasonal, 16.18; year. 
1861 ; annual, 21.48. 

1861-62.— July, 0.55; August, 0; Septeml)er, 0; October, T.; No- 
vember, 2.17; December, 8.64; January, 15.04; February, 4.26; March, 
2.80 ; April, 0.82 ; May, 1.81 ; June, 0.01 ; seasonal, ; year, 1862 ; 
annual, 27.44. 

1862-63.— July, ; August, 0.01 ; September, ; October, 0.36 ; No- 
vember, T. ; December, 2.33; January, 1.73; February, 2.75; March, 
2.36; April, 1.69; May, 0..36; June, 0; seasonal, 11.59; year, 1863; 
annual, 12.20. 

1863-64.— July, 0; August, 0; September, T.; Octol)er, 0; No- 
vember, 1.49; December, 1.82; January, 1.08; February, 0.19; March, 
1.30; April, 1.08; May, 0.74; June, 0.09; seasonal, 7.79; year, 1864; 
anmml, 19.27. 

1864-65.— July, 0; August, 0.08; September, T.; October, 0.12; 
November, 6.72; December, 7.87; January. 4.78; February, 0.71; 
March, 0.48; Ai)ril, 1..37; May, 0.46; June,"0; seasonal, 22.59; year, 
1865; annual, 11.15. 

1865-66.— July, T.; August, 0; September, 0.08; October, 0.48; No- 
vember, 2.43; December, 0.36; January, 7.70; February, 2.01; March, 


2.02; April, 0.48; May, 2.25; Juue, U.IO; seasonal, 17.i»l; year, 1866; 
annual, 26.52. 

1866-67.— July, 0.02; Augaist, 0; September, 0; October, T. ; No- 
vember, 2.43; December, 9.51; January, 3.44; February, 7.10; March, 
1.01; April, 1.80; May, 0.01; June, 6; seasonal, 25.32; year, 1867; 
annual, 30.03. 

1867-68.— July, 0; August, 0; September, 0.01; October, 0; No- 
vember, 3.81; December, 12.85; January, 6.04; February, 3.15; March, 
4.35; April, 2.31; May, 0.27; June, T.; seasonal, 32.79; year, 1868; 
annual, 19.50. 

1868-69.— July, 0; August, 0; September, 0; October, 0; No- 
vember, 0.77; December, 2.61; January, 4.79; February, 3.63; March, 
2.94; April, 1.24; May, 0.65; June, 0.01; seasonal, 16.64; year, 1869; 
annual, 18.19. 

1869-70.— July, 0; Aug-ust, 0; September, T.; October, 2.12; No- 
vember, 0.85; December, 1.96; Jauuar.y, 1.37; February, 3.24; March, 
1.64; April, 2.12; May, 0.27; June, T. ; seasonal, 13.57; year, 1870; 
annual, 10.21. 

1870-71.— July, T.; August, T.; September, 0; October, 0.02; No- 
vember, 0.58; December, 0.97; January, 2.08; February, 1.92; March, 
0.69; April, 1.45; May, 0.76; June, T. ; seasonal, 8.47; year, 1871; 
annual, 18.92. 

1871-72.— July, 0; August, 0; September, T.; October, 0.21; No- 
vember, 1.22 ; December, 10.59 ; January, 4.04 ; February, 4.74 ; March, 
1.94; April, 0.61; May, 0.28; June, 0.02; seasonal, 23.65; year, 1872; 
annual, 19.17. 

1872-73.— July, 0; August, 0; September, T.; October, 0.22; No- 
vember, 1.93; December, 5.39; January, 1.23; February, 4.36; March, 
0.55; April, 0.51; May, 0; Jime, T. ; seasonal, 14.19; year, 1873; 
annual, 18.20. 

1873-74.— July, 0.02; August, T. ; September, 0; October, 0.31; 
November, 1.21; December, 10.01; January, 5.20; February, 1.86; 
March, 3.05; April, 0.99; May, 0.37; June, T.; seasonal, 22.92; year. 
1874; annual, 17.92. 

1874-75.— July, T.; August, 0; September, 0.05; October, 2.26; 
November, 3.80; December, 0.44; January, 8.70; February, 0.55; 
March, 0.80; April, T.; May, T. ; June, 1.10; seasonal, 17.70; year, 
1875; annual, 23.31. 

1875-76— July, ; August, ; September, ; October, 0.44 ; Novem- 
ber, 6.20; December, 5.52; January, 4.99; February, 3.75; March, 4.15; 
x\pril, 1.10; Mav, 0.15; June, 0; seasonal, 26.30; vear, 1876; annual, 

1876-77— Julv, 0.21; August, 0.02; September, T. ; October, 3.45; 
November, 0.30 ; December, 0; Januarv, 2.77; February, 1.04; March. 
0.56; April, 0.19; May, 0.64; June, 0.01; seasonal. 9.19; year, 1877; 
annual, 8.44. 


1877-78— July, T.; August, T.; September, 0; October, 0.73; Nov- 
ember, 1.07; December, 1.43; January, 9.26; February, 8.04; March, 
3.09; April, 1.07; May, 0.17; June, 0; seasonal, 24.86; year, 1878; 
annual, 23.45. 

1878-79— July, ; August, ; September, 0.29 ; October, 0.55, Nov- 
ember, 0.51; December, 0.47; January, 3.18; February, 3.88; March, 
4.88; April, 2.66; May, 1.30; June, 0.13; seasonal, 17.85; year, 1879; 
annual, 22.37. 

1879-80— July, T. ; August, T. ; September, ; October, 0.88 ; Nov- 
ember, 2.05; December, 3.41; January, 1.64; February, 1.83; March, 
1.70; April, 14.20; May, 0.76; June,"0; seasonal, 26.47; year, 1880; 
annual, 31.99. 

1880-81— July, T.; Augaist, 0; September, O;0ctober, 0; Novem- 
ber, 0.05; December, 11.81; January, 6.14; February, 5.06; March, 
1.37; April, 1.64; May, T.; June, 0.50; seasonal, 26.57; year, 1881; 
annual, 20.71. 

1881-82— July, T.; August, 0; September, 0.30; October, 0.55; Nov- 
ember, 1.88; December, 3.27; January, 1.89; February, 2.40; March, 
3.78; April, 1.99; May, 0.35; June, 0.10; seasonal, 16.51; year, 1882; 
annual, 18.06. 

1882-83— July, T.; August, 0; September, 0.57; October, 2.63; Nov- 
ember, 3.22; December, 1.13; January, 2.23; Februarv, 1.11; March, 
3.70; April, 0.67; May, 2.85; June, 0; seasonal,; year, 1883; 
annual, 13.48. 

1883-84— July, ; August, ; September, 0.90 ; October, 0.97 ; Nov- 
ember, 0.61; December, 0.44; Januarv, 3.43; Februarv, 4.46; March, 
8.14; April, 4.32; May, 0.06; June, 1.45; seasonal, 24.78; year, 1884; 
annual, 34.92. 

1884-85— July, ; August, T. ; September, 0.60 ; October, 2.01, Nov- 
ember, 0; December, 10.45; January, 2.16; Februarv, 0.49; March, 
0.08; April, 0.68; May, T. ; June, 0.11; seasonal, 16.58; vear, 1885; 
annual, 20.72. 

1885-86— July, T.; August, 0; September, 0.08; October, 0.02; Nov- 
ember, 11.34; December, 5.76; Januarj^, 7.95; February, 0.29; March, 
2.68; April, 4.08; May, 0.07; June, 0; seasonal, 32.27; year, 1886; 
annual, 18.17. 

1886-87— July, 0; August, 0; September, 0; October, 0.68; Nov- 
ember, 0.21; December, 2.21; January, 1.12; Februarv, 6.28; March, 
0.94; April, 2.53; Mav, T.; June, OJ seasonal, 13.97; vear, 1887; 
annual, 13.43. 

1887-88— July, 0; August, T.; September, 0.02; October, 0; Nov- 
ember, 0.45; December, 2.09; January, 4.81; Februarv, 0.57; March, 
3.04; April, 0.10; May, 0.40; June, 0.08; seasonal, 11.56; year, 1888; 
annual, 18.46. 

1888-89— July, T. ; August, T. ; September, 0.55 ; October, ; Nov- 
ember, 4.28; December, 4.63; January, 0.15; Februarv, 0.33; March, 
6.25 ; April, 0.26 ; Mav,. 3.25 ; June, 0.25 ; seasonal, 19.95 ; year, 1889 ; 
annual, 27.48. 

1889-90— July, 0; August, 0; September, 0; October, 6.02; Nov- 
ember, 3.15 ; December, 7.82 ; .January, 6.62 ; February, 4.06 ; March, 


3.00; April, 1.33; May, 1.80; June, 0; seasonal, 33.80; year, 1890; 
annual, 20.95. 

1890-91— July, 0; Aiioust, T.; September, 0.80; October, T.; Nov- 
ember, 0; December, 3.34; January, 0.53; February, 6.61; March, 
1.78; April, 2.04; May, 0.66; June, 0.05; seasonal, 15.81; year, 1891; 
annual, 15.63. 

1891-92— July, T. ; August, ; September, 0.10 ; October, 0.10 ; Nov- 
ember, 0.48; December, 3.28; January, 1.78; February, 2.84; March, 
3.02; April, 1.20; Mav, 2.38; June, T.; seasonal, 15.18; year, 1892; 
annual, 23.60. 

1892-93— July, 0; August, 0; September, 0.18; October, 0.70; Nov- 
ember, 6.60, December, 4.90; January, 3.27; February, 2.66; March, 
.3.51; April, 1.08; May, 1.05; June, 0; seasonal, 2.3.95; year, 1893; 
annual, 16.59. 

1893-94— July, T. ; August, T. ; September, 0.22 ; October, 0.12 ; Nov- 
ember, 2.92; December, 1.76; January, 4.17; February, 3.92; March 
0.74; April, 0.34; May, 1.70; June, 0.46; seasonal, 16.35; year, 1894; 
annual, 22.61. 

1894-95— July, T. ; August, T. ; September, 0.88 ; October, 1.06 ; Nov- 
ember, 0.48; December, 8.86; January, 8.42; February, 1.84; March, 
1.20; April, 0.86; May, 0.51; June, 0; seasonal, 24.11; year, 1895; 
annual, 17.38. 

1895-96— July, 0.04; August, T. ; September, 1.26: October, 0.17; 
November, 1.54 ; December, 1.54 ; January, 9.76 ; February, 0.09 ; March, 
2.57; April. 5.34; May, 0.92; June, 0; seasonal, 23.23;" year, 1896; 
annual, 25.06. 

1896-97— July, T.; August, 0.20; September, 0.31; October, 0.55; 
November, 3.56 ; December, 1.76 ; January, 3.66 ; February, 4.15 ; March. 
2.54; April, 0.25; May, 0.30; June, 0.04; seasonal, 17.32; year, 1897; 
annual, 15.32. 

1897-98— July, ; August, 0.01 ; September, 0.16 ; October, 1.96 ; Nov- 
ember, 0.61; December, 1.64; January, 0.98; February, 3.19; March, 
0.04; April, 0.28; May, 1.50; June, 0.14; seasonal, 10.51; year, 1898; 
annual, 10.04. 

1898-99— July, 0; August, 0; September, 0.36; October, 0.64; 
November, 0.61; December, 2.30; January, 3.94; February, 0.04; March, 
6.02; April, 0.10; May, 0.54; June, 0.49;' seasonal, 15.04; year, 1899: 
annual, 21.14. 

1899-00— July, ; August, 0.02 ; September, ; October, 4.46 ; Nov 
ember, 2.62; December, 2.91; January, 3.54; February, 0.32; March, 
1.61, April, 1.88; May, 2.88; June, T.; seasonal, 20.24; year, 1900: 
annual, 17.91. 

1900-01— July, T.; August, 0; September, 0.06; October, 1.74; Nov 
ember, 4.50; December, 1.38; January, 3.70; February. 5.32; March, 
0.48; April, 2.23; Mav, 0.80; June, T"; seasonal, 20.21; year, 1901; 
annual, 18.52. 

1901-02— July, ; August, T. ; September, 0.56 ; October, 1.56 ; Nov- 
ember, 2.68; December, 1.19; January, 0.95; February, 6.52; March, 
1.99; April, 1.36; May, 0.45; June, 0.01; seasonal, 17.27; year, 1902; 
annual, 17.88. 

1902-03— July, 0; Augiist, T.; September, 0; October, 1.67; Nov- 


ember, 2.02; December, 2.91; January, 3.05; February, 1.70; March, 
4.81; April, 0.46; May, T. ; June, T.;" seasonal, 16.62; year, 1903; 
annual, 14.70. 

1903-04— July, ; August, ; September, ; October, 0.12 ; Nov- 
ember, 3.44; December, 1.12; January, 0.45; February, 5.26; Marchj 
5.43; April, 1.02; Mav, 0.03; June, T. ; seasonal, 16.87; vear, 1904; 
annual, 20.99. 

1904-05— July, T.; August, 0.07; September, 3.62; October, 1.86; 
Noyember 2.05; December, 1.20; January, 3.33; February, 2.47; March, 
3.75; April, 1.18; May, 2.45; June, 0; "seasonal, 21.98; year, 1905; 
annual, 14.97. 

1905-06— July, 0; August, T.; September, 0.03; October, 0; Nov- 
ember, 1.20 ; December, 0.56 ; January, 6.63 ; February. 3.02 ; March, 
8.45; April, 1.21; May, 2.24; Jime, 0.59; seasonal, 23.93; year, 1906; 
annual, 30.70. 

1906-07— July, ; August, T. ; September, 0.20 ; October, T. ; Nov- 
ember, 0.99 ; December, 7.37 ; January, 4.63 ; February, 2.37 ; March, 
7.28; April, 0.25; May, 0.10; June, 0.85; seasonal, 24.04; year, 1907; 
annual, 20.05. 

1907-08— July, 0; August, 0; September, T.; October, 1.20; Nov- 
ember, 0.04; December, 3.33; January, 3.84; February, 2.75 March, 
0.42; April, 0.08; May, 0.54; June, T.; seasonal, 12.20; yeai. 1908: 
annual, 11.21. 

1908-09— July, T.; August, 0; September, 0.05; October, 0.26; Nov- 
ember, 1.23; December, 2.04; January, 9.65; February. 6.68; March, 
1.84; April, T. ; May, T. ; June, 0.03;" seasonal,, 21.78; year. 1909; 
annual, 24.87. 

1909-10— July, ; August, ; September, 0.21 ; October, 1.27 ; Nov- 
ember, 1.32; December, 3.87; January, 1.48; February, 0.83; March, 
3.06; April, 0.11; May, 0.03; June, T. ; seasonal, 12.18; year. 1910; 
annual, 7.78. 

1910-11— July, T. ; August, ; September, 0.20 ; October, 0.28 ; Nov- 
ember; 0.17; December, 1.62; January, 12.72; February, 1.88; March, 
4.30; April, 0.66; May, 0.03; June, 0.12; seasonal, 21.98; year. 1911; 
annual, 21.11. 

1911-12— July, 0; August, 0; September, T.; October, 0.18; Nov- 
ember, 0.15; December, 1.07; January, 0; February, 0; March, 0; 
April, 0; May, 0; June, 0; seasonal, 0; year, 1912; annual, 0; 

Means (62 years), July, 0.02; August, 0.01; September, 0.22; Oct- 
ober, 0.83; November, 2.02; December, 3.95; January, 3.96; Februarv, 
2.89; March, 3.00; April, 1.58; May, 0.80; Jime, 0.12; seasonal, 19.48; 
annual, 19.24. 


Following is a table of al>soliite maxinnim and minimum tempera- 
tures since 1878: 

Year, 1878: Absolute maximum, 100 in August; a1)solute minimum, 

24 in December. 

Year, 1879 : Al)solute maximum, 103 in August ; absolute minimum, 

25 in Deceml)er. 


Year, 1880: Absolute niaxinuun, 98 in July; absolute iiiuuinum, 
25 in January. 

Year, 1881: Absolute niaxinuun, !)8 in July; al)solnte minimuni, 
32 in November and December. 

Year. 1882: Absolute maximum, lOU in August and Septeniher ; 
absolute minimum, 27 in December. 

Year, 1883: Absolute maximum, 104- in July; absolute niiniuunn, 
22 in January and February. 

Year, 1884: Absolute maximum, 100 in August; absohite mini- 
mum, 21 in February. 

Year, 1885: Absolute maximum, 105 in August; absolute mini- 
mum, 34 in January. 

Year, 1886: Absolute niaxinuun, 105 in July; absolute minimum, 

28 in January. 

Year, 1887: Absolute maximum, 100 in June, August and Sep- 
tember; alisolute minimum, 28 in November. 

Year, 1888 : Absolute maximum, 108 in August ; absolute minimum, 
19 in January. 

Year, 1889 : Absolute maximum, 104 in July, absolute minimum, 
31 in January and February. 

Year, 1890: Absolute maximum, 102 in July; absolute miniinum, 

29 in January. 

Year, 1891: Absolute maximum, 106 in June, July and August; 
absolute minimum, 26 in December. 

Year, 1892 : Absolute maximum, 106 in August ; alisolute mini- 
mum, 26 in December. 

Year, 1893: Absolute maximum, 103 in July; absolute minimum, 
28 in December. 

Year, 1894: Absolute maximum, 108 in August; absolute mini- 
mum, 26 in December. 

Year, 1895: Absolute maximum, 102 in June; absolute minimum 
28 in December. 

Y'ear, 1896: Absolute maximum, 104 in July, absolute miuinium 
28 in January. 

Year, 1897: Absolute maximum, 105 in July; absolute luininium 

28 in December. 

Year, 1898: Absolute maximum, 110 in August, absolute mini 
mum, 26 in January. 

Year, 1899: Absolute maximum, 102 in July; absolute niinimum 

30 in February. 

Y^ear, 1900: Absolute maximum, 102 in August; absolute mini 
mum, 30 in December. 

Year. 1901: Absolute maximum, 105 in August; absolute mini 
mum, 26 in January. 

Year, 1902: Absolute maximum, 107 in July; absolute miniinum 

29 in January. 

Year, 1903 : Absolute maximum, 102 in September ; absolute mini 
mum, 29 in January. 

Year, 1904: Absolute maximum, 102 in September, absolute mini 
mum, 32 in January. 


Year, 1905 : Absolute maxinnim, 110 in July ; absolute minimum. 

28 in December. 

Year, 1906: Absolute maximum, 104 in July, absolute minimum, 

30 in December. 

Year, 1907: Absolute maximum, 99 in August; absolute minimum, 

31 in January. 

Year, 1908: Absolute maximum, 103 in August; absolute mini- 
mum, 28 in December. 

Year, 1909: Absolute maximum, 101 in July; absolute minimum, 

29 in December. 

Year, 1910: Absolute maxinmm, 103 in May; absolute minimum, 
28 in January. 

Year, 1911: Absolute maximum, 100 in July; absolute minimum. 

30 in December. 

The following tables will be found of interest in relation to climate: 


Average Conditions by Montbs 

Humidity 24 years. Sunshine mean for 5 years. 

January: Humidity, 5 a. m., 86; 5 p. m.. 71; per cent of sunshine. 
37; hours of sunshine, 111.5. 

February: Humidity, 5 a. m., 83; 5 p. m., 61; per cent of sunshine, 
54; hours of sunshine, 162.2. 

March: Humidity, 5 a. m., 81; 5 p. m., 55; per cent of sunshine, 63; 
hours of sunshine, 234.5. 

April : Humidity, 5 a. m., 79 ; 5 p. m., 46 ; per cent of sunshine, 81 ; 
hours of sunshine, 323.4. 

May: Humidity, 5 a. m., 78; 5 p. m., 44; per cent of sunshine, ^3; 
hours of sunshine, 368.0. 

June: Humidity, 5 a. m., 75; 5 p. m., 38; per cent of sunshine, 87; 
hours of sunshine, 390.4. 

July: Humidity, 5 a. m., 75; 5 p. m., 34; per cent of sunshine. 96; 
hours of sunshine, 4.34.3. 

August : Humidity, 5 a. m., 75 ; 5 p. m., 35 ; per cent of sunshine, !)6 ; 
hours of .sunshine, 405.4. 

September : Ilumiflity, 5 a. m., 72 ; 5 p. m., 36 ; )ier cent of sunshine, 
88; hours of sunsliine, 329.3. 

October: Humidity, 5 a. m., 74; 5 p. m., 43; ]ier cent of sunshine. 
77 ; hours of sunshine, 265.7. 

November: Humidity, 5 a. in., 76; 5 p. m., 53 ; per cent of sunshine, 
60 ; hours of sunshine, 180.0. 

December: Humidity, 5 a. m., 82; 5 p. m., 40; jier cent of sunshine, 
38; hours of sunshine, 111.2. 


1878 to 1911, Inclusive. 

January : Al)solute maximum, 72; year and date, 30, 1899 ; absolute 
minimum, 19; year and date, 14,1888. 


February: Absolute maximum, 76; year and date, 28, 1889; abso- 
lute minimum, 21 ; year and date, 13, 1884. 

March: Absolute maximum, 80; year and date, 30, 1882; absolute 
minimum, 29 ; year and date, 15, 1880. 

April: Absolute maximum, 89; year and date, 24, 1910; absolute 
minimum, 35 ; year and date, 4, 1901. 

May: Absolute maximum, 103; year and date, 30.1910; absolute 
minimum, 39 ; year and date, 9, 1896. 

June: Absolute maximum, 106; year and date, 30, 1891; absolute 
minimum, 44; year and date, 1, 1890. 

July: Absolute maximum, 110; year and date, 8, 1905; absolute 
minimum, 47 ; year and date, 3, 1901. 

August: Absolute maximum, 110; year and date, 11, 1898; absolute 
minimum, 48; year and date, 30, 1887. 

September : Absolute maximum, 106 ; year and date, 1 1 , 1888 ; abso- 
lute minimum, 44 ; year and date, 18, 1882. 

October: Absolute maximum, 98; year and date, 3, 1885; absolute 
mininnmi, 36; year and date, 14, 1881. 

November : Absolute maximiun, 81 ; year and date, 5, 1898 ; absolute 
minimum, 27 ; year and date. 28, 1880. 

December : Absolute maximum, 69 ; year and date, 8, 1893 ; absolute 
minimum, 24; vear and date. 14, 1883. 


1895 to 1911, Inclusive. 

January: Maximum velocity, 60; direction. Southeast; year, 1901 
day, 3. 

February : Maximum velocity, 60 ; direction. Southeast ; year, 1902 
day, 25. 

March : Maximum velocitv, 65 ; direction. Southeast ; year, 1904 
day, 10. 

April : Maximum velocity, 46; direction. South; year, 1902; day, 7 

May: Maximum velocity, 45; direction. Northwest; year, 1902 
day. 18.' 

June: Maximum ^■elocitv, 42; direction, Northwest; venr, 1886 
day. 12. 

Jiilv: Maximum velocitv, 40; direction, Northwest; vear, 1903 
day, 2. 

Aiis^ust: Maximum veloritv, 38; direction. Soutliwest ; vear, 1908 
dav, 9. 

September: Maximum velocitv, 40; direction. Northwest: vear 
1903; day, 11. 

(Vtober: Maximum velocitv, 48; direction. South; vear, 18 »4 
day, 20. 

November: Maximum \eIocitv, 48; direction. North; vear, 1895 
day, 22. 

December : Maximum velocitv, 60 ; direction. Southeast ; year, 1894 
dav, 9. 




No man's name is so intimately connected with the settlement of 
Sacramento city and county as that of Gen. John A. Sutter, the first 
permanent white settler within its limits and the pioneer of civiliza- 
tion here. Born of Swiss parents, in the Grand Duchy of Baden, 
February 28, 1803, and educated there, he entered the French military 
service as captain under Charles X and remained there until he was 
thirty years of age. Embarking for New York, he arrived there in 
July, 1834, having come to select a place and prepare the way for a 
colony of his countrymen in the west. His first location was at 
St. Charles, Mo., but liaving lost his property through the sinking of 
a vessel, he abandoned the place. Leaving St. Louis, where he had 
stayed for a time, he went to New Mexico. There lie met some hunters 
and trappers, who told him of Uiiper California, whither they had 
journeyed, of its fertile and beautiful valleys, its verdant foothills 
and its lofty mountain ranges, covered with magnificent pine and 
redwood forests. He at once resolved to go to this state and make 
it liis future field of labor. There being no lines of steamers running 
to California ports, the only way of arriving here was to cross the 
))lains and mountains with one of the trapping expeditions of the 
American or English fur companies. Accordinglj^, April 1, 1836, he 
joined Captain Tripp, of the American F'ur Company, and traveled 
with him to the rendezvous in the Rocky Mountains. , Crossing the 
mountains with six horsemen, after a long and dangerous trip, he ar- 
rived at Fort Vancouver. Embarking on a vessel bound for the 
Sandwich Islands, he hoped to find an opportunity to sail thence to 
the Pacific Coast and sailed from the islands in a vessel bound for 
Sitka and from there down the coast. July 2, 1839, the vessel was 
driven by furious gales into the bay of Yerba Buena (as San Fran- 
cisco was then called), and there was boarded by a government officer 
with an armed force, who ordered him to leave, saying that Monterey, 
ninety miles -south, was the port of entry. Sutter, however, obtained 
leave to stay forty-eight hours in order to jirocure supplies. 

When he reached Monterey he succeeded in meeting Governor 
Alvarado, whom he told that he wished to secure and colonize a sec- 
tion of country in Upper California on the Sacramento river. The 
governor, who was desirous that the country should be subdued and 
settled, warmly approved Sutter's plan, but warned him that the In- 
dians were hostile and would not allow the whites to settle there; 
further, that they had robbed the people of San Jose and the lower 
country of their cattle and other property. However, he gave Sutter 
a passport with authority to explore and occupy any territory he 


might consider desirable for liis colony, and requested him to return 
in one year, when he should have his citizenship acknowledged and 
receive a grant of such lands as he might desire to secure. 

Returning to Yerba Bueua, wliich at that time contained scarcely 
fifty inhabitants, Sutter secured a schooner and several small boats 
with which to explore the interior, and started with ten whites to 
ascend the river. He could secure no guide, as no one could be found 
who had ever ascended the Sacramento river. However, in eight days 
he discovered the mouth of the river. Reaching a point about ten 
miles below the present city of Sacramento, he came on a jiarty of 
about two hundred Indians who showed hostility. As some of the In- 
dians fortunately understood Spanish, Sutter was able to assure them 
that there were no Spaniards (against whom the Indians showed par- 
ticular hostility) among his party, and explained that he was simply 
a peaceful citizen, coming among them to settle and trade. Finally 
he was guided by two Indians who spoke Spanish, up the river to the 
Feather river. He made his way up this river for some distance, but 
some of his white men became alarmed and discontented and he was 
constrained to return. Reaching the mouth of the American river, he 
ascended it a short distance, and AugTist 15, 1839, landed at a point 
on the southern side, where he afterward established his tannery, 
within the limits of the present city. After landing his effects on the 
following morning, he informed the discontented whites that if they 
wished to return to Yerba Buena they could do so, but that he was 
determined to remain, and that the Kanakas were willing to remain 
with him. Three of the whites determined to leave and he put them 
in possession of the schooner, with instructions to them to deliver it to 
its owners when they reached Yerba Buena. They started the next 

Three weeks later he moved to the sjiot where he afterwards con- 
structed Fort Sutter, which was destined in a few years to ])ecome 
the niicleus of civilization in the Sacramento valley. He encountered 
iriany troubles with the Indians in the early days of his settlement, 
and a number of plots were laid to massacre him and his men and 
secure the goods which were such a great temptation to the aborigines. 
These iilots were foiled, several of them, as the Indians afterwards 
confessed to him, through the vigilance of his favorite bulldog. After- 
ward manv of the Indians, at first most hostile to him, became his 
firmest friends and co-operated with him in his work. He now de- 
voted himself to agriculture and raising cattle and soon became 
wealthy and prosperous. His companions at this time were six no- 
madic whites of various nationalities, and eight Kanakas, who always 
remained faithful to him, and who constituted his "colony" and his 
army. They aided him in subduing and colonizing a large area before 
totally unknown and inhabited by roving tribes of hostile Indians. 
The nearest white settlement was at Martinez, and the Indians around 


him were known as "Diggers," from their habit of digging roots for 

In the fall of 1839 he bought from Senor Martinez three hundred 
head of cattle, thirty horses and thirty mares. During the fall eight 
more white men were added to his colony. Having been considerably 
handicapped by the lack of lumber and timber during his construction 
of the fort, he floated some down the American river, and was also 
compelled to send for some to Bodega, on the coast, a distance of sev- 
eral hundred miles. In 1840 five white men who had crossed tlie 
Rocky Mountains with him and whom he had left in Oregon, joined 
him, swelling his colony to twenty-five, seventeen being white men and 
the others being Kanakas. During the fall of that year General Sut- 
ter was forced to make open war on the Mokelumne Indians, who had 
become troublesome, stealing live stock from the settlers and render- 
ing themselves obnoxious by their acts and menaces. He marshalled 
his army of "six brave men and two baqueros," as his diary quaintly 
states, and marched against the Indians in the night time. Coming to 
the camp where they had concentrated over two hundred warriors, he 
attacked them so determinedly that they retreated and sued for peace. 
He granted it readily and it was ever afterward mutually maintained. 
In time he made the Indians cultivate the soil, help build his fort, 
care for the stock and be useful in various other ways. In the mili- 
tarj^ history of California at a later date, he and his Indians were an 
important factor. He iiurchased a thousand more cattle and seventy- 
five more horses and mules, and his herds began to increase in num- 
bers and value. He sent hides to San Francisco, kept supplies for the 
trappers and purchased their skins and either employed all the me- 
chanics and laborers or found work for them. 

In June, 1841, General Sutter visited Monterey, the capital, where 
he was declared a Mexican citizen and received from Governor Alva- 
rado a grant for his land, under the name of New Helvetia, he having 
caused a survey of it to be made for him. He was also honored with 
a commission as "represendente del Govierno en las fronteras del 
norte y encargado de la jnsticia." He was visited shortly after by 
Captain Ringgold of the United States exploring exjiedition under 
Commodore Wilkes. About the same time Alexander Rotcheff, gov- 
ernor of the Russian possessions. Fort Ross and Bodega, offered to 
sell to him the Russian possessions, settlements and ranches at those 
places. The terms were advantageous and Sutter purchased them at 
a price of $30,000. Besides the vast area of real estate, he came into 
possession of two thousand cattle, over one thousand horses, fifty 
mules and two thousand sheep, the most of which were driven to New 
Helvetia and added to his herds there. In 1844 he petitioned Governor 
Micheltorena for the grant or purchase of the sobrante or surplus, 
over the first eleven leagues of land within the bounds of the survey 
of the Alvarado grant, which the governor agreed to let him have. 


but the grant was not finally executed until February 5, 1845. During 
this time he had rendered valuable military services and advanced 
supplies to the government to enable it to suppress the Castro rebel- 
lion. For these considerations and personal services he obtained by 
(jnrchase the sobraute or surplus. 

When the Mexican war broke out, although Sutter was a Mexican 
citizen and an officer under that government, his respect for the citi- 
zens and the institutions of the United States was such that his un- 
bounded hospitality was extended to all Americans, civil or military, 
who visited him. When the country surrendered to the American 
forces, Sutter, being convinced that all was over, heartily hoisted the 
American flag July 11, 1846, and accompanied it with a salute from 
the guns of the fort. Lieutenant Missoon, of the United States navy, 
soon after organized a garrison for the fort and gave Sutter the com- 
mand which he held till peace was declared. He was appointed alcalde 
by Commodore Stockton and Indian agent by General Kearney, with 
a salary of $750 a year, but his first trip in discharge of his duty cost 
him $1600 and he naturally resigned his office. During all these years 
his hand and his fort were always open to relieve the distressed. As 
he said afterwards, "I have never turned a jnan away hungry or re- 
fused him shelter." Many a party of immigrants who had arrived 
near the fort half-starved and destitute, sent one of the party in ad- 
vance to ask assistance, and Sutter alwa.vs granted it, often sending 
an expedition out to bring in the exhausted. On one occasion ('aptain 
Fremont, who had been exploring farther north with a party, man- 
aged to reach the fort and announced that his party was exhausted 
and destitute some distance away. General Sutter immediately dis- 
patched an expedition which relieved them and brought them in. A 
handsome fortune was expended by him in like charitable acts and he 
was a great favorite among the pioneers on account of his large- 
hearted generosity. The hungry he never turned away. Often they 
were nursed back to health and strength on his place. On one occasion 
a solitary starving immigrant reached the fort and announced that his 
party some distance l)eliind were starving. Immediately General Sut- 
ter packed seven mules with supplies and sent them in charge of two 
Indian boys to the rescue of the party. On their arrival everything 
was seized and devoured by the famished wretches. Other starving 
immigrants arriving on the scene, they killed the seven mules and ate 
them, then killed and ate the two Indian boys. Afterwards Sutter 
said with much feeling, "They ate my Indian boys all up." 

However, evil days were at hand. "Ingratitude, more strong than 
traitor's arms" was to reduce the old pioneer to poverty. Gold was 
discovered. While a boon to the country and hailed with delight all 
over the world, this proved the ruin of the grand old man. His la- 
borers and mechanics deserted Mm. His mill was forced to cease 
operation. He could not hire labor to plant his crops or cut his 


ripened grain. Laborers would not work for less than an ounce of 
gold a day, as they could often make more in the mines. The influx 
of immigration had brought men of all nations. Among them were 
many who had no respect for the property of others. Convicts from 
Australia, thieves and murderers from the east, flocked to the coast. 
Both as a Mexican citizen and as a citizen of the United States by 
the treaty with Mexico, General Sutter considered himself doubly pro- 
tected in his property rights and felt that he held a strong claim on 
his coiantry's justice. But many of the newcomers took forcible pos- 
session of his land and began to cut his wood, claiming that it was 
vacant and unappropriated land of the United States. Up to Janu- 
ary, 1852, the settlers had occupied all of his land capable of settle- 
ment and appropriation, while another class had stolen all of his cat- 
tle, horses, mules, sheep and hogs, except a few that he himself had 
sold. During the high water of 1849-50 one party of five men killed 
and sold enough of his cattle (which were surrounded by water near 
the river) to amount to $60,0U0. Despoiled of his propertj", he re- 
moved to the west bank of the Ffeather and took up his residence at 
Hock farm, where, in the midst of his family, recently arrived from 
England, he led a quiet life. Later he went to Washington to press 
his claims upon the government for the losses sustained by him from 
the immigrants in the early days. During 1873 he removed to Lititz, 
Pa., and June 18, 1880, he died at Washington, D. C, after having 
devoted his last years to endeavoring to obtain from congress redress 
for his wrongs. It is to the honor of California that in 1864 a bill 
was introduced in^the state senate by Hon. J. P. Buckley and became 
a law, appropriating $15,000 to be paid in installments of $250 per 
month, for the benefit of Sutter and his heirs. In 1870 another bill 
by Hon. W. E. Eichelroth was passed, providing $250 a month for two 
years, and in 1872 a similar bill by Hon. B. C. Northrup. Thus the 
state he founded, more grateful than the country to which he was 
instrumental in giving an empire whose gold saved the Union in the 
Civil War, made the latter days of the noble-hearted old man com- 


As time rolled on after General Sutter removed to his farm, and 
afterwards to the east, the decay of the old fort set in. Wind and 
storm did their work. The adobe bricks became loosened, and the 
tiles of the roof became broken and loosened. The property had 
passed into other hands and was used for other purposes than had 
been originally intended. The two blocks on which the fort stood had 
been cut up into lots by John A. Sutter, Jr., and sold to different 
parties, but had finally all come into the ownership of Benjamin Mer- 


rill, who was residing in the east. Like many non-residents, he took 
no care of the property and allowed it to deteriorate. Some enter- 
prising individual stuck a long hop pole, bearing an old red flannel 
shirt, through the roof like a flag pole. The underpinning became 
dilapidated and the venerable ruin was used as a chicken house and 
hog pen. The walls cracked open, and it was evident that the days of 
the historic relic would soon be ended by its collapse. Many citizens 
regretted its passing, but as usual notliing was done to preserve it. 
Finally the board of city trustees decided to open Twenty-seventh 
street from K to L. The street would run through the old fort and 
necessitate its destruction. Still the community was apathetic and 
the historic building seemed doomed. But Sacramento contained one 
patriotic citizen who was determined to avert this disgrace, if possible. 
Gen. James G. Martine, whose brain was always filled with ideas for 
promoting the progress and jjrosperity of the city, took immediate 
action. As a result the following open letter was published, June 4, 
1889, in the Bccorcl-Unioii, and later in the press of the coast, and 
also in many newspapers in the east, where it would come to the 
notice of pioneers : 12G2*793 

"To the Pioneers of the Pacific Coast, Gentlemen: In the year 
'49, and even before that date, you left home, friends and all that was 
dear to you, and journeyed to the shores of the broad Pacific in search 
of fame and fortune. After many months of toil and hardshij) you 
finally reached her golden shores, both tired and hungry. Who was 
the first to reach you a helping hand and say to you : ' Come, my sons, 
you are strangers in a strange land, and while you are here make my 
house your home, and what is in it is yours'? Pioneers, do you re- 
member how grateful you felt then for the shelter given you i)y Sut- 
ter's fort? Well, gentlemen, that was nearly forty years ago, and the 
old fort is still in the same ))lace, but in a most wretched condition, 
and while most of your noble band have been blessed with good health, 
wealth and happiness, this old friend has fared badly. It is now old 
and can hardly stand, and unless you come to the rescue it will soon 
fall by the wayside. Pioneers, there are many of you on the Pacific 
Coast, and a few dollars from each of you would buy the ground and 
fix up the old Sutter's fort as it was in the old days of '49. Once re- 
paired, it would be a lasting monument to you all long after you have 
crossed the silent river. I am not rich by any means, but if the Pio- 
neers or Native Sons do not take this worthy object in hand at once, 
I suggest that a siibscription be raised among the citizens of Sacra- 
mento to purchase the ground and rejiair the old fort. I will sub- 
scribe fifty dollars towards it. Sacramento has but few historic relics 
left, and it would be a burning shame to have Sutter's fort torn down. 
The city authorities have already announced their intention of pulling 
it down unless something is done with it, and there is no time to lose." 
(Sig-ned) J. G. MARTINE. 


The appeal commanded attention and responses came from in- 
dividuals throughout the state, commending Mr. Martine's pro]iosal, 
and making donations toward carrying it out. Mr. Martine olitained 
a subscription from Col. C. F. Crockef of $15,000 on behalf of himself 
and family, and $500 from Mrs. Leland Stanford, the governor stating 
later that he would make up any existing deticiency. The Native Sons 
took up the matter, and Mr. Merrill finally set a price of $20,000 on 
the property, subscribing $2,000 of the amount himself. It was found, 
when the first payment was made, September 12, 1889, that John Rider 
and the city of Sacramento owned an interest in a part of the fort, 
but the title was cleared and the jnirchase made, the Native Sons' 
canvassing committee and others having secured the necessary funds. 
The iiroperty was deeded to the Native Sons and by them to the 

In 1891 the legislature passed a bill appro])riating $20,000 foi" 
the restoration of the fort, and it is worthy of remembrance that in 
the assembly Beecher and Phillips, both members of the order of 
Native Sons, voted against it, the latter moving to cut down the ap- 
propriation to $10,000. The governor appointed as the first board of 
trustees to manage the property, which had been conveyed to the 
state: C. E. Grunsky, of San Francisco; E. E. Gaddis, Woodland; 
Frank D. Ryan, Sacramento; Charles E. Hollister, Courtland, and 
Eugene J. Gregory, Sacramento, all natives of California. Consider- 
able feeling was engendered among the Pioneers, who had worked and 
contributed to the purchase of the fort, that no member of their so- 
ciety had been appointed on the board. 

The first adobe brick for the restoration of the fort was laid Sep- 
tember 21, 1891, the bricks being made from the soil on which the 
fort stands, mixed with straw, and of the same material which Sutter 
used in its construction. The same cannon which guarded the fort 
after its comjiletion are to be seen on the grounds today, as well as 
the heav\ cannon which General Sutter purchased from the Russians 
with Fort Ross, one of which was presented to John Stuber in 1855 
by General Sutter, and which for many years guarded the entrance 
of Pioneers' Hall on Seventh street. The original adobe bricks were 
made by the Digger Indians, who used their hands for molding them, 
and their finger marks were to be seen when they were again used. 
One of them was dislodged from the wall during the restoration, and 
was found to be the corner-stone, on which was chiseled signs of the 
"Indian Masonic" order which was known to exist among the tribes. 
The tiles used in the restoration were of ancient Sjianish manufac- 
ture, such as were used in the early days. The fort as restored is 
constructed with double adobe bricks, covered with concrete plaster 
to preserve them from the ravages of the weather. 

Some years later the Native Daughters of the local parlors 
jilanted trees and flowers on the grounds, and within the past three 


years the state has hiid out a park, made a small lake and beautified 
the grounds, which are under the care of a gardener. Within the 
coiirt inside of the fort are found a number of relics of the early days : 
an old Wells-Fargo coach with the marks of Indian bullets on it, an 
old ])rairie schooner that came across the plains, an old Mexican cart 
with solid wooden wheels sawed from the trunk of a tree, and other 
things. There is also a museum containing many old-time relics. The 
rooms of the old fort liave been restored as nearly as possible to their 
original status by the trustees of the fort, after consultation with 
Gen. John Bidwell, who was General Sutter's financial agent, and 
Charles Stevens of San Francisco, who was Sutter's bookkee])ei- in 
1847 and 1848. 


We generally sjjeak of the discovery of gold in California as 
having been made by James Marshall at Coloma, in January, 1848, 
and while this is true in a practical sense, resulting in the stampede 
that brought adventurers from all over the world to this state, there 
is no doul)t that tlie existence of gold had been known many years 

The first mention of gold in California is found in Hakluyt's ac- 
count of the voyage of Sir Francis Drake, who si)ent five or six weeks 
in June and July, 1579, in some bay on the coast of California, the 
locality of which has never been settled as to whether it was San 
Francisco Bay or one of those farther north. Hakluyt wrote: "There 
is no part of the earth here to be taken up wherein there is not a 
reasonable amount of gold or silver." As neither gold or silver has 
ever been found in the vicinity of the jjoint where Drake landed, 
Hakluyt's story must be classed with other tales of the early ex- 
l>lorers and as mere conjecture regarding an unknown land. 

However, other early ex]ilorers stated that gold had been found 
long before the discovery by Marshall and there is no doubt that the 
opinion existed that gold was to be found in California. The country 
had been explored by Spanish, Russian and American parties since 
the sixteenth century and was visited by Commodore Wilkes while 
on an exploring expedition in the service of the United States. Mem- 
bers of his i)arty ascended the Sacramento river and visited Sutter at 
his fort, while others made explorations by land. James D. Dana, the 
author of several well-known works on geology and mineralogy, was 
the mineralogist of the expedition and journeyed by land through the 
up])er part of the state. He says in one of his works that gold rock 
and veins of quartz were observed by him in 1842 near the Umpqua 
river, in southern Oregon; also, that he found gold in the Sierra Ne- 
vadas and on the Sacramento river, also on the San Joaquin river and 


between these rivers. In the report of the Fremont exploring expe- 
dition also, there is an intimation of the existence of gold. A state- 
ment has been made also that a Mexican was shot at Yerba Buena 
(now San Francisco) in October or November, 1845, on account of 
having a bag of gold dust, and that when dying he pointed toward the 
north and said, "Legos! Legos!" (yonder), indicating where lie had 
found it. 

Coming nearer home, into our own county, we find a claim that is 
backed by strong probability that the Mormons who came to San 
Francisco on the ship Brooklyn, and settled at Mormon Island, found 
gold before Marshall did. It was a series of circumstances that 
l)rought them to this coast. Persecuted in the east, where Joseph 
Smith, their founder, claimed to have found the plates that he trans- 
lated into the "Book of Mormon," generally spoken of as the Mormon 
bible, his followers had settled at Nauvoo, 111., where they believed 
they would be free from further persecution. But the people wlio had 
settled around them became antagonistic to them and in the riots that 
occurred. Smith was shot and killed bj^ a mob. They then determined 
to remove beyond tlie jurisdiction of the United States and selected 
California as their future place of abode. They divided into two 
parts, the land expedition starting to cross the Rocky mountains, while 
the other party came around the Horn on the ship Brooklyn. Among 
the believers in their faith was Samuel Brannan, one of their leading 
men, who afterwards became prominent in the early history of Sac- 
ramento and San Francisco. When the Brooklyn arrived, the 
Mormons found that their hopes were frustrated, California having 
passed into the possession of the United States. Couriers were 
sent over land to meet the other party, and found them at the place 
where Salt Lake City now is located. They determined to stay there, 
although the country was sterile and unpromising. Those who came 
on the Brooklyn scattered through the state, some of them settling 
above Folsom at the place now known as Mormon Island. It is 
claimed that they had found gold long before it was found at Coloma, 
but had kept it a secret. Certain it is, that mining was carried on 
by them a])out the time of Marshall's discovery, and that the diggings 
at Mormon Island were very profitable. 

On January 18, 1878, the Associated Pioneers of the tei-i'itorial 
days of California gave a banquet in New York city, at whicli 
Col. T. B. Thorpe, a veteran of the Mexican war who had been on 
General Taylor's staff, was present. He stated that while he was 
employed as a journalist in New Orleans several years before the 
discovery of gold at Coloma, a Swede, evidently far gone into con- 
sumption, called on him and stated that he was what was called in 
Sweden a "King's Orphan;" that he had been educated at an institu- 
tion maintained by the government, on condition that after he had 
received his eduf^ation lie would travel in foreign countries, observe 


and record what he had seen and transmit his records to the govern- 
ment. He further stated that he had visited California and remained 
several days at Sutter's Fort, enjoying Sutter's hospitality; that 
while there he had closely examined the surrounding country and be- 
came convinced that it was rich in gold. General Sutter was present 
at that banquet and Colonel Thorpe asked him if he had any recollec- 
tion of the Swedish visitor. General Sutter replied that he did recol- 
lect the visit, which occurred about thirty-four years before, and 
that he also remembered that the Swede spoke regarding the presence 
of mineral wealth in the neighboring hills, "but," added the General," 
"I was too much occui^ied at the time with other concerns to devote 
any time or attention to it. My crops were ripe, and it was imjiera- 
tive that thej' should be gathered as soon as possible, but I do 
recollect the scientific Swedish gentleman." 

The report of the remarks at the banquet was published, and in 
it is contained a copy of the manuscript to which Colonel Thoi'pe 
referred, in which the "King's orphan" wrote: "The Calif ornias 
are rich in minerals. Gold, silver, lead, oxide of iron, manganese 
and copper ore are all met with throughout the country, the precious 
metals being the most abundant." 

Still another account of an early discovery of gold was pub- 
lished in September, 1865, in the New Age, in San Francisco, the 
official organ of the Odd Fellows. It purports to have been an article 
written by the Paris correspondent of the London Star. He wrote 
that while in Paris he visited a private museum, the owner of which 
exhibited to him a gold nugget and stated that twenty-eight years 
before a poor invalid had called on him, and taking out of his tattered 
coat a block of quartz, asked him if he would purchase it, assuring 
him that it was full of gold. He stated that the stranger said: "I 
have come to you to apply to the government to give me a vessel 
and a crew of a hundred men, and I will promise to return with a 
cargo of gold." The proprietor of the museum thought the man 
was mad, but gave him a napoleon as a matter of charity, retaining, 
however, a piece of the quartz. Afterwards the quartz was analyzed 
and was proved to contain pure gold. After a lapse of fifteen years 
a letter and a parcel were left at his door. The parcel was heavy 
and was wrapped in a handkerchief and the letter was worn and 
almost illegible. He deciphered it and it proved to be the i)oor 
invalid's dying statement, which the lodging-house keeper, where 
he died after his interview with the proprietor of the museum, had 
neglected to deliver. The package contained a block of quartz and 
the letter read as follows: "You alone listened to me; you alone 
stretched out a helping hand to me. Alas, it was too late! I am 
dying. I bequeath my secret to you. The country from which I 
brought this gold is called California." 

All these statements being true, the credit for the practical dis- 


covery of gold belongs to Marshall. While it is true that a gold 
mine in the lower part of the state was worked in 1841, and that gold 
from that mine had been sent to Philadelphia for coinage as early 
as July, 1843, the mine proved unprofitable and was abandoned. 
The precise date of Marshall's discovery will probably never be set- 
tled. He was working for General Sutter, in charge of a gang of 
men erecting a sawmill at the present site of Colonia, Eldorado county. 
The raceway was dug and the water turned in. As Marshall was 
examining the race, his attention was attracted by a piece of shining- 
stuff and he jucked it up and took it to the house, where it was 
boiled in lye, and thought to be gold. He took it with other particles 
down to Sutter, where it was submitted to crude tests and declared 
to be gold. Afterward specimens were sent to Monterey and exhibited 
to General Mason, the military governor, and W. T. Sherman, after- 
wards one of the most famous generals of the Civil war. It was 
liroved to be gold and the news went forth to the world that caused 
immigration to pour into California from every clime. 

James W. Marshall was l)orn in Hope township, Hunterdon 
county, N. J., October 8, 1810. When he reached manhood he removed 
to Indiana and afterward to Illinois and Missouri. He arrived in 
California in 1844 and came to Sutter's Port in 1845 and was em- 
]iloyed by Captain Sutter. He took an active part in the revolution 
of 1846. In consideration of his discovery of gold the legislature 
allowed him a pension for some years before his death. He settled 
on a small piece of land at Coloma, near where he discovered the gold, 
and partly sui^ported himself by farming. On the 10th of August. 
1885, he was found dead in his cabin and was buried near the spot 
where gold was first found bj' him. Marshall never married. After 
his death the state erected a fine monument to him, a statue in the 
early miner's garb, with his finger iiointing to the jilace wliere the 
old millrace stood in which his discovery was made. The late John H. 
Miller, for many years a well known journalist of this city, was 
appointed the first guardian of the monument, which office he held 
for a number of years. 

The discovery of gold gave a great impetus to the growth of 
Sacramento City when the influx of gold-seekers commenced, making 
it the point of departure for the mines as well as the depot for 
su])plies. A part of the latter business it lost when the Folsom and 
Placerville Railroad was built, but its progress was only delayed, as 
it still continued to be the supply point for distribution to a vast 
territory, including a large portion of Nevada. Seldom now are the 
jingling bells of the mule team heard on its streets and the "prairie 
schooner" laden with freight has become a very rare sight on its 
streets. Folsom being on the American river and having proved to 
be surrounded by rich placers, grew quickly to an important town, 
polling at one time in the early days over two thousand votes. Of 




late years the gold dredge has taken the place of hydraulic mining, 
since the latter was i)rohibited, and large areas of the rich lands along 
the American river liave been turned into unsightly i)iles of cobble 
stones, and the gold extracted from it. Even the great Natoma 
vineyard, at one time the largest in the world, has been invaded by 
the machines and is being rapidly destroyed and left desolate, and 
practically wiped off the assessor's map. The viUage of Dredge has 
grown up, the home of the company's employes, and tlie cobble |)iles 
are of late being crushed for road material. 

There are other accounts of gold discovery. Joseph Aram of 
New York, and Sarah A. Aram of Vermont, his wife, were mem- 
bers of a party of immigrants to California which, in SeiJtember, 
1846, pitched their camp near the mouth of a little stream emptying 
into the south fork of the Yul)a river where it was crossed by the 
old overland trail, near where the boundary line between Placer and 
Nevada comities has been established. It is related that Mrs. Aram 
desired to wash some articles of ai)parel and in scooping out an 
improvised washtub in the bed of the brook noticed several little 
yellow pieces in the fine gravel. They were examined by the members 
of the i)arty and pronounced to be gold. On the same day, however, 
news of the declaration of war against Mexico by the United States 
reached the party, and they made all possil)le haste in pushing on 
to gain the shelter of vSutter's Fort instead of sto])])ing to make any 
further investigation of their discovery. In the sununer of 1848, 
after Marshall's discovery had been published, Mr. Aram returned 
to his old camping ground only to find the ground already occujjied 
by miners. Mr. Aram was a member of the first constitutional 
convention, 1849, and a member of the assembly at the first session 
of the legislature. He died at San Jose, March 80, 1898. His son, 
Eugene Aram, born at Monterey, January 14, 1848, it is claimed 
was the first white child born in California of American parents, 
and was a state senator from Sutter, Yolo and Yuba counties during 
the thirty-first and thirty-third legislative sessions. For some years 
he has been a practicing attorney in this city. 


The first election under the city charter and in tlie county was 
held April 1, 1850, there being three tickets in the field. Canvassing 
had been going on for several weeks, both in the city and through the 
county, and an immense numlier of tickets and handl)ills had been 
circulated. The polls remained open until late in the evening; there 
were lively times around the ballot boxes and plenty of whiskey 
was drunk, but there was no rioting. 

The whole number of votes polled for Mayor was two thousand 


four liundred and uiuety-tliree, and Hardin Bigiow, the people's 
candidate, had a majority over all the others of three hundred and 
twenty-three. Following is a list of the city and county officers 
elected, with the number of votes received by each : 

Mayor, Hardin Bigiow, 1521; city recorder, B. F. AVashington, 
885; city marshal, N. C. Cunningham, 1323; city attorney, J. Neely 
Johnson, 1697; city assessor, J. W. Woodland, 792; city treasurer, 
Barton Lee, 2310; Councilmen: C. A. Tweed, 1629; V. Spalding, 1621; 
Demas Strong, 1420; T. McDowell, 1462; J. McKinzie, 1182; C. H. 
Miller, 887; J. R. Hardenbergh, 862; Jesse Moore, 869; A. P. Petit, 804; 
county treasurer, William Glaskin, 1104; district attorney, William C. 
Wallace, 2011; county attorney, J. H. McKune, 2021; county judge, 
E. J. Willis, 1818; county clerk, Presley Dunlap, 1567; county recorder, 
L. A. Birdsall, 714; county sheritf, J. H. McKinney, 619; county sur- 
veyor, J. G. Cleal, 1152; county assessor, D. W. Thorp, 1224; county 
coroner, P. F. Ewer; 569 ; clerk supreme court, E. H. Thorp, 1313. 

On the morning of April 4th, a meeting of the council-elect was 
held at the courthouse and on motion of Jesse Moore, C. A. Tweed 
was called to the chair, as president pro tern. On motion of Volney 
Spalding, Charles H. Miller was requested to act as secretary pro 
tem. The council proceeded to the election of a president and 
Demas Strong was declared elected. A committee was also appointed 
to wait upon the mayor-elect, Hon. Hardin Bigiow, and inform him 
that the council was duly organized and ready to receive any com- 
munication he might desire to make. He appeared before the council 
and delivered a short and pertinent address, and the council adjourned. 
It met the next morning pursuant to adjournment and a message from 
the mayor was read, accepted and referred to the select committee. 
The regular meetings of the board were ordered to be held on each 
Tuesday evening at the courthouse. 

Mayor Bigiow in his message urged the immediate raising of a 
levee to protect the city from future inundations, suggesting the 
building of a cheap railway track along the bank of the river, so 
that material for the levee could be hauled from a distance and the 
natural bank of the river be left undisturbed; that an election be 
called to vote the necessary amount as estimated by the city engineer 
for the levee; that the three small lakes be included in the limits 
of the city and the whole of the present corporation be included within 
the levee, and levee regulations be adopted, similar to those at New 
Orleans. Other recommendations were relative to the storing of 
powder, establishment of fire companies, a city hospital, a city prison 
and provision for the removal of garbage. Also that every aid pos- 
sible be given to public schools. 

The election of Mayor Bigiow is attributed by Dr. Morse in 
his interesting historical article published in Colville's Directory 
in 1853-4, to his foresight and energy in saving the city from a second 


flood in March, 1850. Fears had been expressed that the city mift'lit 
he again inundated, hut there seemed to be an aversion to raising 
a levee for j^rotection and the idea was unpopular. Says Mr. Morse: 
"In the month of Marcli following, heavy rains occurred, which with 
the action of the sun upon the snowy summits, caused another flood. 
The rivers rose with great rapidity, the sloughs filled up to over- 
flowing, and the city must have been nearly as severely flooded as in 
January, but for the masterly and herculean efforts of one Hardin 
Biglow. This man had declared from the first the practicability of 
defending the city by a levee. Having thus committed himself to 
the proposition, he was determined to demonstrate his theory in this 
second flood. With the moiety of means and handful of men, he 
commenced damming up the intruding waters at every low point, 
and finally extended his temporary levee almost to its present limits. 
Night and day he was in his saddle, going from one point to another, 
and stimulating his men to an almost superhuman action. For a few 
days this man met tide and torrent, mud and darkness, and croaking 
discouragement that few men in the world would have endured, and 
to the utter astonishment of all, he saved the town from a severe 
inundation. J, Front, Second, I and a portion of K streets, he kept 
open for the uninterrupted transaction of business. As a natural 
consequence everybody praised him, and on the first Monday of 
April succeeding, at an election pursuant to the new legislative charter, 
aciopted February 27, 1850, he was elected by a most cordial vote 
as the chief magistrate of this city. 

In a few weeks after the abatement of the waters of the second 
inundation everything seemed almost transformed into business and 
money making. The council busied itself with the subject of a levee 
and surveys were made, the tents gave way to large and commodious 
buildings, built of good material and embellished with ornamental 
architecture. Business began to be reduced to a system, and developed 
some of the most substantial mercantile houses and manufacturing 
firms and some of the strongest banking houses in the country. 
Disease abated and everything pointed to prosperity. 

The assessor's report on the value of property — real and per- 
sonal — gave an aggregate of $7,968,985 that summer, an important 
feature in the light of the pecuniary revulsion that followed. The 
real estate of the city was assessed at $5,586,000, probably $5,000,000 
over its real value. Hence, following the financial reaction in the 
fall of 1850, some of the shrewdest men in the city found themselves 
embarrassed by immense losses on loans on real estate, which on 
foreclosure often brought not more than one-fourth to one-eighth 
of the loans. The three heaviest banks and many of the prominent 
merchants were swept suddenly into bankruptcy in the fall and a 
general prostration of business was the result. The city had survived 
the struggle with Sutterville, the distress and poverty of immigration 


in 1849, the floods of 1850 and now, in the midst of tliis financial 
storm, a new cahimity befell her — the Squatter I'iot of August 15, 

February 27, 1850, the first legislature passed an act to incor- 
porate Sacramento City, and defined its boundaries as follows: 

"All that tract of land lying within the following boundaries: 
Beginning at the junction of the American Fork and the Sacramento 
river to Y street, as designated on the map or plan of Sacramento 
City on file in the recorder's office in said city; thence along said Y 
street east to the point where said Y' street intersects Thirty-first 
street as designated on said map; thence along the said Thirty-first 
street till the same intersects the American Fork; thence along the 
American Fork to the place of beginning, the said boundaries extend- 
ing to the middle of Sacramento river and American Fork." 

The act further provided that there should be a mayor, a recorder, 
and a council of nine members for the government of the city, and 
that one of the members of the council should be elected president. 
It provided further that on the thirtieth day after the passage of the 
act a city election should be held for the election of the first officers, 
to wit: A mayor, recorder, nine councilmen, city marshal, city 
attorney, assessor and treasurer. After the first election the officers 
mentioned were to be elected on the first Monday in May in each 
year, and in case of a vacancy a special election should be ordered 
by the council to fill the same. The mayor was clothed with com])lete 
executive power. The recorder performed the duties now imposed on 
the police .iudge, and the marshal those belonging now to the chief 
of police and the collector. The common council was empowered to 
create the offices of city collector, harbor-master, and such other 
offices as might become necessary. 

An amendatory act was passed by the same legislature. March 
13, 1850, providing that, on the first Monday of Ajnil following, a 
city election should be held to fill the offices created by the charter, 
making it fall on the same day as the first county election. The 
officers chosen at that election were to hold office till the first Monday 
of May, 1851. This amendment affected the first election only. 
A]iril 10, 1850, an act was passed providing for the a])pointment by 
the goveinor of a i)ort warden for the port of Sacramento. 

The second legislature passed a new cliarter for Sacramento 
City, and it became a law March 26,. 1851, by operation of time, and 
without the ai)])roval of the governor. Governor McDougal said con- 
cerning it: "The within bill is regarded as oppressive and extraor- 
dinary in many of its features, but not regarding it as infringing 
on any i)arti(ular ])rinciple of the constitution, and as it is the act 
of the rei)resentatives of Sacramento county, and presuming it to be 
the wish of the i)eo])le of Sacramento City, I permit it to become a 


law, by the operation of time, without ai)proving it, or returning- it 
to the body in which it originated. ' ' 

The act in question provided that the then existing government 
should continue in office until the election of the officers provided 
for l)y the new charter. The council was to divide the city into three 
wards, from each of which three councilmen were to be elected. 
Vacancies were to be filled by special election, unless one should 
occur within sixty days of a regular annual election, when it was to 
be filled by the council. The first election under the act was to take 
place on the first Monday of May following, for officers to hold office 
until the first Monday of April, 1852. All city elections after that 
were to be held on the first Monday of April in each year. The 
fixing of salaries was left to the council, but they were not permitted 
to fix the salary of any officer at over $3,000, excejit the mayor or 
recorder, the limit of wliose salary was fixed at $5,000. 

The legislature enacted a law April 26, 1853, i^roviding for a 
special tax of one-fourth of one per cent., for the support of the free 
common schools, to be expended under the direction of a board of 
trustees, consisting of one from each waixl, to be annually appointed 
by the council. 

March 31, 1855, a law was enacted striking the harbor-master 
from the list of the elective officers. It fixed the salaries as follows: 
Mayor, $2,000 ; recorder, $4,000 ; marshal, $3,000 ; deputy city marshal, 
$1,500; city attorney, $2,000; treasurer, $1,500; superintendent of the 
water works, $2,000; assessor, $1,500; recorder's clerk, $1,500; each 
lioliceman, $125 per month. In case of death, sickness or leave of 
absence of the recorder, the mayor was to attend to the duties of 
that office also. It was further provided that at the next sul)sequent 
election there should be chosen a superintendent of common schools 
and two school commissioners from each ward, who, with the super- 
intendent of schools, should constitute the school board. 

A}>ril 2, 1856, the legislature enacted an act to regulate the 
fire department. It ])rovided for the election of officers and the 
reuulation of the de]>artment in general. 


On Ai)ril 24, 1858, a law was passed which cousoliilated the 
government of the city and county and gave to the board of super- 
visors the authority which had heretofore rested in the county council. 
On the first Monday of May following, five supervisors were to be 
elected, to hold office until October 5, 1858. There was also to be 
elected at the same time a president of the board, to continue in 
office until the general election of 1859, the term of office thereafter 
to be two years. After the first Monday of October, 1858, the board 
was to consist of a ])resident and eight members, and the members 


were to be elected at the general election in that year, four to hold 
office for two years, and four for one year. After the first election 
the term was to be two years. At the general election in 1859, and 
every two years thereafter, there were to be elected the other officers, 
who were to laerform their duties for both city and county. The 
president of the board was to be ex-officio mayor of the city, and 
superintendent of the streets and the water-works. The then county 
officers were required to perform such city duties as might be allotted 
to them by the board, and the board was given jjower to create and 
fill b.y appointment the minor city offices. Some clianges were also 
made in the fire and school departments. 

The consolidation act was repealed April 23, 1863, and a new 
charter adopted. It provided that the government of the city should 
be vested in a board of trustees, to consist of three. The first trustee 
was to be ex-officio mayor; the second, street commissioner, and the 
third, superintendent of the water-works. There would also be an 
auditor, an assessor, a collector, a police judge, and such other officers 
as might be appointed by the board. The trustees' term of office 
was fixed at three years, and that of the other officers at two. It 
was further provided that on the tenth day after the passage of 
the act a city election should l)e held, at which the offices above desig- 
nated should be filled, and that annually thereafter, on the second 
Tuesday in March, city elections should be held. At the election in 
1864, a third trustee should be elected; in 1865, a second trustee, 
assessor, auditor, collector, and judge, and in 1866, a first trustee, 
each to hold for the time indicated. Any vacancy in the board was 
to be filled by a special election, and a vacancy in any other office was 
to be filled by appointment by board. Provision was also made for 
the school and fire departments. 

A slight change was made in the boundaries of the city, and a 
change in the time of electing officers other than members of the board 
during the life of this charter. In 1872 a bill was enacted creating 
a paid fire department, another to i^rovide a new svstem of water- 
works, and a third for the reorganization of the police force. 

As has been stated elsewhere, Hardin Biglow was elected the 
first mayor of Sacramento. He was badly wounded in the Squatter 
riot, and before he had recovered, was seized with cholera and 
died in San Francisco, November 27, 1850, at the age of forty-one. 
Born in Michigan, he was a man of great courage and fine executive 
ability. After his death the president of the council acted as mayor. 

A special election was held December 14, 1850, for the purpose 
of choosing a mayor. Although there was no excitement in the 
morning, later it became intense, in spite of a heavy rainfall. Bands 
of music paraded and both parties struggled hard to elect their 
candidates. Horace Smith (Whig) was elected by a vote of 933. 


Other votes were: J. R. Hardenbergh (Democrat), 865; James Mc- 
Clatchy, 183; Wesley Merritt, 25; and Joseph Grant, 19. The last 
three were independents. May 5, 1851, J. R. Hardenbergh (Democrat) 
secured 1264 votes for mayor, against 1224 for Joseph H. Nevett 
(Whig). A- great conflagration in San Francisco on the day of 
election destroyed $7,000,000 worth of property, and the reception 
of the news rather dampened the ardor of the voters. 

April 5, 1852, C. I. Hutchinson (Whig) defeated Hardenbergh, 
his vote being 1450 to 12.34. It was a particularly exciting election, 
mass meetings being held at different points in the city, and it was a 
campaign of mud-throwing. 

Hardenbergh turned the tables, however, April 4, 1853, defeating 
W. H. McGrew, his Whig opponent, by a vote of 2046 to 1382. Dr. 
Volney Spalding had been nominated by the Whig convention March 
28, but he declined, and on the 30th McGrew received the nomination. 

April 3, 1854, R. P. Johnson (Whig) was elected by a vote of 1798 
to 1693 over his opponent. Col. John P. Hall (Dem.). 

Ajaril 2, 1855, James L. English (American) defeated Hiram 
Arents (Anti-American) by a vote of 1523 to 504, R. P. Johnson 
(Whig) getting 78 votes. The latter had published a card of with- 
drawal a few days before the election. 

April 7, 1856, B. B. Redding (Dem.) was elected mayor over 
L. B. Harris (American) by a vote of 1743 to 1654. 

April 6, 1857, J. P. Dyer (Dem.) defeated Dr. R. B. Ellis 
(People's Independent) by a vote of 1955 to 788. George Rowland 
(Rep.) received 501 votes. Dyer lield office until under the consoli- 
dation act he was succeeded by tlie president of the board of 

May 3, 1858, Dr. H. L. Nichols (People's Independent) was 
elected president of the board of supervisors, defeating J. L. Craig 
(Dem.) by 3584 to 1877. 

September 7, 1859, William Shattuck (Lecompton Dem.) was 
elected president by a vote of 3233 to 2802, over B. B. Redding (Dem.), 
and 5 for George Rowland (Rep.). 

September 4, 1861, Shattuck was re-elected on the Douglas Dem- 
ocratic and Settlers' ticket over C. H. Grinnn (Republican) by a vote 
of 3633 to 3258, E. P. Figg (Breckenridge Dem.) getting 14 votes. 

After the repeal of the Consolidation Act mayors were elected 
under the charter adopted at that time, as follows: 

May 5, 1863, Charles H. Swift (Union) over William Shattuck 
(Dem.) by a vote of 1640 to 742. 

March 13, 1866, Charles H. Swift (Union) over William P. Knox 
(Dem.) 1321 to 915. 

March 9, 1869, Charles F. Swift (Rep.) by a vote of 1232 to 749 


over Archibald Henley (Ind.) and 71 for P. H. Russell, (Dem.). The 
latter withdrew on the morning of election in favor of Henley. 

March 12, 1872, Christopher Green (Rep.) over John Q. Brown 
(Dem.) by a vote of 1629 to 1245. 

March 9, 1875, Christopher Green over John Q. Brown ( Dem. and 
Ind.) by a vote of 1815 to 1271. 

March 12, 1878, Jabez Turner ( Workingnian) by a vote of 1203 
to 1063 for James I. Felter (Rep.), 1056 for Hugh M. La Rue (Dem.) 
and 726 for Ezra Pearson ( Workingman). 

March 8, 1881, John Q. Brown (Dem.) over Cliristopher Green 
(Rep.) by a vote of 1925 to 170*. 

March 11, 1884, John Q. Brown over Joseph Steffens (Rep.) by 
a vote of 1912 to 1875. Dr. A. B. Nixon (Prohiliition) received 344 

March 8, 1887, Eugene J. Gregory (Rep.) over John <,). Brown 
(Dem.) l)y a vote of 3202 to 1283, and 39 for F. H. L. Welier (Pro- 

March 17, 1890, W. D. Comstock (Dem.) over P^ugene J. Gregory, 
(Rep.) by a vote of 2415 to 2374. March 14, 1893, B. U. Steinman 
(Rep.) over John Weil (Citizens and Dem.) by a vote of 2505 to 
2328, and 279 for C. M. Harrison (Rep., Dem. and People's). 

The new charter went into effect in 1893 and on the 7th of Novem- 
ber of that year B. U. Steinman (Reorganized Dem.) defeated W. F. 
Knox (Rep!, Dem. and Citizens') by a vote of 3203 to 2052, with 
Dittmar (People's) 250. 

November 5, 1895, the vote was: C. H. Hubltard (Citizens') 2526; 
J. W. Wi)son (Reji.) 2280; B. U. Steinman, (Ind.) 1487; and W. D. 
Lawton (Dem.) 209. 

November 2, 1897, William Land (Rep.) 3190; C. H. Hubbard 
(Citizens') 2106; R. D. Stephens, (Ind.) 801; C. E. Leonard, (Dem.) 

November 7, 1899, George II. Clark (Rep.), 4012; R. D. Stephens, 
(Dem.) 219.3. 

November 5, 1901, George H. Clark (Ind.) 3018; William Land 
(Rep.) 1755; J. H. Devine, (Dem.) 879; Llewellyn Tozer (Ind.) 315; 
Mr. Alderman (Soc.) 181. 

November 3, 1903, W. J. Hassett (Dem.) 3076; Albert Elkus 
(Rep.) 2522; W. J. McDowell (Soc.) 263; D. J. Simmons (Ind.) 14. 

November 7, 1905. M. R. Beard (Dem.) 24.35; Albert Elkus 
(Re]).) 2200; Henry E. Wright, (Soc.) 781; E. I. Woodman (Ind.) 

November 5, 1907, Clinton L. White (Rep.) 2835; M. R. Beard 
(Dem.) 2702. 

November 2, 1909, M. R. Beard (Dem.) 3522; John E. Sullivan 
(Rep.) 2965; H. E. Wright (Soc.) 163. 


November 7, 1911, M. R. Beard (Dem.) :!9(i(i; Allen W. Stuart 
(Soc.) 2649; Frank P.. Sutliff (Rep.) 2367. 

In 1911 the new charter was adopted for a commission for city 
government with five commissioners, as follows: M. J. Burke, five 
years; J. A. Filcher, four years; C. A. Bliss, three years; Dr. E. M. 
Wilder, two years; and Mrs. LueUa B. Johnston, one year. 



Many of the immigrants arriving in 1849 were imbued with the 
idea that Sutter possessed no valid title to the land where the city 
stands, as his title was founded on the grant by Governor Alvarado, 
and the United States had subsequently conquered and taken posses- 
sion of the state. They considered the ground public land and subject 
to settlement. Moreover, tliey claimed the boimdaries of Sutter's 
grant, as defined, did not cover the site of the city, but ended some 
distance above it. Also that it could not embrace the site of the city, 
as by its stipulations it should not be subject to annual inundations, 
and that by improving Hock Farm he had overstei)]>ed the boundaries 
of his possession under the grant either to the north or the south; 
his engineer's lines, when correctly drawn, placed his southern liouud- 
ary considerably above the city. These claims were not accorded 
nnich attention by those who had jturchased from Sutter. 

But when the immigi'ants across the plains arrived a few months 
later, things took on a different a])pearance. Weary with the long 
journey, and many of them without money or homes, the idea that they 
could own the land by simply taking possession of it was an alluring- 
one and the ranks of the "Sciuatters", as they were called, increased 
rapidly. Lots were staked off in various parts of the city and those 
taking ])ossession boldly declared the squatter title was sujierior to 
that from Sutter. 

An association was formed, and the first meeting was called by 
John H. Keyser, and held at the house of a man named Kelley. on 
Front street, above J. A number of meetings were held there ])rior 
to the flood of the ensuing winter. At first the members of the 
association were mostly ignorant and uneducated men, but later men 
of tact and talent succeeded them and their addresses began to be 
viewed with anxiety by those holding Sutter titles. Their speeches 
were incendiary and in May a talented engineer. Col. John Plumbe, 
joined them and became their surveyor and recorder. After the floods 
of January and March, their organization was made more thorough 
and a feeling of hostility grew up between them and the holders of 
Sutter titles. The members of the association began to demonstrate 


their views by taking possession of lots in various parts of the city. 
Contests ensued and removals were made from time to time. 

May 10, 1850, John P. Rodgers and Dewitt J. Burnett began 
action in the Recorders Court against James J. Madden, B. F. Wash- 
ington presiding. The lot settled upon and claimed by Madden was 
on the Southeast corner of Second and N streets. The defendant 
claimed that the land was owned by the United States, and therefore 
subject to a title by settlement and improvement. The case was 
argued and the recorder decided against defendant, finiug him $300 
and costs, and ordering restitution. 

The defendant appealed to the county court, but Judge Willis 
sustained the lower court. The defendant asked to appeal to the 
supreme court, but there being no law then to sustain the appeal, the 
motion was denied. Both parties grew excited during the trial, and 
the Squatters as a body declared against the restitution of the 
property pursuant to the judgment of the courts. After the decision 
the Squatters issued a poster, claiming that the laws passed by the 
Legislature were not recognized by congress and not binding and 
that the settlers would resist and disregard all decisions of the courts 
in land cases and also all summonses or execution by the sheriff or 
other officers, and resolved to appeal to arms on the first show of 
violence to their persons or ]iroperty by the sheriff. The card caused 
great excitement and inany who had hitherto passively approved of 
the Squatters enlisted against them. On August 11, the Squatters 
held, a meeting on the levee and the proceedings were reported in the 
Transcript the next morning. Dr. Robinson was the chairman 
and the meeting was much excited, both sides of the controversy be- 
ing heatedly debated. J. H. McKune, who afterward became promi- 
nent in county affairs, James McClatchy, afterward editor and pro- 
prietor of the Bee, and others spoke in defense of the Squatters' 
action, while Samuel Braunan and Col. E. J. C. Kewen defended the 
Sutter titles. Captain Sutter claimed the land within the city limits 
by virtue of his grant from the Mexican Grovernment, and through 
the guarantee of the treaty between the United States and Mexico. 
His claim was sustained by the settlement at Sutter's Fort, by im- 
provements made, by occasional occupation and use made of the site 
of the ctiy and by a map of the survey made for him by an engineer 
whom he supposed to be a competent one, locating him on the land. 

As the meeting progressed, Dr. Robinson in a speech defending 
the Squatters' resolutions, said that, as for him, he meant at all 
hazards to defend the pro]ierty he had settled upon. 

Madden retained the possession of the ]n-operty in litigation for 
some time, by the defense of the members of the association, and the 
house itself became a sort of garrison, containing a A'ariety of weapons. 
In his endeavors to execute the writ of restitution, the sheriff dis- 


covered a number of persons, whom be knew, among the party who 
were resisting his authority. He reported the names of James Mc 
Clatchy, Charles Robinson and others to the court and warrants for 
their arrest were issued by Justice Sackett. McClatchy delivered 
himself up and was confined in jail during the subsequent conflicts. 
Madden was finally ousted from the house, but recovered possession 
on August 14. 

The Times of August 15th gives an account of the fatal riot on 
the preceding day as follows: 

"At two o'clocli a body of Scpiatters numbering about forty 
proceeded to the foot of I street, on the levee, and undertook to re- 
gain possession of a piece of ground which had lately been in the 
occupation of one of their party. They were fully armed and a 
general understanding prevailed that their object included the liber- 
ation of the two men committed the day before to the prison ship, 
upon the charge of being concerned in a riotous assemblage on the 
morning of the 12th, for the purpose of forcibly resisting the process 
of law. After the displacement of some of the hunber on the ground 
the i)arty of Squatters were deterred from proceeding further in their 
intent. The mayor had meantime requested all good citizens to aid in 
suppressing the threatened riot, and very large numbers had gathered 
about the spot — several citizens also, armed, proceeded to the prison 
ship, but no demonstration was made in that direction. 

"The Squatters retreated in martial order, and passed up I street 
to Third, thence to J and up to Fourth, followed by a crowd of pei'- 
sons. Tliey were here met by the mayor, who ordered them to de- 
liver up their arms and disperse. This they refused to do, and 
several shots were fired at him, four of which took effect. He fell 
from his horse, and was carried to his residence dangerously, if not 
mortally, wounded. J. W. Woodland, who, unarmed, stood near the 
mayor at the time, received a shot in the groin, which he survived 
but a few minutes. A man named Jesse Morgan, said to be from 
Millerville, Ohio, lately arrived, and who was seen to aim at the 
mayor, next fell dead, from the effects of a ball which passed through 
his neck. James Har]ier was very severely, but not dangerously, 
wounded, in supporting the sheriff. It is difficult to give an exact 
detail of the terrible incidents which followed in such rapid succession. 
It appeared from an examination before the coroner, that the party 
of Squatters drew up in regular order, on arriving at the corner of 
Fourth street, and that the sheriff was several times fired on before 
he displayed any weapons. Testimony was also given as to the person 
who was seen to fire upon Mr. Woodland. The mounted leader of 
the Squatters, an Irishman by the name of Maloney, had his horse 
shot imder him; he endeavored to escape, but was pursued a short 
distance up the alley and shot through the head, falling dead. Dr. 


Robin.sou, one of the armed party imder his t'Oiumand, was wounded 
in the lower part of the body. Mr. Hale, of the firm of Crowell Hale 
& Co., was slightly wounded in the leg. A young boy, son of Mr. 
Rogers, was also wounded. We have heard of several others, but 
aie not assured of the correctness of the reports. Upon the oath of 
several gentlemen, that they saw Dr. Robinson deliberately aim at 
the mayor, he was arrested and placed in confinement. An Irishman 
named Caulfield, accused of a siniihr-' act with regard to both the 
mayor and Mr. Woodland, was arrested late in the afternoon. 

"After these terrible scenes, which occupied less time than we 
have emi)loyed to describe them, had jiassed, a meeting of the 
cDuncil was held, the ])roceedings of which appear in another column. 
The citizens gathered at the corner of Second and J streets and 
other jilaces throughout the city, and proceeded to organize parties 
to prevent further outrage. A body of mounted men under command 
of the sheriff, hearing the rei)ort that the Squatters were reinforcing 
at the Fort, i)roceeded thither. The lawless mob were nowhere to be 
found; scouts were dispatched in all directions, but no trace of them 
could be discovered. Meanwhile several other parties had formed in 
rank and proceeded to different parts of the city, establishing 
rendezvoux at different points. Brigadier-General Winn issued a 
l)roc]amation declaring the city under martial law, and ordering all 
law abiding citizens to form themselves into volunteer companies and 
report their organization to headquarters as soon as possible. At 
evening (|uiet was fully restored throughout the city. Lieutenant 
(iovernor ]\IcDougal, who left on the Senator, and exi)ects to meet 
the (Jold Hunter, will bring up tliis morning a detachment of troops 
from Benieia. An. extraordinary i)olice force of five-hundred was 
sumr.ioned for duty during the night." 

The minutes of the council show that B. F. Washington was 
a])))ointed marshal and Capt. J. Sherwood assistant, to whom all 
])ersons desiring' to make arrests were requested to aii])ly for aid 
and authority. 

A letter in Dr. Roljinson's handwriting was found in his tent 
after the riot, detailing wliat he had done and the ])lans of the 
Squatters for resisting the law. 

The next day brought other developments tliat saddened the 
conmmnity and were detailed in the Times of the 16th. Sheriff Jose]ih 
Mc Kinney was shot down it was said by a man named Allen, who kejit 
a hotel at Brighton. Mc Kinney had gone out with a ])arty of alwut 
twenty to arrest some parties said to have been concerned in the riots. 
Mr. McDowell, of Mormon Island, who was well known at the house, 
was sent to make observations and report, but the Sheriff did not 
wait for him to return. He rode up to the door and demanded that 
Alien and the others should surrender. Imt thev refused and several 



shots were fired immediately, mortally wounding McKinney. Several 
of the sheriff's party entered the house, where about a dozen 
Squatters were and killed three of them. Allen, though wounded, 
escaped, and a number of prisoners were taken to the city. 

When Governor Burnett heard of the trouble, he telegraphed to 
Brig.-Gen. A. M. Winn to proceed to Sacramento with his whole 
force and aid the authorities to maintain order. On the 17th two 
military companies, composing the Second Brigade, arrived on the 
Senator and General Winn offered their services to the mayor and 
council, but was informed that the citizens ' orgauization under Wash- 
ington was thought to be able to sustain the law. The reports that 
the Squatters had enlisted the aid of the miners in the hills, who were 
coming to Sacramento to aid them, were found to be false, and quiet 
was soon restored. The funerals of Captain Woodland and Sheriff 
McKinney were attended by almost the whole city and such was the 
spirit shown, by the citizens that Squatterism never reared its head 
again, although disputes over land titles continued for many years, 
making costly and annoying litigation for a long time. 

As Mayor Biglow was severely, and possibly fatally, wounded 
Demas Strong became the acting mayor for the remainder of his 
term. B. F. Washington was appointed marshal. The death of 
Woodland, who was city assessor, was due to his kindness of heart 
He was walking up the street with a friend and when near the corner 
of Fourth and J, the Squatters ranged themselves diagonally across 
Fourth and J streets, with their guns presented toward the mayor 
and his party, who were approaching. Woodland saw their threaten- 
ing attitude and exclaimed to his friend, "Oh! it is too bad for thes 
men to take sucli a stand, for they will certainly be shot down. I will 
go u]i and advise them." lie went forward a few steps to attempt to 
mediate, when a liall struck him and killed him almost instantly. 

Ben McCulloch succeeded McKinney as sheriff and afterwards 
became quite a noted man in the history of the nation. He was born 
in Tennessee in 1814 and always evinced an inclination for a roving 
and adventurous life. He went with Davy Crockett to Texas, to take 
part in the revolution that freed that state from Mexican rule. In 
18.36 he joined the Texan army under Gen. Sam Houston and was 
assigned to the artillery service. He served with credit at the battle 
of San Jacinto and was employed afterwards on the frontier, in sur- 
veying and locating lands in Texas. On the breaking out of the 
Mexican war he raised a company of Texan Rangers that became 
famous during that struggle. It was accepted by General Taylor and 
took a prominent part in the battles of Monterey and Buena Vista 
and assisted in the capture of the city of Mexico. After the war was 
over President Pierce appointed McCulloch United States marshal 
of Texas and the present efficient force of Rangers in that state is 


the outcome of his orgauization. The Rangers of to-day are picked 
men, noted for their iron nerve, and are the terror of evil doers, 
penetrating where tlie other officers of the hiw cannot or dare not go 
to capture criminals. 

In 1857 McCuUoch was appointed, with ex-Governor Powell, 
a commissioner to Utah. It was believed that at the time of the 
inauguration of President Lincoln he was in Washington for the 
puri)ose of taking possession of the city at the head of a band of 
secessionists. If so, the plan was abandoned, on account of the 
l>recautions taken by General Scott. Later on, he was commissioned 
l)rigadier-general in the Confederate army and assigned to the 
command of the forces in Arkansas. He issued a proclamation in 
June, 1861, to the people of that state, calling on them to assemble at 
Payetteville to defend the state from invasion. He was in command 
at the battle of Wilson's Creek, where General Lyon was killed, and 
it is stated that he surrendered the command to General Sterling 
Price, on account of some misunderstanding with him. He led a 
corps of troops from Louisiana and Texas at the battle of Pea Ridge, 
and fell on the second day of the engagement, March 7, 1862. 

Henry A. Caulfield, who was arrested and charged with firing on 
the mayor and Woodland during the riot, led a stormy career in this city 
afterward. He was a man of violent temper and often became involved 
in trouble. Born in Ireland, he came to the United States and in 1844 
was a member of the Emmet Guards at Albany, N. Y. During the anti- 
rent troubles in that state, his company was ordered to Columbia 
county to assist the authorities in repressing the disorder, the anti- 
renters having killed an under-sheriff, tarred and feathered other offi- 
cers and committed other outrages. He came to Sacramento in 1849 
worked as a carpenter and joiner and became active in Democratic poli- 
tics. He was arrested by John Cleal between here and Brighton as he 
was fleeing after the riot, and brought to this city stra])ped to a horse's 
back and confined on board the prison brig. With a number of others 
he was indicted by the next grand jury on a charge of conspiracy and 
murder. They were never punished, as Governor McDougal had de- 
clared he would ])ardon them if they were convicted, and a nolle prose- 
qui was subsequently entered in their case. He was afterwards active 
in the squatter troubles that followed. He settled on a farm on the 
mound north of the American river about 1851 and lived there till the 
flood of 1852, when he sold the place to Patrick Bannon, and removed 
to a ranch south of the R street levee, out of which arose most of the 
sulisequent troubles. 

George Wilson was a justice of the peace and associate justice of 
the court of sessions and had made some remark that gave offense to 
one of the attorneys. June 19, 1851, the attorney came to the court 
room and demanded a retraction. Wilson refused and when the attor- 


ney struck at him drew a sword cane and stabbed him. Caulfiekl was 
entering the room and fired se%'eral shots at Wilson, Init did not hit 
him. Wilson seized Caulfield round the neck and was about to send a 
Imllet through his head when R. P. J acobs, a policeman, rushed in and 
saved Caulfield 's life. At another time Caulfield was shot several 
times by Thomas 0. Shelby over land matters and several of the bul- 
lets he carried to his grave. On that occasion he was unarmed and 
the assault was unprovoked. As it was thought he would die, a priest 
called to see him. ' ' I am told you have been a very bad man, ' ' said he. 
"It is a dom lie and you are no doctor. Get out of here," was the 

At another time, in 185(i, he had a quarrel with a man named Mil- 
ler about politics and some mules. It was at Miller's house and he at- 
tempted to strike him with a flat iron, but Miller broke a cane over his 
head and was about to throw him out of the window. Miller's wife 
inter^'eued and Miller let go and Caulfield fell to the ground. Miller 
sent word to the coroner that he had killed Caulfield, but when the 
dead wagon arrived the supposed corpse had walked to the county hos- 
]3ital. The same year he was stabbed by a man named Frank Nolan 
on Front street, and wounded so severely that for several days he 
breathed through the knife wounds in his back. August 15, 1878, he 
had a dispute with William G. English, over a lot on R street, and shot 
English, who died a couple of days later. For this murder he was sent 
to the state's prison for six years. Caulfield was short and heavy set, 
and had lost an eye in one of his encounters, giving him a truculent 
appearance; he was much feared by many citizens on account of the 
uglv scrapes in which he engaged, nearly killing some or being almost 
killed himself. July 2, 1888, while walking on the R street track near 
Fourth street, he was struck by the evening train from Folsom, evi- 
dently not having heard the whistle, and was killed instantly. 

Dr. Robinson, as will be seen elsewhere, became shortly afterwards 
a member of the legislature and subsequently governor of Kansas. 


The first mail brought to Sacramento came on the schooner John 
Dunlap, owned jointly by Simmons, Hutchins & Co., and E. S. Marsh, 
which left San Francisco on her first trip to Sacramento, May 18, 1849, 
and brought the first mail on her second trip, June 27. having ))een 
forty-eight hovirs on the way. 

The first directory of Sacramento City was published in 1851, by 
J. Horace Culver, and a copy of it is in the state lilirary. It was print- 
ed by the Transcript press, and has ninety-six ]iages, with a large 
quantity of very interesting information. The names of citizens occu- 
pied less than half the space. 


The first ship ever used in the state of California as a prison brig 
was the bark Strafford. It was brought here from New York in 1849, 
and was moored in the Sacramento river opposite the foot of I street. 
It cost $50,000, but while lying at the foot of street it was sold at 
auction by J. B. Starr to C. C. Hayden for $3,750. Hayden sold three- 
quarters of his interest to Charles Morrill, Captain Isaac Derby and 
a Mr. Whitney, and in March, 1850, they rented the vessel to the 
county for a prison brig. Morrill bought out the interests of the oth- 
ers in May, intending to trade between San Francisco and Panama, 
and loaded it at the levee so poorly that it nearly capsized when it 
reached San Francisco bay. The cargo was readjusted and she went 
to sea, but never came back. Soon afterwards the county purchased 
the La Grange, of Salem, Mass., and it was moored opposite H street, 
but when the big freshet of 1861-62 came down, it strained so heavily 
at its moorings that the seams opened and the water came in so fast 
that the prisoners were barely saved and conveyed to the city jail, and 
the bark filled and sank. Since then Sacramento county has had its 
jail on land. 

The first house in Sutterville was erected by Sutter, the second by 
one Hadel, and the third by George Zins, being a brick building, the 
first of the kind erected in California. Zins afterwards manufactured 
the bricks in Sacramento from which the first brick buildings in this 
city were erected. He stamped each brick with his initials. The 
Crocker Art Gallery Museum and the Museum of the Pioneer Asso- 
ciation each contain one of them. 

The first store opened in Sacramento was at Sutter's Fort, by 
C. C. Smith & Co. (Sam Brannan being the Co.), and the first ex- 
changes of American goods for California gold were made over its 
counters, it having been started about two months before the opening 
of the mines. 

The first projected rival of Sacramento was Sutterville, as else- 
where related. The second was known as Hoboken, north of the pres- 
ent town of Brighton, on the south bank of the American. During the 
flood of 1853, all communication with the mining counties was cut off 
and some enterprising merchants moved their goods out there on the 
high ground and laid out a town with wide streets and a steamboat 
landing, the American being at that time navigable. In ten days a 
town sprang up, with three steamers making daily trips to Sacramento, 
and an express office. Many firms removed there and trade flourished, 
the city newspapers devoting a page to Hoboken news. As the flood 
subsided, however, so did Hoboken, and its site is now occupied by a 
farm. The city of Boston was laid out on paper, at the junction of the 
Sacramento and American rivers, but never materialized. 

The first census taken in the state, in 1851, was under the super- 
intendence of J. Neelv Johnson, afterwards governor of the state. 


The census credited Sacramento with 11,000, the state census being 
120,000. The Federal census of 1860 credited tlie cit}^ with 12,800; of 
1870, with 16,283 ; of 1880, with 21,420 ; of 1890, with 26,388 ; of 1900, 
with 29,282; of 1910, with 44,696. Since that time a phenomenal in- 
crease has been made, through the rapid development of the Sacra- 
mento valley, and the annexation of Oak Park and other eastern sub- 
urbs, and predictions are made that by the next cen.sus the population 
will exceed 100,000. 

The first vessel ever used to carry press aud type into interior 
California was the Dice me Nana (says my mamma), which brought 
an old press and type to Sacramento in order to start the Placer 
Times, in 1849, which was the first paper published in Sacramento. 

The first public reception and banquet ever given in Sacramento 
was in 1849, to Gen. P. F. Smith, military commander on the coast, 
Commodore Jones, in command of the navy, Hon. T. Butler King, 
who had been sent out by the government to reconnoiter the Sacra- 
mento valley and report on it at AVashington, and W. M. Siddons, a 
pioneer citizen of Sacramento, who accompanied them. They were 
members of an expedition that accompanied Mr. King on his trip. 
Lieutenant Stoneman, aftei'wards governor of this state, was with the 
expedition but was left in charge of the camp, about five miles from 
the city. They were met bv General Sutter, Sam Brannan, B. F. Gil- 
lespie,' J. H. Hyer, P. B. Cornwall, Col. J. B. Starr, W. R. Grimshaw, 
and a large number of other prominent men, and were given a ban- 
quet by the citizens. General Sutter also received them at the fort 
and entertained them handsomely. 

The first grand ball was given on July 4, 1849, in honor of the 
day, at the City Hotel. The young men were sent out to scour the 
country and invite all the members of the gentler sex they could find 
to attend. From among the immigrant parties and others, they mus- 
tered eighteen females, more or less handsome. Tickets of admission 
were only thirty-two dollars and champagne flowed freely at a sump- 
tuous supper. 

The first railroad built was the Sacramento Valley railroad, from 
this city to Folsom, in 1855-56. 

The first man hung in Sacramento was a gambler, Frederick J. 
Roe, who shot a man named Myers, who tried to stop a fight between 
Roe and another man. A jury was selected by the people, who found 
Roe guilty and a mob broke open the jail, took him out and hung him. 

The first steamboat explosion was that of the steamer Fawn, 
August 18, 1850. 

The first agricultural association in the state met in this city in 
the American theatre, October 8, 1852, and a fair was held for a week 
or two at the same time. 

The first appearance of cholera in Sacramento was on the 20th 


of October, 1850, wlien an immisrant l)y steamer was found dying on 
the levee. 

The first case of smallpox in this city was in a family named 
Zumwalt, during the flood of 1850, Daniel Zumwalt, now a resident of 
Anderson, Shasta County, being the first to suffer an attack of the 

The first steamboat that ever came u]) the river to Sacramento 
was the Little Sitka, in the latter part of November, 1847. She was 
packed on board a Russian bark from Sitka and was of forty tons 
burden. She was put together at Y^erba Buena island, near San Fran- 
cisco, and was so "cranky" that the weight of a person on her guards 
would throw one of her wheels out of service. 

The first military organization in Sacramento was the Sutter 
Rifle Corps, June 27," 1852. 

Ilensley & Reading erected the first frame house in Sacramento, 
to be used bj^ them as a store. It stood at the corner of Front and I 
streets, and was built before McDougal removed to Sutterville. 

The first brick house built in Sacramento, the Pioneer Hotel, was 
kept for years by Louis Binninger. 

The first mail for Salt Lake left Sacramento on May 1, 1850. 

The first fire department was organized in Sacramento February 
5, 1850, and was known as Mutual Hook and Ladder Company No. 1. 

The first street cars in Sacramento were run about 1860, and 
were used chiefly for hauling sand from the river. The rails were of 
wood, and the cars ran on II street from Front to Thirteenth. They 
sometimes carried passengers. 

The first regular street cars in this city were started in August, 
1870, the cars, only two in number, being built by the Kimball Manu- 
facturing Company of San Francisco. The first electric car, the 
motive power being a storage battery, was run in 1888, but the power 
applied in that manner proving too expensive, it was soon temp- 
porarily suspended and a trolley system, as at present, was later 

The first Thanksgiving day ever observed in California was on 
November 30, 1850. On that day J. A. Benton, pastor of the Congre- 
gational Church (known as the First Church of Christ), preached 
the sermon on "California as she was, as she is, and as she is to be." 

At that time agriculture could hardly be said to be even an ex- 
periment, but Mr. Benton uttered this remarkable prophesy: "A 
million of jieople cannot fail to thrive ])y cultivating this virgin soil, 
and in fifty years they will be here to make the demonstration; farm 
houses will dot thickly every valley; niarshes will be redeemed from 
overflow and wastes will bloom in beauty and yield harvests of joy. 
The state will not fall behind the chiefest in arts and manufacturing 
and in commerce. With hundreds of miles of navigable bays and 


rivers, with seven hundred miles of sea coast, with earth's l>roadest 
ocean at her feet, gemmed with a thousand sea isles, and having the 
shore of a continent, California is to be the Queen of the Seas, and 
within tlie Golden Gates are to be the docks and depots of a steam 
and electro-magnetic marine, of which all the steam marine that now 
exists is but the minutest embryo. The iron horse that has drunk 
the waters of the Mississippi will fly over mountain and plain and 
river, breathe defiance to yonder beetling cliffs and towering jieaks 
of snow, as he dashes forward through the tunneled depths l)eneath, 
and comes through our streets to slake his thirst at the Sacramento." 

The first school in Sacramento county outside of the city was kept 
by a Mr. O'Brien, at the house of Martin Murphy, in San Joaciuin 

The first ball held in Sacramento county by the white settlers was 
at Moi'mon island, in 1849. 

The first courthouse erected in Sacramento, at Seventh and I 
streets, was begun in June, 185U, and completed December 24, 1851. 
The sessions of the legislature of 1852 and 1854 were held in it. It 
was destroyed in the great fire of July 13, 1854, which consumed a 
large part of the business portion of the city. Immediately after the 
fire, a contract was entered into for the erection of the one on the 
same site which was recently demolished to make room for the new 
one at present being erected. The cost in toto was $240,000, al- 
though the original contract was for $100,000. The cornerstone was 
laid September 27, 1854, with Masonic ceremonies, and the building, 
which was of lirick, was completed January 1, 1855, and was used by 
the state as a capitol from 1855 until the present capitol was built. 
It was eighty by one hundred and twenty feet, and sixty feet high, 
and the style of architecture was Ionic. The portico was sui)])orted 
by ten pillars, three feet six inches in diameter and thirty-three feet 
six inches in height. In April, 1870, it was raised to the high gi-ade, 
four hundred jack screws being used for that purpose. 

Gilbert T. Witham, who lives in Washington, Yolo county, and 
who conducted the Coleman house on J street in this city in the early 
days, ran the first hack in Sacramento. It was bought in San Fran- 
cisco for $3000 cash, and his stand was at the Orleans hotel, on Sec- 
ond street. In 1855. he entered the employ of Doughty & Co.. and 
for that firm ran the first steam trading and produce boat on the 
river. He was the first conductor on the first train out of Sacra- 
mento to Chico, Tehama and Red Bluff. Charles Crocker was on the 
train, and bossed the job. Mr. Witham saw Governor Stanford turn 
the first shovelful of dirt on J street for the building of the Central 
Pacific railroad. 

The first criminal trial in Sacramento occurred in Sutter's Fort 
and was a remarkable one. In January, 1849, Charles E. Pickett, 


afterwards known as "Pliilosopher Pickett," was a merchant in Sut- 
ter's Fort, occupying a portion of the northeast bastion, a man named 
Alderman, from Oregon, occupying the rest of it. During a dispute 
about the premises Alderman advanced on Pickett with an ax up- 
lifted. The latter was armed with a shotgun, and warned Alderman 
not to come farther, Pickett having retreated to the wall. As Alder- 
man continued to advance, Pickett fired and killed him. The cir- 
cumstances being well known, and the killing clearly in self-defense, 
no attention would have been paid to it, had not Sam Brannan, who 
was also a merchant at the fort, stirred up an excitement. He ap- 
plied to Frank Bates, who held the office of first alcalde, and then to 
John S. Fowler, second alcalde, for a warrant for Pickett's arrest, 
and both refused and resigned. The sheriff also resigned. There- 
upon Brannan called a meeting of the residents of the fort for the ap- 
pointment of an alcalde. Everyone declined, until it came to Bran- 
nan, who accepted. The nomination of a prosecuting attorney next 
went the rounds till it came to Brannan, who accepted it also. A. M. 
Tanner was appointed sheriff and notified Pickett to consider liim- 
self under arrest. The court convened, Captain Sutter, John Sinclair, 
Capt. W. H. Warner, James H. Toppens and Thomas Murray being 
among the members of the jury. 

Pickett appeared, accompanied by his attorney, one Payne, also 
from Oregon. The sheriff was ordered to bring in drinks for the 
court, jury, defendant and counsel. Cigars were proposed, in addi- 
tion, but an objection was made and the point argued. The court 
decided that "Inasmuch as the ladies of California made a practice 
of smoki7ig, it could not be out of place anywhere." Every time the 
defendant would ask a witness a question, his counsel would tell him 
to be silent, and these altercations became frequent, as the orders on 
the sheriff for refreshment became numerous. Midnight came, and 
Sutter and Sinclair were asleep, leaning against the wall. One of 
the witnesses was testifying that the character of Alderman was bad, 
he having killed two men in Oregon, and Captain Sutter awoke, lis 
tened a few minutes and said : ' ' Gentlemen, the man is dead, he has 
atoned for his faults, and I will not sit here and hear his character 
traduced." He then started to leave the court, but was persuaded 
to sta\-. When the evidence was closed, Brannan started to sum up 
for the prosecution. "Hold on, Brannan," said Pickett, "you are the 
judge." "I know I am judge," retorted Brannan, "but I am prose- 
cuting too." "All right, go ahead then," said Pickett. AVhen he 
finished, Pickett's attorney was too far gone to talk, and Pickett 
summed uji for himself. Toward morning the jury announced that 
they could not agree, and were discharged. Brannan told the sheriff 
that he lemanded the i)risoner to his custody. "What am I to do 
with him," asked the shei'iff? "Put him in close confinement," said 


Brannan. "I have uo place to put him in," said the sherifif. "Then 
put him in irons," was the reply. "There ain't any irons about the 
place," returned the officer. After deliberation it was agreed to admit 
Pickett to bail, which was readily furnished. At a subsequent trial, 
with a sober jury, Pickett was acquitted. 



In July, 1839, when Captain Sutter told Governor Alvarado that 
he desired to occupy and colonize the section where he afterward 
erected his fort, the governor warmly approved his plan and gave 
him authority to explore and occupy any teri'itory he found suitable 
and told him to return in a year and have his citizenship acknowl- 
edged, when he should receive a grant of such lands as he might de- 
sire. This was done, and he received a grant of eleven leagTies. At 
that time the settlement of Am.ericans in the country was encour- 
aged by the local government. 

But by 1844 the situation had changed. The events in Texas had 
aroused the Mexican people and it was well understood in the United 
States that Polk's election to the presidency in 1844 meant the an- 
nexation of Mexican territory, and that hostilities might reasonably 
be expected soon. At about the same time feelings of animosity be- 
gan to spring up in California between the Americans and the Mex- 
ican population and the former began to apprehend that the latter 
Avould attempt to drive them from the country. True, no declara- 
tion of war had yet been' made, but it was evident that both the 
United States and the Mexican government were preparing for a hos- 
tile meeting. Colonel Fremont had reached California, ostensibly 
on an exploring expedition, he having led several exploring expe- 
ditions in the western part of the continent. The existing govern- 
ment in the southern part of California had shown some opposition 
to his progress, and he had turned northward toward Oregon. 

In April, 1846, Lieutenant Gillespie of the United States army 
arrived in California, and started from Monterey in pursuit of Fre- 
mont, and overtook him in Oregon, on May 9th. Gillespie's despatch 
to Fremont has never been made public, but it is generally supposed 
that it contained orders for Fremont to retrace his steps and hold 
himself ready to assist in the conquest of California on the first in- 
timation that war was to be declared. He returned and encamped 
at or near the ]ilace where Sacramento now stands. The population 
of California was estimated at that time to be about ten thousand, 
exclusive of Indians. Of this number probably less than two thou- 
sand were foreigners. General Castro, was at that time military 
commandant of California, and he had several times issued jirocla- 


mations ordering all foreigners to leave the country. The American 
settlers therefore determined that the time had arrived when they 
must ]n-otect themselves, and that some decisive movement should 
be made by them. This movement was precipitated by an order from 
Castro to Lieut. Francisco de Arce to proceed with fourteen men as 
a guard to the mission of San Rafael, where there were some horses 
belonging to the Mexican government, and remove them to the mis- 
sion at Santa Clara. As New Helvetia (now the city of Sacramento) 
was the first point at which the horses could swim the river, de Arce 
was under the necessity of coming to that point. An Indian ob- 
served de Arce's party in its movement, and reported that he had seen 
two or three hundred men mounted and armed, coming up the Sac- 
ramento river. The settlers believed that Castro was leading a large 
party to attack Fremont. The news spread among the Americans 
by means of couriers, and they gathered for the defense at Fre- 
mont's camp, near the confluence of the Feather river with the Sac- 
ramento. There they met William Knight, who told them that he 
had seen the party of Californians in charge of the horses, and 
that de Arce had told that Castro had sent for the horses for the 
purpose of mounting a battalion of two hundred men to march 
against the Americans settled in the Sacramento valley and to expel 
them from the country. The settlers held a consultation and re- 
solved that a party should pursue de Arce, and capture the horses 
and thus defeat Castro's plans. Twelve men volunteered for the 
duty, and chose Ezekiel Merritt, the oldest of the party, as their 
captain. At daylight, June 10, 1846, they surprised the C'alifornians, 
and captured the horses without resistance. De Arce and liis men 
were allowed to go, each one being allowed one horse. 

This was the first overt act committed by the foreig-ners and 
made it necessary that all in the country should take one side or 
the other in the revolution thus i)recipitated. It was followed on 
the morning of June 14. by the taking of the town and Mission of 
Sonoma. The American party, increased to thirty-three, was led 
by Ezekiel Merritt and was known afterward as the famous Bear 
Flag party. It was composed mostly of hunters and men who could 
leave their homes on short notice. They were roughly dressed and 
presented a formidable appearance. They seized the town and mis- 
sion without bloodshed and captured Gen. M. G. Vallejo, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Prudon, Don Salvador Vallejo and other prominent per- 
sons and conveyed them to Sutter's Fort, where they were kept 
prisoners for about two months. 

As nearly as can be ascertained, the names of the members of 
the Bear Flag party from Sacramento valley were : Ezekiel Merritt, 
Robert Semple, Henry L. Ford, Samuel Gibson, Granville P. Swift, 
William Dickev, Henrv Booker, John Potter, William B. Ide, Will- 


iam Fallon, William M. Seott, Henry Beason, William Anderson, 
James A. Jones, W. Barti (or "Old Red") and Sami;el Neal. The 
rest of the party was from Napa valley. 

A garrison of eighteen men, under command of William Ide, 
was left at Sonoma and in a few days it was increased to about 
forty. Ide issued a proclamation declaring that he and his com- 
panions had been invited to come into the country and had been 
promised protection by the government, but that they had been sub- 
jected to oppression by military despotism; that threats had been 
made, by proclamation, of exterminating them if the^^ did not leave 
the country; that it meant they must either abandon their property 
and be driven through deserts inhabited by hostile Indians, or must 
defend themselves; and that they had been forced to inaugurate a 
revolution with a view of establishing and perj^etuating a repub- 
lican government. 

The party obtained its name by adopting what was known as 
the Bear flag, and it formed a partial organization under the name 
of the Republic of California. The flag borne by them was a piece 
of cotton cloth, with one red stripe on the bottom, and on the white 
part was the figure of a grizzly bear, with one star in front of him. 
It was })ainted or stained with lampblack and poke berries and on 
the top were the words, "Republic of California." According to 
the history of the event filed in the office of the Society of Califor- 
nia Pioneers, the flag was painted with paint secured from a wheel- 
right's shop, "and the execution did not excel in artistic merit." 

William L. Todd, however, in a letter to the Los Angeles Express 
under the date of January 11, 1878, makes this statement: "I have 
to say in regard to the making of the original Bear flag of Califor- 
nia at Sonoma in 1846, that when the Americans who had taken 
up arms against the Spanish regime had determined what kind of 
a flag should be adopted, the following persons performed the work: 
Granville P. Swift, Peter Storm, Henry L. Ford, and myself. We 
procured, in the house where we made our headquarters, a piece of 
new, unbleached cotton domestic, not quite a yard wide, with stripes 
of red flannel about four inches wide, furnished by Mrs. John Sears, 
on the lower side of the canvas. On the upper left-hand corner was 
a star, and in the center was the image made to represent a grizzly 
bear, so common in this country at that time. The bear and star 
were painted with paint made of linseed oil and Venetian red or 
Spanish brown. Underneath the bear were the words, 'California 
Republic' The other person engaged with me got the materials to- 
gether, while I acted as artist. The forms of the bear and star and 
the letters were first lined out with pen and ink by myself, and the 
two forms were filled in with the red paint, but the letters with 
ink. The flag mentioned by Mr. Hittel, with the bear rampant, was 


made, as I always understood, at Santa Barbara, and was painted 
black. Allow me to say tbat at that time there was no wheelwright 
shop in California. The flag I painted I saw in the rooms of the 
California Pioneers in San Francisco in 1870, and the secretary will 
show it to any person who will call upon him at any time. If it is 
the one that I painted, it will be known by a mistake in tinting out 
the words 'California Eepublic' The letters were first lined out 
with a pen and I left out the letter 'I' and lined out the letter "C" 
in its place. But afterward I lined out the letter 'I' over the 'C 
so that the last sj'Uable of 'Republic' looks as if the last two let- 
ters were blended." The giiidon used at Sonoma was in 1874 pre- 
sented to the California Pioneers by Brig.-Gen. Joseph Revere, who 
in 1846, as lieutenant, hauled down the Bear flag and substituted 
the Stars and Stripes. 

There has been considerable dispute as to the causes which led 
to the revolution in California, the capture of Sonoma, Ide's procla- 
mation, the raising of the Bear flag and its design. Reliance is 
placed on the accounts which were published in the Californian in 
August and September, 1846. This was a few months after the oc- 
currence of those events and the articles were written by Robert Sem- 
ple, the editor, who distinctly stated in them that he wrote them as 
a matter of history and for the benefit of future historians. 

Commodore John D. Sloat arrived at Monterey July 7, 1846, with 
a United States frigate. Monterey was at that time the Mexican 
capital of California. The commodore took possession of the town 
and hoisted the American flag over the custom house, and from that 
day dates the possession of California by the United States. Sloat 's 
frigate had been lying at Mazatlan under orders to seize California 
on the first intimation that war had been declared against Mexico. 
The first American flag was hoisted in the Sacramento valley where 
Sacramento City now stands. Colonel Fremont being encamped there 
with about one hundred and seventy men. William Scott arrived in 
the camp on the evening of July 10, with the news of the hoisting 
of the flag at Monterey by Commodore Sloat. He also brought with 
him an American flag sent by Capt. John B. Montgomery, of the 
United States ship Portsmouth. The Californian, in speaking of the 
first receipt of the news at Sacramento, says : "It was received with 
universal shouts by the men, and our gallant leader, surrounded by 
a number of officers and soldiers, partook of a cup of good brandy, 
and sang some national airs. The Star Spangled Banner was re- 
ponded to with warmth." 

With the raising of the American flag the Bear flag was sup- 
planted, and although there were several engagements between the 
United States troops and the Mexican forces in the southern part of 
the territory of California, the Mexicans capitulated early in 1847, and 


the hostilities ceased. While uiany events happened during the 
transition, those above recorded were all that directly affected this 
county and the territory surrounding it. 


The first survey of the plat of Sacramento was made in Decem- 
ber, 1848, by Capt. William H. Warner of the United States Army. 
Previous to 184-1: Sutter's Fort was the principal trading post in 
Upper California. In that year Captain Sutter and some others at 
the fort determined to hiy out and build a town on the river bank 
three miles below, which they called Sutter, now spoken of as Sutter- 
ville. A survey was made by Capt. William Tecumseh Sherman 
(afterwards famous during the Civil war as General Sherman), and 
building was begun. The first house was erected by Captain Sutter 
himself; the second by a Mr. Hadel and a third, a brick structure, 
said to be the first of its kind erected in California, by Mr. Zius. 
The city began to flourish unrivaled and continued to do so until the 
discovery of gold. Soon after that time, however, it came into a 
disastrous rivalry with Sacramento. Dr. Morse, the earliest historian 
of those times and a warm partisan of Sacramento, gives many in- 
teresting particulars of the struggle for supremacy between the two 
budding cities, which resulted in the ultimate downfall of the city on 
the high grounds back from the river and the success of the city on 
the lower level, .that was doomed in a few years to be inundated by 
the rising waters, although one of the principal arguments used by 
the traders and speculators in their arguments for the support of 
this city was that the ground where it stands had never been over- 
flowed within the memory of the white man, and never would be. 

P>ayard Taylor says in his "Eldorado," of his first visit to Sac- 
ramento in October, 1849 : ' ' The limits of the town extended to nearly 
one square mile and the number of inhabitants, in tents and houses, 
fell little short of ten thousand. The iirevious April there were just 
four houses in place. Can the world match a growth like tliis? . . . 
The value of real estate in Sacramento is only exceeded by that in 
San Francisco. Lots 20x75 feet, in the best locations, brought from 
$3,000 to $.3,500. Rents were on a scale equally enormous. The City 
hotel, which was formerly a sawmill erected by Captain Sutter, paid 
$30,000 per annum. A new hotel, going up on the levee, was already 
rented for $35,000. Two drinking and gaming rooms on a business 
street paid each $1,000 monthly, invariably in advance. The value 
of all the houses in the city, frail and perishable as many of them 
were, could not have been less than $2,000,000. . . . The inhabi- 
tants had elected a town council, adopted a city charter and were 


making exertions to have the place declared a port of entry. The 
political waters were being stirred a little, in anticipation of the ap- 
proaching election. Mr. Gilbert, of the Alta California, and Colonel 
Stewart, candidate for governor, were in the city. A political meet- 
ing which had been held a few nights before, in front of the City 
hotel, passed off as uproariously and with as zealous a sentiment 
of patriotism as such meetings are wont to at home." 

Shortly after the great discovery that was to so influence the for- 
tunes of the world and to become the ruin of General Sutter, a num- 
ber of stores were located at the fort and an immense business was 
soon created there. The first of these was the establishment of C. 
C. Smith & Co., in which Sam Brannan was a partner. It was started 
a few months before the opening of the mines and the first exchange 
of gold dust for store goods took place over its counters. Brannan 
afterwards bought his partners out and continued the business in 
the old adobe building which was subsequently used as a hospital. 
In 1849 the building on the inside of Sutter's Fort was occupied by 
Rufus Hitchcock, the upper story being used as a boarding house. 
The front room below was used as a barroom and gambling house 
and the bar was kept open night and day. If a customer had coin, 
his drink cost him fifty cents, but he generally opened his sack and the 
barkeeper took out a pinch of gold dust, to be regulated by size or 
amount of drink consumed, and in those days very few drank alone. 
The cost of board at this ])la('e was $40 per week. 

Hitchcock soon left the fort and went to the mines on the Stan- 
islaus. In passing it may lie stated that old residents say that in 
the '50s Capt. (afterwards Gen.) Ulysses S. Grant, owned a ferry 
on the Stanislaus and they often saw him, dressed in red shirt and 
overalls, h'ing under a shady tree on the bank, contentedly waiting 
for a foot passenger to come along who wanted to be ferried over. 
In those days, in fact, many a man who afterwards became prominent 
in the history of his country, was a resident of California. Hitch- 
cock subsequently became the owner of the Green Springs ranch in 
Fldorado county and died there in 1851. He was succeeded in the 
boarding liouse by M. F. McClellan of San Francisco. By summer 
all the business had become transferred to the Embarcadero or land- 
ing place on the Sacramento river, now known as Front street, which 
became a lively place. The blacksmith shop at the fort was carried 
on by a Mr. Fairchild, who paid an assistant $16 a day and charged 
$64 for shoeing a horse all round, or $16 for a single shoe. 

In the freighting to the mines, which was done by means of ox 
teams, John S. Fowler had a virtual' monopoly and paid his team- 
sters from $200 to $250 per month. The rate for freighting was enor- 
mous. In the winter of 1848-49 the roads to the mines were almost 
impassable. Freight from the fort to Coloma was one dollar a ]iound 


— $2,000 a ton. Even at that price it was impossible to transport 
the necessaries of life fast enough to prevent serious apprehensions 
of famine in the more distant mining districts. 

The firm of S. Brannan & Co. consisted of Sam Brannan, Will- 
iam Stone, W. D. Howard, Henrj- Melhas and Talbot H. Green. The 
stores of Priest, Lee & Co., Hensley, Reading & Co., Captain Dring, 
C. E. Pickett, Von Pfister & Vaughn, and the drug store of Drs. 
Frank Bates and AVard were inside of the fort. The prices de- 
manded were enormous. One evening John S. Fowler, wishing to 
give a supper to his teamsters, saw on the shelf in Brannan 's store 
a dozen two-pound cans of oysters and asked the clerk the price. 
"Twelve dollars each," replied the clerk. "How much if I take the 
lot?" asked Fowler. "One hundred and forty- four dollars," was 
the reply. "Well, I'll take them all," said Fowler, and he carried 
off his costly prize. 

Brannan 's employes were: Jeremiah Sherwood, of New York; 
Tallman H. Ralfe, afterwards editor of the Democrat in Nevada 
City; J. Harris Trowbridge, afterwards of Newburg, N. Y. ; George 
M. Robertson, afterwards supreme judge of Oahu, Sandwich Islands; 
James B. Mitchell, subsequently public administrator of Sacramento 
county, who died in 1857 in Benicia; W. R. Grimshaw, a well-known 
resident for many years on the Cosumnes river ; and James Queen. 

The pioneers did not leave their patriotism behind them when they 
came here. The 4th of July, 1849, was celebrated in the shade of a 
grove of oak trees, the last survivor of which, hoary with age and 
covered with mistletoe, stood for many years in front of the old build- 
ing on L street which was used as a hospital. The orators of the 
day were William M. Gwin and Thomas Butler King, who after- 
wards served the state in the United States senate. 

Shortly afterward came the struggle for supremacy with Sut- 
terville. As soon as the survey of Sacramento City had been made 
George McDougall obtained a lease of the ferry at a jwint below 
the entrance of Sutter Lake, and located a store-ship on ^\e river 
bank opposite I street, and in company with Judge Blackburn, opened 
it with a large stock of goods. When John A. Sutter, Jr., arrived, 
his father, the ca])tain, transferred to him all the proprietary rights 
in the city of Sacramento. McDougall declared that his lease gave 
him control of six hundred feet along the river front, and a dispute 
arose which was carried into the courts. Being defeated, McDougall 
in a rage determined to destroy the prospects of the city, and re- 
moved his goods to Sutterville. He then came out with immense 
placards stating that he would sell goods at cost and freight, and 
made a verbal declaration that if necessary he would sell goods at 
cost. This produced a lively agitation among the traders and they 
patched up a scheme of purchase which broke up many lines of Mc- 


Dougall's stock aud, as it was no easy task in those days to replenish 
it, effectually extinguished McDougall's enterprise and put an end to 
the budding hopes of Sutterville as well. 

The latter end was accomplished largely by a shrewd specu- 
lative move on the part of Sam Brannan, Judge Bui'nett and Priest, 
Lee & Co. The Sutterville proprietors had offered to donate to 
these traders eighty lots in Sutterville if they would transfer their 
stocks and business to Svitterville. They informed young Sutter 
of the offer and persuaded him that it would be for his interest to 
give them about five hundred lots in Sacramento to induce them to 
sta>- here, aud he did so. Such was the passing of Sutterville, and 
today the old brick brewery stands as a monument of its decease, 
while the ))ig brick stores whicli stood there until later years have 

Sacramento grew apace. Ajjril 1, 184!), the number of inhabi- 
tants of the fort aud city did not exceed one hundred and ten. An 
election had been held the preceding fall for first and second alcaldes, 
resulting in the election of Frank Bates and John S. Fowler, re- 
spectively. Fowler resigned in the spring and Henry A. Schoolcraft 
was appointed in his place. Early in the spring a board of commis- 
sioners consisting of Messrs. Brannan, Snyder, Slater, Hensley, 
King, Cheever, McCoover, McDougall, Barton Lee, Feete, Dr. Car- 
penter, Fowler and Southard was elected to frame a code of laws for 
the district. The committee met under an oak tree at the foot of T 
street and submitted a report which recommended the election of one 
alcalde and one sheriff, who should have jurisdiction from the Coast 
Range to the Sierra Nevada and throughout the length of the Sac- 
ramento valley. H. A. Schoolcraft was elected alcalde and A. M. 
Turner, sheriff, aud thus was laid the foundation of the judicial and 
political system in Northern California, under a sturdy oak on the 
banks of the Sacramento. 

Immigration was coming liy sea, although as yet in not very 
great nipnbers between February to June, but improvement went 
steadily on. The condition was anomalous. There was no law or 
system of government, yet there was no discord or disorder. There 
was no legal restraint imposed on citizens, yet during these months 
the community was exempt from violence, and all seemed imbued 
with a feeling of forbearance and accommodation. The craze for 
gold had not yet fastened its deleterious influence on men, and right 
and a feeling of equality and independtoce seemed to guide their 

Trading \aelded an enormous profit and everyone was absorbed 
in it. Two hundred per cent was the profit on goods procured from 
San Francisco and trading in gold dust was very profitable. At 
first the scale of payment for goods with dust ranged from $8 to 


$16 an ouuee. Clerks could liartlly be retained in the stores at from 
$200 to $300 i^er month. The trade between the mines and Sacra- 
mento was immense. Such was the prevailing feeling of honesty and 
security that neither goods nor gold dust were watched with anxiety 
for their safety. Miners came to town with bags of gold dust which 
they took no more care of than their hats and boots. Money was 
so ])lentiful that there was no temptation to steal. By the first of 
May there were about thirtj^ stores, and two barks and a brig were 
moored along the shore. The Whiton, one of the former, had as- 
tonished the residents by coming up from San Francisco in three 
days, from five to ten days having been consumed before then by 
small boats and launches. 

lu' June there came a change. Immigrants began to arrive by 
thousands and to outfit' for the mines, Sacramento being the point of 
departure for the northern mines. The American, Yuba, Bear and 
Feather rivers were the points of attraction and Sacramento was 
the place for outfitting. Business became a rush in which the cal- 
culation was only for today. Transportation from San Francisco was 
the source of enormous profits and every craft that could be procured 
was pressed into service. The cost of passage from San Francisco 
to Sacramento was from $16 to $25 and the freight rate was cor- 
respondingly high. On June 26th the city numbered a hundred houses 
"and the City Hotel, on Front street between I and J, 35x53 feet and 
of three stories, originally framed for a saw and grist mill for Cap- 
tain Sutter, was said to have cost $100,000. It was headquarters 
for the aristocracy of the times and the scene of many town-meetings. 

Every sort of material from which tents, store ; and houses could 
be constructed rose to enormous prices. Muslin, calico, canvas, old 
sails, logs, boards, zinc and tin were priceless po'ssessions. The hun- 
dreds of immigTants coming in were lucky if they could have the 
shade of the trees to protect them from the noonday sun or the night. 
Gambling was everywhere carried on and magnificent saloons were 
built at enormous cost, the first place of public gaming being on J 
street, between Second and 'Third, kept by James Lee, an<l euphoni- 
ously named "The Stinking Tent." Others followed, and a demo- 
cratic and cosmopolitan crowd composed their patrons. Coin was 
scarce and the miners brought their bags of gold dust, de])ositing 
them with the game keepers and drawing from them as the game pro- 
gressed, generally till all was gone, and then went back to the mines 
for more. Not one person in ten, either by absence or condemnation, 
tried to discountenance gaming. Indeed, it is narrated by Dr. Morse 
that two exclergyTnen were conspicuous among the gamesters, one 
dealing monte and the other playing faro. Poker was played by the 
larger capitalists on a magnificent scale, the ante being often $100 
and $3,000 being frequently bet on a single hand. One individual 


is said to Jiave staked a thousand ounces on a hand and won, after 
ba\'ing Jest nearly that much previously. Many men who had been 
brought up to regard gambling as a stain on a man's character and 
who had left their wives and children in straightened circumstances, 
says Morse, hastened to hazard and lose the first few hundred or 
thousand dollars they had made. 

But a moral wave soon swept over the community. In Api-il, 
1849, Rev. Dr. Woodbridge preached the first sermon ever heard in 
Sacramento. In May Dr. Deal, a practicing physician, undertook to 
establish regular religious services and in July Rev. J. A. Benton 
began his long and beneficent services in the citJ^ "His course," tes- 
tifies Dr. Morse, "was from the first consistent. He was essentially 
a minister of the gospel — a seven-days advocate of the Christian re- 
ligion." He extended his influence by a pure life, winning the re- 
spect and confidence of the people, instead of making an onslaught 
on the tide of vice, and soon acquired great influence in the com- 
munity. At this late day many of the pioneer Sacramentans who knew 
him speak in the highest terms of his character. He sometimes made 
missionary excursions of two or three weeks duration, sleeping on 
the ground nnder the trees and living like the primitive Apostles. 

Before the removal of McDougall's store, Hensley and Read- 
ing had erected a frame building in Sacramento, on the corner of I 
and Front streets, the first frame house in the new city. Soon after 
that a Mr. Ingersoll erected a building half canvas and half frame, 
between J and K on Front street and Mr. Stewart 4iad put up a 
canvas house on the bank of the river, which was opened as a tavern. 
In February, 1849, Sam Brannan erected a frame storehouse on the 
corner of J and Front streets, and this was soon succeeded by an- 
other belonging to Priest, Lee & Co., on the corner of Second and J 
and directly afterwards two substantial log houses were erected by 
Mr. Gillespie and Dr. Carpenter. 

For a time the chief place for business was on First or Front 
street between J and K, but soon it began to extend up J and K 
streets to Third. The river bank was piled with the goods of immi- 
grants and merchandise, and storage facilities were entirely in- 
adequate. The chief business was in miners' supplies. Lumber was 
from fifty cents to a dollar per square foot, and hard to get at that. 
Teaming and packing earned enormous revenue. In December $50 
a hundred was charged for hauling goods from Sacramento to 
Mormon Island and Auburn. In July fresh beef sold for fifteen 
cents a pound; bread fifty cents a loaf; butter from $2 to $3 a poimd; 
milk $1 a quart ; dried apples $1 to $2 a pound ; saleratus $6 a pound, 
and pickles whatever their owner chose to ask. Carpenters were 
paid $16 a day; laborers $1.50 an liour; board without lodging 
$16 to $49 a week; washing $6 to $12 a dozen; doctor's fees $16 to 


$32 a visit. A glass of liquor at a first-class bar cost $1, ami a cigar 
fifty cents. Everything was high in proportion. 

But business did not entirely engross the attention of the citi- 
zens. There were some votaries of pleasure, and on July 4, 1849, 
a grand ball was given at the City hotel, at that time the headquar- 
ters of Sacramento fashion and aristocracy. Money was spent with- 
out stint to enhance the success and dignity of the occasion, and the 
affair was on a magnificent scale. There was a dearth in the com- 
munity of feminine attractions and the surrounding country was 
scoured thoroughly by a committee of young men to gather in all 
the ladies that could be obtained to grace the occasion. Every min- 
ing camp, ranch, wagon, tent and log cabin was canvassed, with such 
success that eighteen of the fair sex were secured. To quote Dr. 
Morse again. "Not all Amazons, but replete with all the adornments 
and graces that belong to bold and enterprising pioneers of a new 
country. Tickets to the ball were fixed at the moderate price of thir- 
ty-two dollars ; gentlemen were requested to have swallow-tail coats 
and white vests. The supper was, of course, a profusion of all that 
money could obtain," and champagne flowed freely, despite its cost. 
Thus was the pace set for future occasions in the new city. 

In July, 1849, a movement was set on foot to organize a city 
government. An election for councilmen was held at the St. Louis 
Exchange on Second street between I and J, and the first council- 
men for the city of Sacramento were chosen as follows: John P. 
Rodgers, H. E. Robinson, P. B. Cornwall, William Stout, E. F. Gil- 
lespie, Thomas F. Chapman, M. T. McClelland, A. M. Winn and B. 
Jennings. The new council was organized on August 1st, with Will- 
iam Stout as president and J. H. Harper as clerk. The first busi- 
ness transacted was the preparation of a constitution for local gov- 
ernment. A. M. Winn was afterwards made president in place of 
Stout, who had left the city. On September 20th an election was held 
to decide on a city charter. A draft had been prepared by the coun- 
cil but the citizens did not turn out well to vote, and it was defeated 
by a majority of one hundred and forty-six votes. Its rejection was 
charged to the gamblers, who opposed a change and worked hard 
and spent much money to defeat it. Up to this time there had been 
no law or government that was more than nominal, as there was no 
court except that of the alcalde, which, while expeditious, was costly 
in dispensing justice. The people therefore shunned litigation and 
this lawless state just suited the gamblers. This was a great morti- 
fication to the council, and the president issued a proclamation stat- 
ing that the council was unalile to determine what the citizens wanted, 
and as the powers and duties of the council were not defined, they 
desired to know whether the citizens desired still to act under the 
Mexican laws at present in force, although ina"pplicable to the pres- 


ent conditions, or to adopt a charter, striking out sucli features as 
were objectionable. Immediate action was necessary if the council 
was to be of any use. It therefore asked the citizens to meet Octo- 
ber 10, 1849, and declare what they wished the council to do. The 
people, who had paid no attention hitherto to local government, 
awoke from their apathy. A Law and Order party was formed. 
The gamblers were defeated and the charter adopted by a majority 
of two hundred ninety-six. The charter adapted, however, contained 
matter relative to taxation which rendered it unpopular, and it was 
soon amended. 

The council soon had a burden of troubles of its own. The com- 
munity had enjoyed robust health during the spring and summer 
months, but with the fall a terrible change came. Many of the ed- 
venturous immigrants had seemed to think that nothing was neces- 
sary to their success except to reach California. Many of them were 
destitute on their arrival. Not one in a hundred had money to buy 
an outfit for the mines at the ruinous prices asked. Many were suf- 
fering from hardships and privations endured on the overland jour- 
ney, or as steerage passengers saturated with scorbutic diseases or 
so dejDressed or despondent that they became an easy prey for dis- 
ease. Nine-tenths of these adventurers poured into Sacramento, 
the nearest point for outfitting for the mines. Here they met another 
train of scorbutic sufferers straggling in from the east, debilitated 
and worn out by the hardships encountered. 

From these causes Sacramento had become one vast lazar house 
long before the city government was organized and the council im- 
mediately found a serious condition confronting it. This was in- 
tensified by the fact that as men became accustomed to these scenes 
of suffering, familiarity with them hardened their hearts, and cupid- 
ity took possession of them. The lure of gold beckoned them away. 
They could not spare time to relieve the distress of their fellows, 
They must press on to the diggings and begin to acquire their for- 
tunes. Fathers abandoned their sons, and sons abandoned their 
fathers when they required a little troublesome care. When they 
could be of no further iise to each other friendship and kinship be- 
came mere words. One flagrant case was that of an old father, who 
had furnished the means for his son and other relatives to come to 
the new Eldorado, but was deserted by them as he lay dying with 
scurvy on the levee, where he soon passed away. The sick and suf- 
fering accumulated so fast that by July means of caring for them 
were entirely inadequate. Creigan's Hospital at the fort and the 
one opened by Dr. Deal and Dr. Martin were filled, but the prices 
for nursing and board were prohibitive to four-fifths of those need- 
ing care. Miasmatic fevers added to the misery and distress of the 


But charity had not departed, and compassion and help were at 
hand in a limited degree. Two great fraternal orders were represented 
among the community, not organized into lodges, but nviml)ering many 
individual members. The feeling of brotherhood that had bound them 
together, also bound them to relieve distress as far as lay in their 
power, and nobly did they come to the front and face the stupendou.5 
task. The first effective efforts for relief came from members of the 
fraternity of the Odd Fellows. They came together and bound them 
selves into an informal organization and devoted themselves with 
earnest zeal to the relief of the distressed. A. M. Winn was elected 
president of the association, a Mr. McLaren secretary and Captain 
Gallup, treasurer. Every member of this body became a visiting com 
raittee and an immense amount of relief was dispensed. 

They were joined by the members of the Masonic fraternity in 
their eiforts to take care of the sick and destitute. "Tlie two noble 
orders contributed inoney and exertions as freely as if their lives 
had been devoted to the exclusive function of human kindness," says 
Dr. Morse, "and their fair names are inscribed in indelible and liv- 
ing characters upon those pages of history which California 
ought to and must preserve." But their combined efforts, assisted 
by those of the council, could not do all that there was to do. The 
people were appealed to in a public meeting. to come forward and 
assist in the general effort for relief. The president of the council 
was dispatched to Monterey for the purpose of laying the case be- 
fore General Riley and procuring from him some of the public funds 
then in his possession. But their mission was a failure, as General 
Riley, the military governor of the territory, did not consider he had 
the right thus to use the national funds. 

Sacramento was then thrown u])on her own resources, and with 
her treasury empty and low credit, she did all that was possible and 
by co-operation with individual effort and the two fraternities she 
succeeded in furnishing a tolerable shelter and medical attendance 
for the sick. Rough pine coffins had ranged from $60 to $150, and 
even then the supply was far from sufficient, so hundreds had been 
buried without coffins and even without being wrapped up in a blan- 
ket. The Odd Fellows spent thousands of dollars for coffins and 
when General Winn became the executive officer of the city, no man 
was refused a coffiu burial. The scenes of those days were terrible 
and the description of their horrors is almost unreadable. 

When the rains set in the. misery was increased. Many of the sick, 
with typhus and other fevers, lay without shelter from the pitiless 
storms. Finally Drs. Morse and Stillman aroused the sympathies of 
Barton Lee, whose name should occupy an honored place in the 
City's history, and induced him to erect a story and a half hospital, 
40x50 feet, at the corner of Third and K streets. The city deter- 


mined also to erect a two story hospital, 20x60 feet between I and 
J, Ninth and Tenth streets, and $7000 was expended for lumber, 
but when it was partially erected it was prostrated to the gTOund by 
a rain and wind storm, and the timber so injured as to make it al- 
most useless for building purposes. 

But the future city was doomed to pass through a yet more try- 
ing period. An enemy came like a thief in the night, for which she 
had made no provision. The reckless speculators had declared there 
was no danger of inundation and the people had been credulous 
enough to believe them when they declared that the city's site had 
remained free from flood during the sojourn of the oldest Californians. 
The })eople had not raised their buildings, but had built on the ground 
wherever their lots happened to be. The rains through the latter 
part of December and the first part of January had awakaned anx- 
iety. The Sacramento and American rivers were rising rapidly and 
the back country seemed to be filling up and cutting off communi- 
cation with the higher lands. But the citizens, with fatuous confi- 
dence in the assertions that a flood could not harm them, made no 
preparations for the deluge. Hence, when it came, there was no 
adequate protection for life or property. Many were drowned, some 
in their beds, some in trying to escape, and many from the terrible 
exposure. The few boats belonging to the shipping at the Embarca- 
dero were pressed into service to rescue the women and children and 
the sick, that were scattered over the city in tents and canvas houses. 
Some of the women were found standing upon beds or boxes, in water 
a foot or two deep. Sick men on cots were found floating about help- 
lessly. By mere accident a boat in which Capt. J. Sherwood was 
manager passed the hospital and was attracted by the cries of the 
sick for help. He immediately proceeded to rescue them and took 
them to safety in Mr. Brannan's house. 

Most of these poor sufferers died and after being placed in coffins, 
were buried across the river. One of the men detailed for this duty 
was a Dutchman who was very suspicious of everyone so far as his 
money was concerned, and having accumulated about $2,000 in gold 
dust carried it in a belt around his waist. They placed the coffin 
across a small boat, and when they had reached some distance the 
boat careened and sank. The Dutchman, who was a good swimmer, 
called to his companion that he would swim ashore and get a boat, 
but weighted down with the gold that he loved better than his life, 
he sank. His companion hung on to the coffin and reached shore 
safely. The description given by Dr. Morse of the neglect of the sick 
and their condition is almost beyond belief. 

After the January flood in 1850, prices of everything rose enor- 
mously and continued high for a long time. But the high prices of 


real estate did not shrink on account of the flood and destruction. 
Here are some of the current prices in the city in April and May: 

Filtered water, per barrel, $1.50; washing and ironing, per dozen, 
$7.00; private boxes at the theater, $4.00; ordinary boxes at the 
theater, $3.00; pit seats at the theater, $2.00; musicians in gambling 
houses, by the day, $16.00; hauling lumber from First to Second 
street, per thousand, $3.00; hair cutting, $1.50; shaving, $1.00; bil- 
liards, per game, $1.00; saddle horses, per day, $10.00; lodging, 
without blankets, per night, $1.00; celery, per head, 20 cents; peas in 
the pod, per gallon, $2.00; radishes, every size, per bunch, $1.00; 
turkeys, per pair, $16.00; apples, small, but good, each, 50 cents; 
specked apples, each 25 cents; Colt's pistols, medium .size, $75.00. 

Up to the 6th of August the amount of $100,000 had been issued 
by warrants to meet the expenditures for the city government, as 
shown by the mayor's statement. The estimated sum to be expended 
for the construction of the levee' and the city government inclusive 
footed up $300,000. Sacramento endured grievous troubles in August 
and September. The contests about titles, the breaking up of confi- 
dence in the general value of property thus situated, the pecuniary 
embarrassments that were plunging men into bankruptcy and ruin, 
and the heavy taxation necessary to sustain the city government and 
complete the public works necessary to protect the city from floods, 
were enough to utterly discourage the citizens and destroy their confi- 
dence in the city's future. But the community was composed of men 
of iron; men who had come thousands of miles through all sorts of 
dangers and perils to found on the shores of the Pacific a great 
empire, although they were at that time unconscious of the fact and 
looked not far beyond the present. Their energy was unconquerable 
and inextinguishable, and the greater the burdens imposed by fate, the 
more manfully and determinedly they strove to overthrow them. 
That this city exists to-day, large and prosperous, is indisinitable 
evidence that they succeeded. 

In August the council made itself decidedly unpo])nlar by "one 
or two of its acts. The members appropriated to themselves a salary 
of $200 a month each. In addition to this, the taxpayers saw the 
appointment of various committees to duties that were but little 
more than nominal, and who drew $25 a day for their services, in 
addition to their regular salary voted. 

After the bankruptcies of September and the squatter riots of 
August affairs settled down to a degree of quiet and the people 
began to engage more systematically and soundly in business, which 
was augmented extraordinarily by the heavy demand for goods and 
their transportation to the mines. During the previous winter the 
people in the mines had suffered greatly from ])rivations and were 
thrown into a desperate and almost starving condition from the 


scarcity of provisions and the cutting off of communication with the 
city by the floods. As a natural consequence, in tlie fall soon after 
the revulsion in finance, there sprang up a brisk demand and an 
immense and profitable trade was inaugurated and carried on between 
the merchants and jniners. The situation being thus relieved, the 
effect upon the city was such as almost to restore its former pros- 

At this time a public question began to awaken interest in the 
men's minds and to cause them to watch every arrival from Wash- 
ington and the news brought, with intense anxiety. This was the 
question of admission as a state to the Union. The constitution 
had been adopted, the application made, but congress still delayed 
action and the community was in a state of painful suspense as to 
what the outcome would be. One can readily imagine, then, the relief 
to the tension when the news came that California was a member of 
the great Union of states. Early in the morning of October 15th, 
it is stated, the rapid firing of cannon upon the levee awakened the 
citizens to the fact that the news had arrived and that our admission 
was an assured fact. It was a season of rejoicing that for the moment 
almost obliterated the memory of the i^ast misfortunes. In addition 
to the news it was ascertained that a number of Sacrainento's citizens 
had returned by the steamer that brought the news. 

But Sacramento's cup of sorrow was not yet full and a lu^avier 
calamity than any that had gone before, was, even in this season 
of rejoicing, hovering over the devoted city. The same fostering 
breezes that had borne on the steamer bringing the news of admission 
had also borne on their wings a ghastly pestilence and on the steamer 
itself many of the passengers had fallen victims to the dread scourge. 
A most maligTiant cholera was sweeping on toward California and 
many were the imknown graves that it was to fill in the new state 
ere its violence should be abated. City and country were alike to it 
and the urban dweller and the miner in his cabin were alike to pay 
toll to the dread Reaper. The tale that is told by the pioneers who 
escaped with life the pestilence harrows the soul of the listener with 
the vivid pictures of distress and destruction. Each successive day 
brought news from San Francisco that the passengers on the ill- 
fated steamer were still being decimated by the terrible scourge. Not 
only this, but the accounts of the visit of the disease to Sandusky. 
Rochester, St. Louis and other places began to fill the hearts of the 
])eople with a dread of im))ending disaster. The stories of its relent- 
less malignity and the wide-spread destruction that accompanied its 
progress fell like a ])all on the conmumity, and terror fell on all. 
It is dou))tfnl if history records a jiarallel of the destructive panic 
that followed its aii])earance on this coast and in this city. The hard- 
ships and disease that had i)i-evailed during the suninier and which 


were sufficient to crush all progress and energy in a less buoyant and 
determined people, had been too recent to allow of a recuperation of 
their health and strength and rendered them an easy prey for the 
insidious disease. 

As is well known, in cases of epidemics, the mass of the people is 
filled with fear and dread, and in the fevered state of mind prevailing 
it was easy for the disease to develop to terrific proportions. Panic 
predisposed the people to receive its attacks, and it hardly needed 
an imported case to spread the disease. Early in the morning of 
October 20 a person was found on the levee in the collapsing stage 
of the dread disease. Medical aid was summoned, but he was too 
far gone and soon died. Tlie cholera was in the city. The news 
spread as if by magic, the circumstances grew in horror with repeti- 
tion and the pall of despair seemed to settle down like a black cloud, 
over the city. It is well known bv experience that the fear of disease 
and the dwelling on its symptoms are very often followed by its 
appearance and so it was largely in this case. The next day several 
more fatal cases were reported and as the stories spread and were 
constantly auginented in their description, it is not to be wondered at 
that fear should have become an auxiliary to the disease and that 
the epidemic was soon in full progress. 

In six days from its inception, the disease had made such progress 
that regular burials were but slightly attended to and nursing and 
attention were frequently wanting. Money, so powerful an agent 
in most cases, could scarcely purchase the offices of common kindness 
and charity. Affection seemed blunted and the fear of death seemed 
to sever all ties and develop elements of selfishness. But little could 
be done under these conditions to arrest the course of the disease, 
and it swept through the community with irresistible force. In many 
such epidemics the personal ]ial)its of in(li\i(luals have a strong influ- 
ence in resisting disease or inviting it, but the case was different here. 
Men of the most reg-ular, careful and industrious habits were its 
\-ictims equally with those who were intemperate and irregular. In 
a few days many of the most ]irominent and substantial citizens fell 
before the pestilence. None seemed immune. 

It was reported that a hundred and fifty cases occurred in one 
day, but such was the confusion and the panic in the community 
that no records were kept, nor can any accurate data be found in 
regard to the havoc made by this epidemic. As the number of deaths 
increased and men were kept constantly employed in the removal 
of the dead, the citizens began to leave the city in every direction 
and the numlier increased so rapidly that in a short time not more 
than one-fifth of the residents remained. The most heartrending 
abandonment of relatives and friends took place during the reign 
of terror. But a very small remnant resisted the instinct of self- 


})reservation and remained to minister to tlie sick and dying. A few 
noble men, moved ])y sympathy, the divine attribute of onr nature, 
remained to do what they could for the relief of suffering humanity, 
and their humane ministrations, regardless of danger and death, did 
much to ameliorate the situation. Their names should be written in 
letters of gold in the history of Sacramento and California, but 
alas, they were lost to us and their only reward was the consciousness 
of having done their duty. One name, however, has been preserved, 
that of John Bigler, afterwards governor of California, whom Dr. 
Morse describes as moving among the dead and dying, with a large 
lump of camphor in one hand, which he frequently applied to his 
nostrils, as an antidote to the disease. No danger of infection daunted 
him, however, and where misery, death and destitution abounded, he 
•was ever to be found in its midst, proffering aid and sympathy. 

The physicians of the city did noble work. No danger appalled 
them. Night and day they responded to the call of distress, scarcely 
pausing to snatch a few hours of needed sleep and rest. Before 
the epidemic subsided seventeen of them were deposited in the 
sand hill cemetery of the city — an almost unexampled mortality in 
the profession in a season of epidemic. Not one in ten escaped 
the disease and not a single educated physician turned his back on the 
city in its extremity. In such a time of delirium and terror it is 
no wonder that no systematic records were kept. In fact it was 
impossible. Not only in the city, but on the roads, and even in the 
mines, many who were fleeing from the pestilence were stricken down 
by the awful malady and perished, unknown and unaided in many 
cases. In the latter part of the epidemic, the city authorities, who 
had from the first done all they could to relieve the suffering, 
obtained the use of a large frame building on L street, where the 
destitute victims were taken and cared for. 

"From the beginning, the local pai)ers had endeavored, as 
usual in such cases, to conceal the extent of mortality, and their 
files of that date give no adequate idea of the fearful scourge," say 
Thompson and West in their history. On the 24th of October the 
city ])hysieian reported seven cases of cholera to the council, five 
of whicii were fatal. Some of the doctors endeavored to quiet public 
apprehension by giving the opinion that the disease was only a violent 
form of cholera morbus. The Times "felt confident that there was 
very little danger, and had not heard of a single case where the 
patient had not been previously reduced by diarrhoea." On the 
27th, six cases were reported, and the Ti))U's "hoped that some pre- 
cautionary measures would be taken." On the 29th twelve cases 
appeared; on the 30th, nineteen, and it was no longer possible to 
conceal the fact that a terrible epidemic had attacked the com- 
munity. A Sacramento correspondent of the Alia says on November 


4: "The daily mortality is about sixty. Many deaths are concealed, 
and many others are not rejiorted. Deaths durinfi: the past week, 
so far as known, 188." On November 14, the daily mortality had 
decreased to twelve and on the 17th, the pestilence was reported as 
having entirely disappeared. But the jirecise number of fatal cases 
can never be known, as a great number were reported to have died 
of dysentery, fevers, and other diseases, for the purpose of quieting 
the public anxiety and restoring the confidence of the people. Many 
of the victims were buried in unknown graves and their very location 
was soon forgotten. Many a wife or mother or sister waited in 
vain for tidings of the loved ones that never came, and never knew 
when or how they had passed away. 

A writer who was one of the survivors of that terrible time says : 
"What with floods and fires, insurrection and the plague, the very 
stars seemed to fight against Sacramento in her infancy, and the 
foundation of her later prosperity was laid upon the ashes of her 
pioneers." Before the disastrous visitation of the cholera. Dr. Still- 
man walked through the sandhill cemetery and counted eight hundred 
graves that had not yet been sodded over, and how many more 
were added by the still more terrible destroyer is not found recorded 
in the history of the time. Of a company of forty men who came 
out on the infected schooner Montague, more than half died after her 
arrival; and after her departure from Sacramento for Panama, the 
captain, second mate and six passengers died of cholera before leaving 
San Francisco bay. 

This terrible calamity lasted in its malignant form only about 
twenty days, but under the circumstances and from lack of systematic 
records, the number of deaths will never be known. Its abatement 
lasted much longer than its period of beginning and virulence, and 
began just as soon as the people became familiarized with its features 
and the terrible scenes in their midst, thus rendering them less liable 
to be attacked through a paralyzing fear. By the time it ceased, the 
city had become nearly depopulated and many thought it would 
never rise again from the disaster. But such prophecies did not take 
into account the sturdy perseverance of a strong people. Just as 
soon as the mortality began to obviously decrease, the fugitives began 
to return, and those who had remained to help their fellow man and 
to abide by the fortunes of the city recovered their elasticity of mind 
and energy. A transformation immediately commenced to take place 
in the appearance of the city. Confidence in its healthfulness re- 
turned; men grew cheerful and hopeful and business communication 
with the mines was reopened. The previous prosperous conditions 
were restored and for several weeks business was good once more, and 
the beautiful winter that followed stimulated the community to ener- 
getic efforts. 


But the inerchauts and traders had unfortunately calculated too 
much upon a winter like those of 1848 and 1849. This induced them 
to transport at high prices large stores of goods into the mining 
regions, trusting that communication would be difficult, as it was 
in the former year. But these goods, in consequence of the lack of 
water in dry diggings and the roads that offered immediate communi- 
cation with the mines all winter, were sold at ruinous sacrifices. 

A synopsis of events in the spring and summer shows that the 
city was divided into wards, April 15 ; the first mail left for Salt 
Lake, May 1 ; a city election May 5 polled 2482 A'otes and James R. 
Hardenbergh was elected mayor; the treasurer's report. May 6, showed 
the city's receipts for the fiscal year to have been $214,939.86 and 
the mayor's report showed the indebtedness to be $368,551.29 and 
that $80,000 of this was drawing interest at ten to twenty per cent 
per month, the balance from three to eight per cent per month. 
In June the city debt was funded at ten per cent per annum in New 
York and twelve yer cent in Sacramento. In September the popular 
vote of the county was 4115. The Tehama Theater burned August 13 
and Dr. Volney Spalding opened the American Theater September 9. 
On December 24 the courthouse was finished and January 14, 1852, 
the state offices and legislature moved to Sacramento and the 
first legislative session opened January 16. One thousand persons 
arrived by steamer January 20 and on the 23d, a brick building now 
on K street was begun. March 7 the city was overflowed again. 

At the municipal election, April 5, twenty-eight hundred two 
votes were east, C. I. Hvitchinson being elected mayor. The debt had 
increased to $449,105.32 and the estimated revenue to $200,000. At an 
election July 17 the people voted for a wide levee through I street, 
and also to erect a city hall and prison. October 8 there was an 
agricultural fair. The population at this time was between ten 
thousand and twelve thousand. On November 2 there was a terrible 
conflagration. December 17 there was a storm of four days duration 
and on the 25th the upper part of the city was flooded. By January 
1, 1853, the water was higher than ever before known. January 13 
the people voted for water-works, fire department, loan and three- 
quarters per cent additional taxation. Many mercantile houses this 
month established branches at Hoboken, trade being entirely cut off 
from the city by reason of high water and impassable roads. 

The Golden Eagle, at the corner of Seventh and K streets, 
was for more than half a century considered the hotel par excellence 
of the city, and dates back in a much cruder form to the early days 
of Sacramento. For many years it was a headquarters for the 
Repulilican politicians, while the Cajiital hotel, on the corner opposite, 
was considered the Democratic headquarters. Many a state campaign 
and legislative session were engineered and directed from these two 


Where the Golden Eagle now stands, in 1851, "Dan" Callahan, 
for many years the proprietor of that hotel, erected his frame lodging 
house, which he had purchased for a span of horses, and added to 
it a canvas annex, upon the flaps of which a joker named Wrightmire, 
with artistic talent, drew with charcoal the figure of an eagle, with 
outspread wings and a pensive air, and named the structure the 
Golden Eagle, and the name clung to it through the pioneer days with 
the tenacity of an inspired title. 


In 1854 the old Whig party was passing away and the anti-slavery 
party was pushing its way to the front. The exciting struggle in 
"bleeding" Kansas was attracting widespread attention and becom- 
ing a lively political issue and a fruitful subject for discussion. On 
Tuesday, July 18, a Democratic convention met in the Fourth Street 
Baptist Church in this city, at 3 P. M. Disturbance was in the air, 
and long before the hour for opening the convention, the doors of 
the church were surrounded by people, a great many of whom were 
not delegates. The church would hold about four hundred, and as 
soon as the doors were opened the people crowded in and filled it to 
its utmost capacity. 

D. C. Broderick was chairman of the state central committee, 
and when he ascended the platform he was received with continued 
cheers. As soon as he called the convention to order a number of 
delegates sprang to their feet, in order to make nominations for 
temporary chairman. He recognized T. L. Vermule as having the 
floor, but before he could make the announcement, John O'Meara 
nominated ex-Governor Jolm McDougal for temporary chairman. 
Vermule nominated Edward McGowan for chairman pro tem, and 
Broderick announced that he could not recognize O'Meara 's nomina- 
tion, and put the question on McGowan 's election and declared him 
elected. McGowan mounted the platform immediately, followed closely 
by McDougal, whose friends insisted that he had been elected, although 
his name had not been submitted to the convention in regular form. 

The convention thus had two chairmen, who took seats side by 
side and pandemonium reigned for a time. Finally a semblance of 
order was restored, and McDougal announced the names of Major 
G. W. Hook and John Bidwell as vice-presidents and McGowan 
announced J. T. Hall and A. L. Laird as appointed by him to those 
offices. A scene of noise and confusion again followed, but the gen- 
tlemen named took their seats with their respective leaders. The 
appointment of two sets of secretaries and committees followed and 
reports were made to each side, recommending that the temporary 


officers be made the permanent ones. Motions were made to adopt 
the respective reports, and were declared carried,, amid great excite- 

The convention transacted no other business, but sat as a double- 
header until nine o'clock that night, each side endeavoring to outstay 
the other. One sickly tallow candle in front of each president, illum- 
inated the scene, or rather made darkness visible. The situation 
lasted Imtil the trustees of the church notified the convention that 
they would no longer tolerate the riotous assemblage in the church, 
and the delegates departed without attending to the formality of 
an adjournment. 

Pandemonium had reigned throughout the session and soon after 
the organization was completed a crowd made a mad rush for the 
platform. One of the officers was seized and just then a pistol 
exploded in the crowded room. The direction of the rush was imme- 
diately changed toward the doors and windows, a number of the dele- 
gates jumping through the latter to the ground, a distance of about 
fifteen feet. This ended the exciting events of the day. 

The next morning the "chivalry," or southern element of the 
party, the wing presided over by McDougal, met at Musical Hall, while 
the McGowan, or Tammany faction, representing the northern ele- 
ment, met in Carpenter's building. The officers of the chivalry wing- 
tendered their resignations and Major Hook was elected president 
and H. P. Barber, William A. Mannerly, A. W. Taliafero, and J. G. 
Downey were elected \ace-presidents. The other convention sent a 
message asking that a committee on conference be appointed in order 
to endeavor to settle the ditferenees. As the language of the com- 
munication was considered offensive, it was withdrawn for the pur- 
pose of modifying the phraseology. A second note was afterward 
sent in, but as it was quite similar to the first, it met with a flat 
rejection. The convention then nominated candidates for congress 
and for clerk of the supreme court; passed resolutions favoring the 
construction of the Atlantic and Pacific /Railroad under the auspices 
of congress, and endorsing the Nebraska Bill, etc. It also elected a 
state central committee and levied an assessment of five dollars on 
each delegate, to pay for the damage done to church building. 

The McGowan wing met at 9 :30 on the morning of the 19th, that 
gentleman continuing to act as chairman. They appointed a committee 
of seven to invite the McDougal convention to attend their session 
and also empowered the committee to heal the difficulties. When the 
convention re-assembled the committee reported that they had sent 
a communication to the McDougal convention, but that the proposition 
embraced in it had been rejected. The communication sent was as 
follows : 

"John McDougal, Esq., Chairman of Democratic delegates con- 


vened at Musical Hall: Sir — The undersigned have been this morn- 
ing constituted a committee, with full powers, by and on behalf of the 
Democratic state convention at Carpenter's Hall, for a conference 
with our fellow Democrats at Musical Hall, for the purpose of harmon- 
izing and uniting the Democrats of California. You will be pleased 
to announce this to your body; and any communication may be ad- 
dressed to the chairman of this committee, at Jones' hotel." 

The report was accepted and the committee was discharged. The 
couvention then proceeded to nominate a ticket entirely different 
from that nominated by the McDougal convention. It also adopted 
a series of resolutions alluding to the heterogeneous condition of the 
party in the state, and to the differences of the convention in this 
city. They urged the people of the state to accept their ticket as most 
likely to effect conciliation. They also appointed a state central com- 
mittee and took up a collection of four hundred dollars to reimburse 
the Baptist church for the damage done to it, a committee having 
reported that the injury to the building would amount to that sum. 
Several of the nominees withdrew from the ticket after the convention 
adjourned, and the Tammany wing, after the election, ascribed its 
defeat to the withdrawal of Milton S. Latham, who afterwards became 
governor, from the congressional ticket. 

The time had arrived when a new party was to spring up and 
enter the field of politics and later to attain a dominating influence 
in the state. The first mass meeting of Republicans in California 
was held in Sacramento, April 19, 1856. E. B. Crocker was the leader 
of the new party in Sacramento county, and opened the meeting with 
an address that was listened to attentively. George C. Bates was 
introduced and attempted to make a speech, but so much noise and 
confusion ensued in a disturbance raised by Democrats and Americans 
that his voice could not be heard. Henry S. Foote, who had been 
governor of Mississippi, begged the turbulent crowd to desist from 
disturbing the meeting and allow it to proceed, but no attention was 
paid to his protest. When the Republican speakers again attempted 
to proceed, the crowd made a rush for the stand, overturned it and 
broke the meeting up. 

April 30. 1856, the first state convention of the Republicans was 
held in the Congregational Church in this city. E. B. Crocker pre- 
sided as temporary chairman. Only thirteen counties were represented 
in the convention and of the one hundred and twenty-five delegates 
composing it, sixty-five were from Sacramento and San Francisco. 
Resolutions were adopted opposing the further extension of slave ter- 
ritory and of slave power; welcoming honest and industrious im- 
migrants; deprecating all attempts to prejudice immigrants against 
our free institutions; favoring the speedy construction of a trans- 
continental railroad bv aid from congress; favoring the speedy set- 


tlement of land titles in this state; and the election of onlj' bona fide 
permanent settlers to office. 

A public discussion was announced to take place early in May 
in Sacramento, between George C. Bates, Eepublican, and J. C. Za- 
briskie. Democrat, but when the time appointed arrived, no location 
could be procured, on account of the anticipated disturbance. The 
meeting was therefore postponed until the evening of the 10th of 
that month, and when the time arrived the disturbance commenced. 
Rotten eggs were thrown and firecrackers were exploded to create 
a turmoil, but the police made several arrests and restored order. 
Outsiders took possession of the stand after the meeting closed and 
a resolution was adopted declaring "that the people of this city have 
been outraged by the discussion of treasonable doctrines by a public 
felon; and that we will not submit to such an outrage in the future." 

Looking back at this day one naturally wonders that such intoler- 
ance should be shown in a free state, but "history repeats itself," 
and there are many similar instances of narrow-mindedness and in- 
tolerance in the world's history, not only in political, but in religious, 
scientific and other matters. But for the evolution of new ideas and 
doctrines there would be no progress in the world, and today it 
would be hard to find one to contradict Galileo's murmured protest, 
"but it does move." The doctrines advocated in 1856 have long 
ago worked out their own solution, through much bloodshed and de- 
vastation and the whole fair domain of our great republic acknowledge 
that the destruction of slavery was a blessing to our country. 

A few days after the meeting the Sacramento Tribune (Amer- 
ican), referring to the meeting, said: "The fact that a public dis- 
cussion was permitted to take place in a public street in the heart 
of oui' city, in the presence of a large concourse of our citizens, 
almost all of whom disapprove the doctrine advocated by the speaker, 
and this too, when it is the firm conviction of a large majority of 
the ])ersons assembled that the agitation of the slavery question as 
the basis of political organization is against the true interest of the 
state and nation, speaks volumes in favor of the public morals of 
Sacramento." The extract indicates the bitterness of feeling that 
had already begim to grow up against the agitation for the abolition 
of slavery, or its restriction to limits where it already existed. 


A remarkable political clash took place July 25, 1865, at a county 
convention held in Sacramento. Through dissention in the Union 
party two factions had arisen. Governor Frederick F. Low was a 
candidate for the United States senatorship, and was the choice of 
one wing of the party, but there was strong opposition to Ms nomina- 
tion. The Low and anti-Low delegates in the convention were about 
equal in numbers and the convention met in the Assembly Chamber 


of what was tlien the State Capitol, afterwards, and until latelj' de- 
molished, the Sacramento county courthouse. The desks which or- 
dinarily occupied the chaniher had heen removed, and replaced by 
chairs to accommodate the convention of one hundred and six dele- 
gates who were exjjected to be present. It was a noticeable fact, that 
almost without exception the Low delegates, dubbed the short-hairs, 
occupied the seats on the speaker's right hand, while the anti-Lows, 
known as the long-hairs, occupied the seats on his left. 

As soon as the convention had been called to order, two per- 
sons were nominated for temporary secretary, and voted for. The 
chairman of the county central committee announced that AV. H. 
Barton, the long-hair candidate, had been elected to the position by 
a viva-voce vote. At once the convention was a scene of confusion, 
and the Low delegates insisted on a count of the vote. As Barton 
advanced from the left toward the secretary's table, the delegates 
from the right made a rush to the left side of the chamber. 

So sudden was the outbreak that it is hard to describe the ter- 
rible scene that followed and that has never before or since been wit- 
nessed in any political convention in this state. Barton was inter- 
eejited 1>.\- his ojaponents before he could reach the secretary's table 
and was told that he should not serve in that position. The dele- 
gates on the long-hair side of the house hastened to his support, 
while the l^ow men presented a solid front to bar his way to the 
desk, and instantly the battle was on, the opposing wings joining in 
a hand to hand conflict. Weapons for the combatants appeared as 
if by magic, and solid hickory canes, which ajipeared to be abundant 
on both sides, were vigorously used. It was a reproduction of Don- 
nybrook fair and the battle waged hot and furious. Spittoons were 
numerous and flew through the air like bombshells. Inkstands sup- 
plied the place of cannon balls and the artillery was in full action. 
Pistols were drawn and used freely as clubs, but no firearms were 
discharged or knives used. The principal weapons of warfare in use 
on both sides were the chairs, which had not been furnished with the 
idea of their being applied to the heads of the delegates, and which 
were not very well adapted for that purpose, but were swimg in the 
air by vigorous arms and used with telling effect, being broken over 
the heads of the contending parties. In many instances they were 
broken u}) in order that the legs might be used as clubs. No Homer 
has as yet sung the doughty deeds performed on that occasion, and 
the names of the heroes have passed into oblivion. The battle, while 
furious, did not last over about five minutes, and when the artillery 
fire had ceased, the long-hairs, who had rallied to Barton's support, 
had al)andoned the field. Some had jumped through the windows, and 
others, who had been badly hurt, were assisted from the scene. The 
greater number had passed out into the ante-room and the main hall, 


leaving the scene of conflict. Thus ended this episode of what has 
passed into history as the ' ' Spittoon Convention. ' ' 

The long-hairs retired in a body after the battle was over, and 
organized in another hall, while the short-hairs, as victors, occupied 
the battle-field and proceeded with business. Each convention nom- 
inated a full local ticket and elected a set of delegates to the state con- 
vention. The long-hairs nominated Newton Booth for state senator, 
while E. H. Heaton was the nominee of the short-hairs. The shorts 
claimed that the trouble in the convention was caused by a partial 
ruling by the chairman of the committee in favor of Barton, and by 
the determination of the long-hairs to run the convention, regardless 
of the rights or wishes of their opponents. The short-hair convention 
instructed its nominees for the legislature to vote for Low for United 
States senator, but he aftej-wards declined. The breach in the party 
was not healed by his withdrawal, however, and the opposition lasted 
until August, when the short-hairs gradually transferred their sup- 
port to John E. Felton for United States senator. When the state 
convention met, however, Cornelius Cole was elected, December 16, 
as the agreed candidate of both wings. 

Ex-Governor H. S. Foote, referred to in relation to the first Ee- 
publican meeting, was well-known on this coast. Born in Virginia 
in 1800, he graduated at Washington College in 1819, commenced the 
practice of law in 1822, edited a Democratic paper in Alabama, 1824-32, 
and resided in Mississippi for a number of years, being elected by the 
legislature of that state to the United States senate. He resigned his 
senatorshi]) and was elected governor of the state in 1852. In 1854 he 
came to (California and joined the Native American party and was its 
candidate for United States senator in 1856, being defeated by David 
C. Broderick. He returned to Mississippi in 1858 and took an active 
part in politics. He represented Tennessee in the Confederate con- 
gress. During his life he was engaged in three duels and was wounded 
in two of them. One of his daughters became the wife of Senator W. 
M. Stewart, and the other two married and reside in California, while 
his two sons became practicing lawyers on the Pacific coast. Mr. Foote 
possessed considerable ability as a writer. In 1866 he published "The 
War of the Eebellion," and "Scylla and Charybdis." In 1871 he |nib- 
lished a volume of reminiscences and was also the author of "Texas 
and the Texans," published in 1847. He died near Nashville, at his 
residence. May 20, 1880. 



Sacramento county was formallj^ organized in 1850, when the legis- 
lature passed "An act subdividing the state into counties and estab- 
lishiug the seats of justice therein," February 18, 1850. Section 17 
of that act defined the boundaries of Sacramento coimty as follows: 
"Beginning at a point ten miles due nortli of the mouth of the Ameri- 
can river, and running thence in an easterly direction to the junction 
of the north and south forks of said river; thence up the middle of 
the principal channel of the south fork to a point one mile above the 
head of Mormon island, so as to include said island in Sacramento 
county; thence in a southerly direction to a point on the Cosuranes 
river eight miles above the house of William Daylor ; thence due soutli 
to Dry creek ; thence down the middle of said creek to its entrance 
into the Moquelumne river, or into a large slough in the tule marsh; 
thence down the middle of said slough to its junction with the San 
Joaquin river; thence down the middle of said river to the mouth of 
the Sacramento river, at the head of Suisun bay; thence up the mid- 
dle of the Sacramento river to the mouth of Merritt's slough; tlience 
up the middle of said slough to its head; thence up the middle of the 
Sacramento river to a point due west of the place of beginning, and 
then east to the place of beginning. The seat of justice shall be Sacra- 
mento City." 

In the "History of Sacramento," published in 1853 by Dr. John 
I. Morse, who was the earliest historian of the embryo city and county, 
he alludes to what was probably the first election held in what was then 
known as Sacramento District, as follows: "In the fall of 1848, an 
election was held at the fort (Sutter's) for first and second alcaldes, 
and resulted in the selection of Frank Bates and John S. Fowler. 
Fowler resigned in the spring following, and H. A. Schoolcraft was 
elected to fill the vacancy. In the spring of 1849, Brannan, Snyder, 
Slater, Hensley, King, Cheever, McCarver, McDougal, Barton- Lee, 
Dr. Carpenter, Southard, and Fowler were elected a board of com- 
missioners to frame a code of laws for the district. Pursuant to the 
wish of this legislating committee, the people convened under a broad- 
spreading oak at the foot of I street. The report, which was then of- 
ficially submitted and which was duly accepted by the sovereigns as- 
sembled, provided the following offices of a jurisdiction extending from 
the Coast Range to the Sierra Nevada, and throughout the length of 
the Sacramento Valley, to wit: — One alcalde and one sheriff. H. A. 
Schoolcraft was then elected alcalde, and A. M. Turner, sheriff. This 
constituted the judiciary of Northern California up to the time that 
those changes took place in very rapid succession after the immigration 
of 1849 began to concentrate at Sacramento." 


In 1871 a history of Sacramento was published in Crocker's direc- 
tory, which was written by D. J. Thomas, and aUudes in part to the 
same event, but as will be seen, the list of the legislative committee 
differs somewhat, and as to which is correct, there is no means of de- 
ciding. Mr. Thomas says: 

"The first attempt to establish a civil government under American 
ideas of government was made on April 30, 1849, when a mass meeting 
of the then residents of Sacramento City and other portions of Sacra- 
mento district was held at the Embarcadero to devise a means for the 
government of the city and district. At this meeting Henry A. School- 
craft presided, Peter Slater was vice-president and James King of 
William and E. J. Brooks secretaries. Samuel Brannan explained 
the object of the meeting, and it was resolved that a kgislature of 
eleven members should be elected, with full powers to enact laws for 
the government of the city and district. It was also determined to hold 
the election forthwith, and Henry Bates, M. D., M. F. McClellan, Mark 
Stewart, Ed. H. Von Pfister and Eugene I. Gillespie were appointed 
judges. The vote resulted in the election of John McDougal, Peter 
Slater, Barton Lee, John S. Fowler, J. S. Robb, William Pettit, Wm. 
M. Carpenter, M. D., Charles D. Southard, M. M. McCarver, James 
King of William and Sanmel Brannan, but u])on tlie announcement of 
the result, Robb declined to accept, and Henry Cheever was chosen. 
The eleven were immediately swoi'n in, and some time afterward adopt- 
ed a code that no laws were wanted, and that all the officers necessary 
for the district of Sacramento, bounded on the north and west by the 
Sacramento river, on the east by the Sierra Nevada s, and on the south 
by the Cosumnes river, were one alcalde and one sheriff. They then 
submitted the code to the people for adoption or rejection, and asked 
them at the same time to vote for officers. The code was adopted. 

"Nothing further toward adopting a local government was at- 
tempted until after the proclamation by General Riley (the military 
governor) was issued at Monterey on June 3rd. In fact, nothing 
seemed necessary, if theft was by common consent punished, as the 
Times says, 'by giving the offender thirty or forty rawhide lashes, 
and then ordering him off, not to return under penalty of death. ' ' ' 

The proclamation of General Riley called for an election to be 
lield August 1, 1849, to elect delegates to a general convention and 
for filling necessary offices. A meeting was held on July 5th, and a 
committee was appointed to organize the district into precincts, ap- 
portion the representation, and nominate the candidates to be voted 
for. The committee consisted of R. B. Cornwall C. E. Pickett, Will- 
iam M. Carpenter, Samuel Brannan, John McDougal, W. Blackburn, 
J. S. Robb, Samuel J. Hensley, Mark Stewart, M. M. McCarver, John 
S. Fowler and A. M. Winn. 

On the 14th the committee reported, recommending the places for 


polls, etc. At the election the vote stood: For delegates to the con- 
stitutioual convention: Jacob R. Snyder, 469; John A. Sutter, 468; 
John Bidwell, 462; W. E. Shannon, 458; L. W. Hastings, 450; W. S. 
Sherwood, 446; M. M. McCarver, 296; Jolm S. Fowler, 289; John Mc- 
Dougal, 281 ; Charles E. Pickett, 193 ; W. Blacklnirn, 192 ; E. 0. Crosby, 
189 ; R. M. Jones, 179 ; W. Lacey, 123 ; James Qneen, 130. 

For local offices : William Stout, Henry E. Robinson, R. B. Corn- 
wall, Eugene I. Gillispie, T. L. Chapman, Berryman Jennings, John 
P. Rodgers, A. M. Winn, and M. F. McClellan were elected as mem- 
bers of the city council without opposition, by an average vote of 424. 
James S. Thomas was elected .first magistrate by three hundred ninety- 
three votes, against twenty-two for S. S. White and five for J. S. 
Fowler. J. C. Zabriskie was elected second magistrate; H. A. School- 
craft, recorder, and D. B. Hanner, sheriff. 

Under the call for the constitutional convention the district was 
entitled to but four delegates, and J. R. Snyder, W. E. Shannon, W. 
S. Sherwood and John A. Sutter were certified by General Riley as 
elected representatives. Afterwards the representation was increased 
to fifteen, and in addition to the original four, eleven others were ap- 
pointed, as follows: L. W. Hastings, John Bidwell, John S. Fowler, 
M. M. McCarver, John McDougal, E. 0. Crosby, W. Blackburn, James 
Queen, R. M. Jones, W. Lacey and C. E. Pickett. 

The convention adjourned in October and an election was called 
for November 12, 1849, to vote on the constitution, for state officers, 
and for representatives in the legislature. At that election the vote 
of Sacramento district was declared to be as follows: For the Con- 
stitution, 4317 ; against the Constitution, 643 ; for Governor, P. H. 
Burnett, 2409 ; J. A. Sutter, 856 ; W. S. Sherwood, 1929 ; Thomas Mc- 
Dowell, 87; William M. Stewart, 448. 

For State Senators: John Bidwell, 3474; Elisha 0. Crosby, 2610; 
Thomas J. Green, 2516; Henry E. Robinson, 2328; Murray Morrison, 
2171 ; Gilbert A. Grant, 1687 ; Hardin Biglow, 1407 ; Charles E. Pickett, 
905. The first four were declared elected and at the ensuing session 
the county boundaries were fixed. 

The first Monday of October was fixed in the first election law as 
the day for electing state officers and was denominated the general 
election. The first Monday in April was designated as the day for 
the election of county officers and was called the county election. The 
legislature of 1851 repealed the clause fixing the time for the county 
election and provided that it should be held at the same time as the 
state election, and the time for that election was changed to the first 
Wednesday in September, where it remained for a number of years. 
Originally, the terms of the county officers commenced on the first 
Monday in May, 1850, but the le.gislature of 1851 changed it so that 
the term commenced on the first Monday in October following the elec- 


tion. The legislature in 1863 changed it again so that the official terms 
commenced on the first Monday in March following the election. The 
new constitution, adoj^ted in 1879, fixed the time for all state and 
county officers commencing their terms of office on the first Monday 
in January. 

The first county officers, elected April 1, 1850, to serve until April, 
1852, were as follows : County judge, E. J. Willis ; sheritf , Joseph 
McKinney ; clerk, Preslej^ Dunlap ; recorder, L. A. Birdsall ; district 
attorney, William C. Wallace; county attorney, John H. McKune; 
treasurer, William Glaskin; assessor, David W. Thorpe; surveyor, J. 
G. Cleal ; coroner, P. F. Ewer ; J. S. Thomas was elected district judge 
by the legislature of 1849-50, and he resigned, January 1, 1851. Tod 
Robinson was appointed January 2, 1851, and served until the first 
part of August, when Ferris Forman, who was secretary of state dur- 
ing the administration of John B. Weller, succeeded him on the 14th 
of August, and presided one month. Lewis Aldrich became district 
judge September 15, 1851. Joseph McKinney, sheriff, was killed near 
Brighton, on the evening of August 15, 1850, the day after the Squat- 
ter riot, and Ben McCuUoch was elected at a special election to fill 
the vacancy, on the first Monday in September. The office of county 
attorney was abolished by the legislature of 1851, the duties of the 
office being assigned to the district attorney. Wallace resigned in the 
meantime, and was succeeded October 18, 1850, by Milton S. Latham, 
afterward governor. William Glaskin resigned the office of treasurer, 
August 22, 1850, and John W. Peyton was appointed to fill the vacancy. 
He in turn resigned November 29, 1850, and Charles H. Swift was ap- 
jiointed treasurer and collector by the court of sessions, of which he 
was a member. 

The court of sessions was composed of the county judge and two 
associates and was the court of criminal jurisdiction. The associates 
were elected by a convention of justices of the peace, held the first 
Mondav in October of each year, except the first convention, which was 
held May 20, 1850, when Charles F. Swift and C. C. Sackett were elected 
associates. This court filled vacancies in office in the county and at- 
tended to the financial affairs of the county in early times. When 
Swift was appointed treasurer he was succeeded by James Brown as 
an associate, who assumed his duties February 7. 1851, and was suc- 
ceeded August 14 by D. D. Bullock. 

County officers to serve from October, 1851, to October 5, 1853, were 
elected September 3. 1851, as follows: County judge, E. J. Willis; 
sheriff, A. D. Patterson; clerk, L. B. Harris; recorder and auditor, 
W. S. Long; district attorney, George H. Carter; treasurer, Cyrus 
Rowe; assessor, W. A. Selkirk; surveyor, John G. Cleal; coroner. 
S. J. May; public administrator, John T. Brown; associate justices, 
George Wilson and James B. Gates. 


A board of supervisors in the several counties to transact the 
financial business in their counties was provided for by the legis- 
lature of 1852, and a special election was held on June 14 of that 
year. John Noyes, Louis Z. Hagen, James S. Meredith, James Mar- 
tin, and E. M. Pitcher were elected, Meredith being elected chairman 
when the board was organized. At the general election held Septem- 
ber, 1852, the following were elected : William McNulty, Luther Cur- 
tis, John A. Watson, H. H. Lewis and H. B. Waddilove. Watson was 
elected chairman and the board conducted the county business until 
May 16, 1853. After that time the court of sessions assumed control 
of the civil business of the county. 

At the election September 7, 1853, the following county officers 
were elected, and served until October, 1855 : County judge, Jolin 
Heard; sheriff, D. N. Hunt; clerk, Abner C. Hunter; recorder and 
auditor, John L. Craig; district attorney, James H. Hardy; treas- 
urer, J. Griswold; assessor, H. J. Bidleman; surveyor, W. L. De- 
Witt; coroner, Ephraim Smith; public administrator, James B. 

The legislature passed another act in 1855, relative to boards of 
supervisors, and as the sui)reme court had decided that it was con- 
templated by the constitution that the business interests of the vari- 
ous counties should be managed by the boards, the court of sessions 
was not eligible to act, and the counties again elected boards of super- 
visors. The first election under this act was held April 2, with the 
result that J. L. Howard, L. P. Ormsby and F. S. Munford constituted 
the board, which commenced its sessions early in May. In September, 
1855, L. R. Bickley, Josiah Johnson and S. E. Caldwell were elected to 
the board and Johnson was chosen chairman. 

September 5, 1855, county officers were elected as. follows, serv- 
ing from October, 1855, to October 1, 1857: County judge, John 
Heard; sheriff, W. S. AVliite; clerk, C. H. Bradford; recorder and 
auditor, John L. Brown; district attorney, Frank Hereford; treas- 
urer, David Maddux; coroner, E. Bell; public administrator, Gordon 
Backus; superintendent of common schools, F. W. Hatch (the first 
school superintendent elected by the people). Up to the time Mr. 
Hatch assumed the office its duties were performed by the county as- 
sessor; the board of 1856 was composed of L. E. Beckley, A. Spinks 
and Julius Wetzlar, and Beckley was chairman. In 1857 the mem- 
bers of the board were Jared Irwin, C. C. Harrington and Frank Hast- 
ings, the latter being chairman. 

September 2, 1857, the county officers elected were : County judge, 
E. Eobinson; sheriff, W. S. Manlove; clerk, J. B. Dayton; recorder 
and auditor, Jerome Madden; district attorney, Eobert F. Morrison; 
treasurer, Morgan Miller; assessor, E. Black Eyan; surveyor, John 
G. Cleal; coroner, J. P. Counts; public administrator, L. E. Beckley; 


school superintendent, N. Slater. The legislature of 1858 passed a law 
consolidating- the government of the city and county and increased the 
board of supervisors five members, making the president of the board 
a separate office. A special election was held in April, at which H. 
L. Nichols was elected president and Mark Hopkins, J. A. Carroll, 
S. C. Fogus, E. Stockton and W. K. Lindsay the new members. These, 
with the old members, met May 8, 1858. In September, 1858, a lioard 
was elected, consisting of the following: E. Granger, John Leavitt, 
Sylvester Marshall, H. T. Holmes, I. N. Babcock, John B. Taylor, L. 

C. Goodman and W. K. Lindsay, and the president was continued 
another year. August 4, 1859, B. H. Hereford was elected in place of 
Lindsay, resigned. 

The members in 1859 were : President, William Shattuck ; mem- 
bers, E. Granger, John Leavitt, E. L. Eobertson, A. Henley, I. N. 
Babcock, A. M. Green, L. C. Goodman and Larkin Lamb. S. Marshall 
served until October 11, when he was succeeded by Mr. Eobertson. 
Thomas Letson was clerk, being the first elected under the consolida- 
tion act. October V2. 1859, Thomas Hunt was elected, vice Goodman, 

County officers elected Se])tember, 1859, and serving until October, 
1861, were: County judge, Roliert Robertson; sheritf, Sylvester Mar- 
shall; clerk and recorder, Jerome Madden; district attorney, Cornelius 
Cole; treasurer, C. L. Bird; assessor, E. B. Evan; surveyor, J. G. 
Cleal; coroner, D. Murray; public administrator, Jared Irwin; school 
superintendent, F. W. Hatch; clerk of board and auditor, Thomas Let- 
son. Leu Harris was elected county warden in 1861, but the office was 
abolished. The l)oard in 1860 was composed of ?]. Granger, Thomas 
Hansbrow, P. H. Eussell, A. Henlej^ J. S. Woods, A. M. Green, S. 
Waterman and Larkin Lamb. Shattuck, the president, was continued. 
The members of the l)oard in 1861 were: President, William Shattuck, 
E. Granger, Thomas Hansbrow, P. H. Eussell, S. Hite, J. S. Woods, 
Jacob Dickerson, S. Waterman and John Hall. 

September 4, 1861, the election for county officers resulted as fol- 
lows : County .judge, Eo1)ert C. Clark; sheriff, Benjamin N. Bugby; 
clerk and recorder, Jared Irwin; district attorney, W. W. Upton; 
treasurer, C. L. Bird; assessor, E. B. Eyan; surveyor, G. W. Colby; 
coroner, J. W. Eeeves; jniblic administrator, F. McComber; school 
superintendent, F. W. Hatch; clerk of board and auditor, Josiah 
Howell. Bird absconded and James C. McDonough was ajipointed 
treasurer by the board. The board in 1862 was composed of E. Gran- 
ger, N. L. Drew, Thomas Eoss, S. Hite, J. L. Graves, Jacob Dickerson, 

D. L. Williams and J. Hall, with Shattuck as president. They served 
until March 7, 1864. In 1863 the legislature divided the city and counts- 
government and reduced the board of supervisors for the county to 
five membei-s. The new organization took place in the spring and the 


following composed the board: A. C. Bidwell, Thomas Ross, Joseph 
Hull, H. A. Thompson and Dwight Hollister, Ross being chairman. 

At the election of September 2, 1863, the following county officers 
were elected to serve until March, 1866: County judge, R. C. Clark; 
sheriff, James McClatchy; clerk and recorder, A. C. Bidwell; dis- 
trict attorney, M. M. Estee; treasurer, F. S. Lardner; assessor P. R. 
Beckley; surveyor, G. W. Colby; coroner, J. W. Reeves; public ad- 
ministrator, J. E. Miller; school superintendent, Sparrow Smith; clerk 
of the board of supervisors and auditor, Josiah Howell. At the gen- 
eral election in September, 186.3, the members of the board elected were 
as follows: D. W. Clark, Thomas Ross, Joseph Hull, H. A. Thomp- 
son and Dwight Hollister. Thompson failed to qualify and on No- 
vember 16 Jesse Couch was elected in his place. This board was elect- 
ed to serve two vears and took their seats the first Mondav in October, 

An election was held September 6, 1865, and county officers 
elected as follows to serve from March 5, 1866, to March 5, 1868: 
County judge, Robert C. Clark; sheriff, James Lansing; clerk and 
recorder, E. D. Shirland ; district attorney, James C. Goods ; treasurer, 
Ezra Woolson; assessor, E. Black Ryan; surveyor, A. G. Winn; 
coroner, Joseph A. Conboie; public administrator, Findley R. Dray; 
school superintendent, F. W. Hatch; clerk of board and auditor, 
W. A. Anderson; members of the board: D. W. Clark, M. McManus, 
Joseph Hull, Jesse Couch, and William Beckman; Hull was chairman. 

An election was held September 4, 1867, and the following ]iersons 
were elected to the county offices, serving from March, 1868, to March, 
1870 :— sheriff, Edward F. White (contested by Hugh M. LaRue) ; 
clerk. W. B. C. Brown; district attorney, James C. Goods; treasurer, 
A. Spinks; assessor, F. R. Dray; surveyor, John Doherty; coroner, J. 
P. Counts; public administrator, William Shattuck; school superin- 
tendent, Augustus Trafton; clerk of board and auditor, W. A. Mc- 
Williams ; board : John Domingos, C. H. Ross, Benjamin Bailey, James 
S. Meredith and William Beckman; Meredith was president. These 
members were elected for two years, and under the provision of the 
statute which was in force at the time of their election, their terms 
would have ex]:>ired in October, 1869, but the legislature of 1867-68 
extended the term of the members from the Third, Fourth and Fifth 
districts (Bailey, Meredith, and Beckman) to 1871, and they ser\ed 
four years. Judge Clark was successively re-elected each time until 
the county judgeship was abolished in 1879 by the new constitution. 

At the election September 1, 1869, the following county officers 
were elected, and served until March, 1872: — sheriff, J. S. Wood; 
clerk, W. B. C. Brown; treasurer, Alfred Spinks; recorder and ex- 
officio auditor, W. A. McWilliams; assessor, F. R. Dray; district 
attorney, John K. Alexander ; surveyor, A. G. Winn ; coroner, J. P. 


Counts ; school superintendent, Augustus Trafton ; public adminis- 
trator, William Shattuck; supervisors: — John Domingos, James H. 
Groth, Benjamin Bailey, James S. Meredith and William Beckman. 

At the general election of September 6, 1871, the officers elected 
were as follows, to serve until March, 1874: — sheritf, Mike Bryte; 
clerk, Lauren Upson; treasurer, John Bellmer; recorder and auditor, 
Jesse A. Stewart ; assessor, F. E. Dray ; district attorney, Henry 
Starr; surveyor, John Prentice; coroner, J. W. Wilson; school 
superintendent, S. H. Jackman ; public administrator, N. Q. Feldheim ; 
board of supervisors: — John Domingos, James H. Groth, James S. 
Meredith, S. B. Moore and J. W. Sims. September 2, 3873, Daniel 
Brown, J. J. Bauer, L. Elkus and H. 0. Seymour were elected. 

At the same election the following were elected county officers : — 
sheriff, Hiigh LaEue; collector of taxes, Joseph W. Houston; clerk, 
Ham C. Harrison; treasurer, John Bellmer; district attorney, Charles 
T. Jones; recorder, Matthew darken; auditor, Jesse A. Stewart; 
public administrator, H. S. Beals; superintendent of schools, George 
H. Kelly; surveyor, Ed. Murray; coroner, J. P. Counts; commissioner 
of liighways, H. D. Johnson. The supervisors who served in 1874-75 
were: James S. Meredith, S. B. Moore, Daniel Brown, J. V. Sims, 
H. 0. Seymour, L. Elkus and J. A. Mason, the legislature having 
increased the number of districts to seven. 

The officers elected in September, 1877, were as follows : — sheriff, 
M. M. Drew; clerk, Thomas H. Berkey; treasurer, D. E. Callahan; 
auditor, W. E. Gerber; district attorney, George A. Blanchard; 
superintendent of schools, F. L. Landes; public administrator, Troy 
Dye; surveyor, John Prentice; coroner, A. J. Vermilya. The super- 
visors serving from October, 1877, to October, 1878, were : S. B. Moore, 
J. W. Wilson, J. J. Bauer, P. E. Beckley, Samuel Blair, Daniel Brown, 
and Edward Christy. In 1878-79, Benjamin Bailev served in place 
of S. B. Moore. 

The county officers elected in September, 1879, were: — sheriff, 
Adolph Heilbron; clerk, Thomas H. Berkey; assessor, Joseph W. 
Houston; auditor, William E. Gerber; treasurer, Ezra Woolson; 
public administrator, George F. Bronner; district attorney, Henry L. 
Buckley; superintendent of schools, Charles E. Bishop; coroner, A. 
J. Vermilya; surveyor, James C. Pierson. Supervisors, 1880-81: — J. 
W. Wilson, Benjamin Bailey, P. E. Beckley, Edward Christy, Stephen 
W. Butler, Samuel Blair and John F. Dreman. 

The legislature of 1882 changed the time of elections to November, 
to correspond with the election of president of the United States. In 
November of that year the officers elected were : sheriff, A. H. Estill ; 
clerk, C. M. Coglan; assessor, John T. Griffitts; treasurer, A. S. Green- 
law; district attorney, John T. Carey; auditor and recorder, W. E. 
Gerber; public administrator, George F. Bronner; superintendent of 


schools, Charles E. Bishop; coroner, J. Frank Clark; surveyor, J. C. 
Pierson ; supervisors : J. F. Dreman, J. W. Wilson, Samuel Blair, S. W. 
Butler, Edward Christy, P. R. Beckley and Benjamin Bailey. ' 

At the election on November 4, 1884, the county officers were elected 
as follows : sheriff, J. W. Wilson ; clerk, W. B. Hamilton ; auditor and 
recorder, J. Henry Miller; district attorney, Henry L. Buckley; treas- 
urer, George E. Kuchler; public administrator, F. H. Russell; coroner, 
J. Frank Clark ; surveyor, J. C. Pierson ; supervisors : B. U. Steinman, 
George O. Bates, George C. McMullen, S. J. Jackson and L. H. Fassett. 
The number of districts had been changed from seven to five. 

The following were elected November 2, 1886: County clerk, W. 
B. Hamilton; sheriff, M. M. Drew; assessor, A. L. Frost; treasurer, 
John L. Huntoon; district attorney, Elwood Bruner; auditor and re- 
corder, J. H. Miller; superintendent of schools, Benjamin F. Howard; 
public administrator, S. B. Smith; coroner, J. Frank Clark; surveyor, 
J. C. Pierson; supervisors: H. C. Ross and F. F. Tebbets. Steinman, 
Bates and McMullen held over. During the year Miller resigned as 
auditor and recorder, and Frank T. Johnson was elected to succeed 
him. Mr. Howard made a most efficient superintendent of schools; so 
much so indeed that he was re-elected term after term and served in 
that capacity for twenty years, during which time he lifted the schools 
to a high degree of excellence, making them the peer of any in the state. 

November 6, 1888, the following were elected: sheriff, George C. 
McMullen; clerk, W. B. Hamilton; auditor and recorder, Frank T. John- 
son; district attorney, Elwood Bruner; treasurer, John L. Himtoon; 
public administrator, G. W. Harlow ; coroner, J. Frank Clark ; surveyor, 
J. C. Boyd ; supervisors : Andrew Black and George 0. Bates. Erskine 
Greer, H. C. Ross and F. F. Tebbets held over. 

In 1890 the officers elected were : sheriff and tax collector, Thomas 
W. O'Neil; clerk, W. B. Hamilton; treasurer, Edward Lyon; auditor 
and recorder, F. T. Johnson; district attorney, Frank D. Ryan; assessor, 
R. D. Irvine; coroner, George H. Clark; public administrator, George 
F. Bronner ; surveyor, A. M. Winn ; supervisors : M. Miller, George 0. 
Bates; Andrew Black, Erskine Greer and Thomas Jenkins. In 1892 
the supervisors were J. M. Morrison, J. W. Todd, M. Miller, William 
Curtis and Thomas Jenkins. 

County officers in 1894 were as follows: sheriff and tax collector, 
Frank T. Jolmson; clerk, W. B. Hamilton; treasurer, E. Lyon; auditor 
and recorder, R. T. Cohn; district attorney, Frank D. Ryan; assessor, 
Thomas H. Berkey ; coroner, George H. Clark ; public administrator, W. 
B. Miller ; surveyor, J. C. Boyd ; supervisors : John F. Dreman, J. W. 
Todd, J. M. Morrison, William Curtis and Thomas Jenkins. In 1896 the 
board was : J. F. Dreman, J. M. Morrison, William McLaughlin, Thomas 
Jenkins and William Curtis. Treasurer Lyon died during his term of 
office, and A. S. Greenlaw, his deputy, was elected by the supervisors 


to fill the vacancy. Public Administrator Miller also died during his 

In 1898 the officers elected were: sheriff, Frank T. Johnson; clerk, 
W. B. Hamilton; license and tax collector, B. N. Bugbey; treasurer, 
A. S. Greenlaw; auditor and recorder, R. T. Cohn; district attorney, 

C. W. Baker; assessor, T. H. Berkey; coroner, Q. C. McMullen; public 
administrator, S. B. Smith; surveyor, J. C. Boyd; supervisors: Dugald 
Gillis, William McLaughlin, J. M. Morrison, William Curtis and Thomas 
Jenkins. In 1900 the board was : D. Gillis, William McLaughlin, M. J. 
Dillman, Morris Brooke and Thomas Jenkins. 

The legislature had previously separated the offices of sheriff and 
tax collector, and Bugbey took advantage of the fact that the convention 
had neglected to nominate a tax collector. He announced himself as 
a candidate for the office, and as Johnson neglected to announce himself, 
Bugbey was elected. Sheriff Johnson died during his term and the 
supervisors ai)pointed David Reese to fill the vacancy. 

In 1902 the officers elected were: clerk, W. B. Hamilton; sheriff, 
David Reese; license and tax collector, Charles E. Trainor; treasurer, 
A. S. Greenlaw ; auditor, L. P. Williams ; recorder, R. T. Cohn ; district 
attorney, A. M. Seymour; assessor, T. H. Berkey; coroner, W. F. 
Gormley; public administrator, S. B. Smith; surveyor, J. C. Boyd; 
supervisors : E. A. Meister, William McLaughlin, M. J. Dillman, Morris 
Brooke and T. Jenkins. In 1904 the board was : C. W. McKillip, James 
H. Donnelly, H. K. Johnson, E. A. Meister and Gillis Doty. 

Treasurer Greenlaw died during his incumbency, and D. W. Car- 
michael was elected by the supervisors to fill the vacancy. Mr. (^ar- 
michael appointed M. J. Curtis as his depiity, the legislature having 
provided for a deputy at the i)revious session. 

The officers elected for 1906 were as follows : clerk, W. B. Hamilton ; 
sheriff, D. Reese ; license and tax collector, Charles E. Trainor ; district 
attorney, E. S. Wachorst ; coroner, W. F. Gormley; public administrator, 

D. McDougall; superintendent of schools, Mrs. Minnie R. O'Neil; sur- 
veyor, C. M. Phinney; recorder, C. A. Root; supervisors: Howard K. 
Johnson, David Ahern, Charles W. McKillip, J. H. Donnelly and L. 
C. Thisby. In 1908 the board was : Robert Callahan, J. H. Donnelly, 
L. C. Thisby, C. W. McKillip and Da\'id Ahern. 

Sheriff Reese died during his term of office, and the board of su))er- 
visors elected his son, Edward E. Reese, to fill the unexjiircl tenii. 
Assessor Berkey also died and the suiiervisors elected E. J. Kay, liis 
deputy, to the position. Mr. Kay had l)&en Berkey 's right hand man- 
for several years, and was thoroughly comjietent to fill the ]iosition, 
being well accpiainted witli tlie values of i-eal estate and ])erson;il 

The officers elected for 1910 were: clerk, W. B. Hamilton; sheriff, 
David Ahern; license and tax collector, Charles E. Trainor; auditor, 


L. P. Williams; recorder, C. A. Root; assessor, Ed. J. Kay; super- 
intendent of schools, Mrs. Minnie R. O'Neil; treasurer, M. J. Curtis; 
district attorney, E. S. Wachliorst; coroner, W. F. Gormley; i)ul)lic 
administrator, D. McDougall; surveyor, P"'rank C'. Miller; supervisors: 
J. H. Donnelly, Charles H. McKillip, Robert E. Callahan, James P. 
Kelly and Thomas Jenkins. 

County Clerk Hamilton died in the spring of 1911, and th(! board 
of supervisors elected Ed. F. Pfund, who had for many years been his 
deputy and was thoroughly conversant with the affairs of the office, 
to fill out the unexpired term. The apjjointment of Mr. Pfund gave 
universal satisfaction, both to the bar and the people, as his perennial 
courtesy and painstaking performance of his duties had gained liim 
a host of friends. 

No man in the county was more universally liked and respected 
than "Billy" Hamilton, as he was always called. Genial and affable, 
he was the friend of all, and all were his friends. As was once said 
of him, "Billy Hamilton is the same man the week after election 
that he was a week before he was elected." An ardent hunter and 
fisherman, he had a fund of sporting and other anecdotes, and was 
so happy in his methods as a raconteur that the most astounding ex- 
periences issuing from his lips took on the appearance of verity. His 
death was mourned by a host of friends. It was said of him that he 
never forgot a face, and could call every resident of the county by 
name, — a most valuable accomplishment for a politician. Peace to 
his manes. "AVe ne'er shall look upon his like again." 


A list of the officers of the city of Sacramento from 1849 follows : 

1849 — A. M. Winn, mayor; the alcalde was recorder; N. C. Cun- 
ningham, marshal; William Glaskin, city clerk and auditor; J. A. Tutt, 
assessor; S. C. Hastings, treasurer; B. Brown, collector; Murray Mor- 
rison, city attorney; R. J. Watson, harbormaster. 

1850 — Hardin Biglow, mayor (died in office) ; Horace Smith, 
mayor (to fill vacancy) ; B. F. Washington, recorder; N. C. Cunning- 
ham, marshal ; J. B. Mitchell, city clerk and auditor ; J. W. Woodland, 
assessor; Barton Lee, treasurer; E. B. Pratt, collector; J. Neely John- 
son, city attorney; George W. Hammersley, harbormaster. 

Hardin Biglow, the mayor, was severely wounded in the Squatter 
riot and died in San Francisco of cholera ])efore recovering from his 
wounds. Horace Smith was elected to succeed him. J. W. Woodland, 
the assessor, was also killed in the Squatter riot, but his place does 


not seem to have been filled, the elections at that time being for only 
one year. 

1851 — James R. Hardenbergh, mayor; W. H. McGrew, recorder; 
W. S. White, marshal; L. Curtis, clerk and auditor; Samuel McKee, 
assessor; W. E. MeCracken, treasurer; W. S. White, collector; J. 
Neely Johnson, city attorney; John Eequa, harbormaster. 

1852 — C. I. Hutchinson, mayor; W. H. McGrew, recorder; David 
McDowell, marshal; Wasliington Meeks, city clerk and auditor; Wil- 
liam Lewis, assessor; E. Chenery, treasurer; D. McDowell, collector; 
John G. Ayer, city attorney; John Eequa, harbormaster; W. A. Sel- 
kirk, superintendent of schools. 

1853 — J. E. Hardenbergh, mayor; N. Greene Curtis, recorder; 
W. S. White, marshal ; John A. Fowler, city clerk and auditor ; Samuel 
T. Clymer, assessor; C. J. Torbert, treasurer; W. S. White, collector; 
L. Landus, Jr., city attorney; Gordon Backus, harbormaster; PI. J. 
Bidleman, superintendent of schools. 

1854 — E. P. Johnson, mayor; N. Greene Curtis, recorder; W. S. 
White, marshal ; T. A. Thomas, city clerk and auditor ; E. C. Winehell, 
assessor; W. E. Chamberlain, treasurer; N. A. H. Ball, collector; 
W. Cyrus Wallace, city attorney; Frank Harney, harbormaster; H. W. 
Harkness, superintendent of schools. 

1855 — James Lawrence English, mayor; N. Greene Curtis, re- 
corder ; James W. Haines, marshal ; W. E. Chamberlain, city clerk and 
auditor; Preseott Eobinson, assessor; John C. Barr, treasurer; J. T. 
Knox, collector; Horace Smith, city attorney; James W. Haines, har- 
bormaster; Frank Tukey, superintendent of schools (resigned), F. W. 
Hatch (to fill vacancy). 

1856— B. B. Eedding, mayor; W. W. Price, recorder; Thomas Mc- 
Alpin, marshal; John F. Madden, city clerk and auditor; W. C. Felch, 
assessor; W. M. Brainerd, treasurer; John H. Houseman, collector; 
Henry Starr, city attorney; George C. Haswell, harbormaster; F. W. 
Hatch, superintendent of schools. 

1857 — J. P. Dyer, mayor; Presley Dunlap, recorder; James Lan- 
sing, marshal; John F. Madden, city clerk and auditor; Alex. Mont- 
gomery, assessor; James H. Sullivan, treasurer; John H. Houseman, 
collector ; George E. Moore, city attorney ; George C. Haswell, harbor- 
master; J. G. Lawton, superintendent of schools. 

1858 — H. L. Nichols, president of the board, justice of the peace, 
police .iudge ; J. P. Hardy, marshal ; J. B. Dayton, city clerk and 
auditor; E. B. Eyan, assessor; Morgan Miller, treasurer; W. T. Man- 
love, collector; E. F. Morrison, city attorney; Daniel H. Whepley, 
harbormaster; G. L. Simmons, superintendent of schools. 

1859 — W. Shattuck, president of the board, justice of the peace, 
police judge; J. J. Watson, marshal; J. B. Dayton, city clerk and 
auditor ; E. B. Eyan, assessor ; Morg. Miller, treasurer ; W. S. Manlove, 


collector; R. F. Morrison, city attornej^; G. L. Simmons, superintendent 
of schools. From 1858 to 1862 the city and county were consolidated 
and managed by a board of supervisors, one of which was president 
of the board. During this period the three city justices of the peace 
were, in rotation of a week each, police judge. 

1860 — W. Shattuck, i^resident of the board; justice of the peace, 
police judge; J. J. Watson, marshal; Thomas Letson, city clerk and 
auditor; E. B. Ryan, assessor; C. L. Bird, treasurer; Sylvester Mar- 
shall, collector; Cornelius Cole, city attorney; F. W. Hatch, superin- 
tendent of schools. 

1861 — W. Shattuck, president of the board, justice of the peace, 
police judge; J. J. Watson, marshal; Thomas Letson, city clerk and 
auditor; E. B. Ryan, assessor; C. L. Bird, treasurer; Sylvester Mar- 
shall, collector; Cornelius Cole, city attorney; G. Taylor, superintend- 
ent of schools. 

1862— W. Shattuck, president of the board; Thomas W. Gilmer, 
police judge; J. J. Watson, marshal; Josiah Howell, city clerk and 
auditor; E. B. Ryan, assessor; C. L. Bird, treasurer; James McDonald, 
treasurer (appointed to fill vacancy) ; B. N. Bugbey, collector; Samuel 
Smith, collector (appointed to fill vacancy) ; W. W. Upton, city 
attorney; G. Taylor, superintendent of schools. 

The city government was changed April 25, 1863; the new board 
met and held its first session May 1, 1863, and after that the city 
was governed by three trustees until January 8, 1894, the first trustee 
being the president of the board and mayor ; the second trustee street 
commissioner, and the third trustee superintendent of the waterworks. 

1863— C. H. Swift, first trustee and mayor; H. T. Holmes, second 
trustee; Josiah Johnson, third trustee; S. S. Holl, police judge; J. T. 
Clark, chief of police (removed October 7, 1863, and D. H. Lowry 
appointed) ; Benjamin Peart, city auditor and clerk; James E. Smith, 
assessor; W. E. Chamberlain, treasurer; James E. Smith, collector; 

E. H. Heacock, city attorney; W. H. Hill, superintendent of schools. 

1865- C. H. Swift, first trustee and mayor; S. D. Smith, second 
trustee; Josiah Johnson, third trustee; S. S. Holl, police judge; F. T. 
Burke, chief of police; C. C. Jenks, city auditor and clerk; John C. 
Halley, assessor; Harvey Coswell, treasurer; D. A. DeMerritt, col- 
lector; E. H. Heacock, city attorney; S. C. Hall, harbormaster; W. H. 
Hill, superintendent of schools. 

1866— C. H. Swift, first trustee and mayor; S. D. Smith, second 
trustee; Josiah Johnson, third trustee; L. H. Foote, police judge; 

F. T. Burke, chief of police; C. C. Jenks, city auditor and clerk; John 
C. Halley, assessor; Harvey Caswell, treasurer; D. A. DeMerritt, 
collector; E. H. Heacock, city attorney; N. A. Kidder, harbor master; 
W. H. Hill, superintendent of schools. 

1867— C. H. Swift, first trustee and mayor ; S. D. Smith, second 


trustee; David Kendall, third trustee; L. H. Foote, police judge; F. T. 
Burke, chief of police ; John McClintock, city auditor and clerk ; E. R. 
Hamilton, assessor; W. E. Chamberlain, treasurer; D. A. DeMerritt. 
collector; M. C. Tilden, city attorney; W. H. Hill, superintendent of 

1868 — C. H. Swift, first trustee and mayor; John Rider, second 
trustee; David Kendall, third trustee; L. H. Foote, police judge; B. 
W. Martz, chief of police; John McClintock, city auditor and clerk; 
E. R. Hamilton, assessor ; W. E. Chamberlain, treasurer ; D. A. DeMer- 
ritt, collector; M. C. Tilden, city attorney; W. H. Hill, superintendent 
of schools. 

1809 — C. 11. Swift, first trustee and mayor; John Rider, second 
trustee; David Kendall, third trustee (died in office); L. H. Foote, 
police judge; B. W. Martz, chief of police; John McClintock, city 
auditor and clerk; W. T. Crowell, assessor; W. E. Chamberlain, treas- 
urer; A. Leonard, collector; S. S. Holl, city attorney; W. H. Hill, 
superintendent of schools. 

1870 — C. H. Swift, first trustee and mayor; John Rider, second 
trustee; James McCleery, third trustee; A. Henley, police judge; 
George Smith, chief of police ; John McClintock, city auditor and clerk ; 
W. T. Crowell, assessor; W. E. Chamberlain, treasurer; A. Leonard, 
collector; J. K. Alexander, city attorney; W. H. Hill, superintendent 
of schools. 

1871 — C. H. Swift, first trustee and mayor; John Rider, second 
trustee; James McCleery, third trustee; A. Henley, police judge; 
George Smith, chief of police ; John McClintock, city auditor and clerk ; 
S. S. Greenwood, assessor; W. E. Chamberlain, treasurer; H. Mont- 
fort, collector; Charles T. Jones, city attorney; W. H. Hill, superiu' 
tendent of schools. 

1872 — Christopher Green, first trustee and mayor; John Rider, 
second trustee; James McCleery, third trustee; T. W. Gilmer, police 
judge; Matt Karcher, chief of police; E. M. Stevens, chief of police; 
John McClintock, city auditor and clerk; S. S. Greenwood, assessor; 
W. E. Chamberlain, treasurer; H. Montfort, collector; M. C. Tilden, 
city attorney; S. C. Denson, superintendent of schools. 

1873 — Christopher Green, first trustee and mayor; John Rider, 
second trustee; Horace Adams, third trustee; T. W. Gilmer, police 
judge; Matt Karcher, chief of police; E. M. Stevens, chief of police; 
John McClintock, city auditor and clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; 
W. T. Crowell, collector; Samuel Poorman, treasurer; M. C. Tilden, 
city attorney; S. C. Denson, superintendent of schools. 

1874 — Christopher Green, first trustee and mayor; W. F. Knox, 
second trustee; Horace Adams, third trustee; W. R. Cantwell, police 
judge; Matt Karcher, chief of police; E. M. Stevens, chief of police; 
John McClintock, city auditor and clerk ; Fred A. Shepherd, assessor ; 


W. T. Crowell, collector; Samuel Poorman, treasurer; W. R. Hinkson, 
city attorney; Add C. Hinkson, superintendent of schools. 

1875 — Christopher Green, first trustee and mayor; W. F. Knox, 
second trustee; James McCleary, third trustee; M. S. Horan, police 
judge ; E. M. Stevens, chief of police ; P. L. Hickman, city auditor and 
clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; W. T. Crowell, collector; Samuel 
Poorman, treasurer; W. A. Anderson, city attorney; A. C. Hinkson, 
superintendent of schools. 

1876 — Christopher Green, first trustee and mayor ; W. F. Knox, 
second trustee; James McCleery, third trustee; M. S. Horan, police 
judge; E. M. Stevens, chief of police; P. L. Hickman, city auditor 
and clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; W. T. Crowell, collector; J. N. 
Porter, treasurer; W. A. Anderson, city attorney; A. C. Hinkson. 
superintendent of schools. 

1877 — Christopher Green, first trustee and mayor; W. F. Knox, 
second trustee ; James McCleery, third trustee ; Thomas Conger, police 
judge; E. M. Stevens, chief of police; E. H. McKee, city auditor and 
clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; G. A. Putnam, collector; J. N. 
Porter, treasurer; W. A. Anderson, city attorney; A. C. Hinkson, 
superintendent of schools. 

1878 — Jabez Turner, first trustee and mayor; W. F. Knox, second 
trustee; James McCleery, third trustee; Thomas Conger, police judge; 
E. M. Stevens, chief of police; E. H. McKee, city auditor and clerk; 
Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; G. A. Putnam, collector; J. N. Porter, 
treasurer ; H. L. Buckley, city attorney ; A. C. Hinkson, superintendent 
of schools. 

1879 — Jabez Turner, first trustee and mayor; W. F. Knox, second 
trustee; Josiah Johnson, third trustee; W. A. Henry, police judge; 
E. M. Stevens, chief of police; E. H. McKee, city auditor and clerk; 
Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; George A. Putnam, collector; J. N. 
Porter, treasurer; H. L. Buckley, city attorney; F. L. Landes, super- 
intendent of schools. 

1880 — Jabez Turner, first trustee and mayor; Jerome C. Davis, sec- 
ond trustee; Josiah Johnson, third trustee; W. A. Henry, police 
judge; Matt Karcher, chief of police; E. H. McKee, city auditor and 
clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; George A. Putnam, collector; W. 
E. Chamberlain, treasurer; W. A. Anderson, city attorney; F. L. 
Landes, superintendent of schools. 

1881 — John Q. Brown, first trustee and mayor; Jerome C. Davis, 
second trustee (died October 5, 1881, before expiration of his term) ; 
Josiah Johnson, third trustee; W. A. Henry, police judge; Matt 
Karcher, chief of police; E. H. McKee, city auditor and clerk; Fred 
A. Shepherd, assessor; George A. Putnam, collector; W. E. Chamber- 
lain, treasurer; W. A. Anderson, city attorney; F. L. Landes, super- 
intendent of schools. 

1882 — John Q. Brown, first trustee and mayor ; John Ryan, second 


trustee; William Guteuberger, third trustee; W. A. Henry, police 
judge; M. Karcher, chief of police; E. H. McKee, city auditor and 
clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; George A. Putnam, collector; W. 
E. Chamberlain, treasurer; W. A. Anderson, city attorney; J. R. 
Lane, superintendent of schools. 

1883 — John Q. Brown, first trustee and mayor ; John Ryan, second 
trustee; William Guteuberger, third trustee; W. A. Henry, police 
judge; Matt Karcher, chief of police; E. H. McKee, city auditor and 
clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, assessor; George A. Putnam, collector; W. 
A. Anderson, city attorney; J. R. Lane, superintendent of schools. 

1884 — John Q. Brown, first trustee and mayor; H. B. Neilson, 
second trustee; William Guteuberger, third trustee; W. A. Henry, 
police judge ; Matt Karcher, chief of police ; W. E. Chamberlain, treas- 
urer; E. H. McKee, city auditor and clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, as- 
sessor; George A. Putnam, collector; W. A. Anderson, city attorney; 
J. R. Lane, superintendent of schools. 

1885 — John Q. Brown, first trustee and mayor; William Guteu- 
berger, third trustee; E. H. McKee, city auditor and clerk; J. J. 
Buckley, assessor; George A. Putnam, collector; W. A. Henry, police 
judge; O. C. Jackson, chief of police; J. N. Porter, treasurer; W. A. 
Anderson, city attorney ; J. R. Lane, superintendent of schools. 

1886 — John Q. Brown, first trustee and mayor; H. B. Neilson, 
second trustee; W. R. Jones, third trustee; E. H. McKee, city auditor 
and clerk ; J. J. Buckley, assessor ; J. N. Porter, treasurer ; George A. 
Putnam, collector; W. A. Henry, police judge; H. F. Dillman, chief of 
police; E. C. Hart, city attorney; M. R! Beard, superintendent of 

1887 — Eugene J. Gregory, first trustee and mayor; John Ryan, 
second trustee; W. R. Jones, third trustee; E. H. McKee, city auditor 
and clerk ; J. J. Buckley, assessor ; George A. Putnam, collector ; Henry 
L. Buckley, police judge; H. F. Dillman, chief of police; E. C. Hart, 
city attorney; W. E. Gerber, treasurer; M. R. Beard, superintendent 
of schools. 

1888 — Eugene J. Gregory, first trustee and mayor; John Ryan, 
second trustee; H. C. Wolf, third trustee; E. H. McKee, city auditor 
and clerk; J. J. Buckley, assessor; George A. Putnam, collector; 
Henry L. Buckley, police judge; Timothy Lee, chief of police; E. C. 
Hart, city attorney; M. R. Beard, superintendent of schools. 

1889 — E]ugene J. Gregory, first trustee and mayor; William Mc- 
Laughlin, second trustee; H. C. Wolf, third trustee; E. H. McKee, city 
auditor and clerk; J. J. Buckley, assessor; George A. Putnam, col- 
lector; Henry L. Buckley, police judge; Timothy Lee, chief of police; 
W. S. Church, city attorney; W. E. Gerber, treasurer; M. R. Beard, 
superintendent of schools. 

1890 — W. D. Comstock, first trustee and mayor; William Mc- 
Laughlin, second trustee; H. C. Wolf, third trustee; E. H. McKee, 


city auditor; George A. Putnam, collector; J. J. Buckley, assessor; 
W. E. Gerber, treasurer; Henry L. Buckley, police judge; Warren F. 
Drew, chief of jDolice; E. C. Hart, city attorney; Albert Hart, superin- 
tendent of schools. 

1891 — W. D. Comstock, first trustee and mayor; William Mc- 
Laughlin, second trustee; Alonzo Conklin, third trustee; J. D. Young, 
auditor; George A. Putnam, collector; J. J. Buckley, assessor; W. E. 
Gerber, treasurer; R. 0. Cravens, police judge; W. F. Drew, chief 
of police; E. C. Hart, city attorney; Albert Hart, superintendent of 

1892 — W. D. Comstock, first trustee and mayor; E. H. Green, 
second trustee; Alonzo Conklin, third trustee; J. D. Young, auditor; 
George A. Putnam, collector; W. E. Gerber, treasurer; J. J. Buckley, 
assessor; R. 0." Cravens, police jiidge; John B. Rodgers, chief of 
police; E. C. Hart, city attorney; Albert Hart, superintendent of 

1893 — B. U. Steinman, first trustee and mayor; E. H. Green, 
second trustee; Alonzo Conklin, third trustee; J. D. Young, auditor; 
George A. Putnam, collector; W. E. Gerber, treasurer; J. J. Buckley, 
assessor; H. L. Buckley, police judge; John B. Rodgers, chief of 
police; C. N. Post, city attorney; Albert Hart, superintendent of 

A new charter for the city went into force January 8, 1894, by 
vt^hich the number of trustees was increased from three to nine, the 
mayor being elected separate from the board, and the trustees being 
(>leeied to severally represent the nine wards of the city 

1894-95 — B. U. Steinman, mayor; W. D. Lawton, president of 
board of trustees; trustees: H. Wachhorst, Robert E. Kent, J. G. 
Davis, W. H. Bragg, L. Tozer, J. H. Devine, C. E. Leonard, T. J. Pen- 
nish, W. D. Lawton; J. D. Young, auditor and assessor; J. N. Porter, 
treasurer; E. H. McKee, collector; J. Frank Brown, city attorney; 
M. M. Drew, chief of police; 0. S. Flint, city clerk; Albert Hart, super- 
intendent of schools. 

1896-97— C. H. Hubbard, mayor; C. E. Leonard, president of board 
of trustees; trustees: H. Wachhorst, R. E. Kent, James G. Davis, 
D. ^Y. McKay, L. Tozer, J. H. Devine, C. E. Leonard, T. J. Pennish, 
C. H. Beutley; J. D. Young, auditor and assessor; D. W. Carmichael, 
treasurer; C. C. Robertson, collector; J. Frank Brown, city attorney; 
M. J. Desmond, city clerk; O. W. Erlewine, superintendent of schools. 

1898-1899— Mayor, William Land; collector, C. C. Robertson; 
treasurer, A. L. Frost; auditor and assessor, J. D. Young; trustees — 
F. F. Tebbets, R. E. Kent, C. W. Paine, D. McKay, Philip Douglas, 
J. H. Devine; M. J. Desmond, clerk; chief of police, Thomas D-n^er 
(died in office, 1899) ; superintendent of schools, 0. W. Erlewine. Mr. 
Erlewine has been regularly re-elected to the office and was the in- 


cumbeut until his resignation this spring under the present com- 

1900-1901— Mayor, George H. Clark; collector, C. C. Eobertson; 
auditor and assessor, J. D. Young; trustees — F. F. Tebbets, E. E. 
Kent, C. W. Paine, John C. Ing, Jr., Philip Douglas, James H. Devine, 
Henry P. Brown, M. E. Beard, J. H. Dolan; clerk, M. J. Desmond; 
chief of police, John C. Sullivan! 

1902-1903— Mayor, George H. Clark; collector, C. C. Eobertson; 
auditor and assessor, J. D. Young; treasurer, C. M. Prodger; 
trustees— F. F. Tebbets, E. E. Kent, J. G. Black, John C. Ing, Jr., 
S. H. Farley, J. H. Devine, Albert Elkus, M. E. Beard, E. J. Carra- 
gher; clerk, M. J. Desmond. 

1904-1905— Mayor, W. J. Hassett; collector, J. E. Govan; auditor 
and assessor, W. D. Comstock; treasurer, C. M. Prodger; trustees — 
F. F. Tebbets (died 1904, George F. Eider appointed), Ed. McEwen, 
J. G. Black, John C. Ing, Jr., S. H. Farley, E. E. Callahan, Albert 
Elkus, James Popert, E. J. Carragher; clerk, M. J. Desmond; chief 
of police, Martin Coffey. 

1906-1907— Mayor," M. E. Beard; collector, M. H. Spaulding; 
auditor and assessor, Fred W. Carey; treasurer, C. M. Prodger; 
trustees— George H. Eider, Ed. McEwen (died 1906, J. II. Schacht 
appointed), John C. Ing, Jr., M. J. Burke, E. E. Callahan, Harry A. 
Nauman, James Popert, E. J. Carragher; clerk, M. J. Desmond; chief 
of police, John Denny. 

1908-1909— Mayor, Clinton L. White; collector, L. H. Spaulding; 
auditor and assessor, Fred M. Carey; treasurer, C. M. Prodger; 
trustees— Geo. F. Eider, J. H. Schacht, J. T. Murphy, E. P. Hammond, 
M. J. Burke, B. F. Catlett, Harry A. Nauman, 0. G. Hopkins, E. J. 
Carragher; clerk, M. J. Desmond; chief of police, John E. Sullivan. 

1910-1911— Mayor, M. E. Beard; collector, L. H. Spaulding; 
fiuditor and assessor, Fred W. Carey (died in 1910, Edward Haynes 
appointed) ; treasurer, C. M. Prodger (died in 1911, W. C. Hendricks 
appointed); city attorney, J. V. Hart; trustees — George Eider, C. H. 
Schacht, J. T. Murphy, E. P. Hammond, M. J. Burke, B. F. Catlett, 
H. Hoffman (died in 1911, C. W. Mier appointed), 0. G. Hopkins 
and E. J. Carragher ; clerk, M. J. Desmond ; superintendent of streets, 
E. C. Irvine ; chief of police, William M. Ahern. 

1912-1913 — Mayor, M. E. Beard; auditor and assessor, Edward 
Haynes; collector, L. H. Spaulding; city attorney, J. V. Hart; treas- 
urer, D. McDougall; trustees — Geo. Eider, John W. Crone, J. B. 
Hicks, E. P. Hammond, M. J. Burke, G. C. Simmons, C. W. Mier, 
.James Mangan and E. J. Carragher; clerk, M. J. Desmond; superin- 
tendent of streets, E. C. Irvine; chief of police, William M. Ahern. 
William Johnson was appointed by the commissioners chief of police 
during the summer of 1913. 




The flood of 1850, heretofore mentioned as among the early dis- 
asters to the city, was only one of a series that devastated the city 
and county in later years, and some of which were far more wide- 
spread and destructive. Seasons of heavy rainfall have brought down 
from the mountains that bound the great Sacramento Valley on both 
sides torrents of rushing waters that have spread out over the low 
lands along the Sacramento river or overtopped the levees constructed 
to preserve the alluvial lands and swept away the banks erected as 
barriers, reminding man that his puny efforts to restrain and control 
the forces of nature were futile at such times. To-day the banks of 
the river in most places are crowned with substantial levees, many 
of them eighty to one hundred feet across the top, and holding back 
successfully the angry waters that surge and beat against them. But 
in many places these huge mounds have ]iroved ineffectual in time of 
great floods, and the reclamation of the river lands and islands has 
been a costly and discouraging undertaking. The labor of months and 
years, costing many thousands of dollars, has often been swept away 
in a day and the fertile fields, often covered with a valuable crop, 
inundated and covered with several feet of sand and detritus. 

Long before the white man settled in the valley did these floods 
occur at different periods. The Indian mounds of past generations, 
the remains of which frequently appear on the low lands along the 
rivers, bear mute testimony to the rise of the raging waters and the 
necessity forced upon the aborigines of providing for the safety of 
themselves and their families from the devouring waters. Their tra- 
ditions give an account of various floods before the white man invaded 
the valley. The great flood of 1805 forms an epoch in their history 
from which they still reckon in speaking of subsequent events. That 
of 1S25-6 was often referred to by the older members of the tribes who 
camped along the river in the early days of the state. The floods of 
1846-7 and of 1850 were familiar to the earliest pioneers and still 
remain vividly in the memories of the survivors of those days. The 
former did but little damage, for the reason that there was very little 
property subject to damage in those days. The latter, which has been 
referred to earlier in this volume, did an immense am.ount of damage 
to the infant city and occasioned much suffering. 

On the evening of January 8, 1850, a terrible southeast storm set 
in, swelling the Sacramento river to such an extent that the slough 
on I street, between Second and Third, began to run over. Before 
night on Wednesday the water was running under the zinc building 
of Montgomery and Warbass, and torrents were rushing down Second 
and Third streets. On Thursday morning the whole city for a mile 
from the Embarcadero, except some high places on Tenth street, was 


under water. The next day buildings were carried from their founda- 
tions. Very few buildings escaped having their lower floors flooded. 
The damage was immense, great quantities of provisions and goods 
being swept away. Dr. John F. Morse, in writing of the flood, says, 
among other things: 

"At 10 o'clock on the evening of the flood, when the back waters 
of the sloughs and the waters that came in from the banks of the Sac- 
ramento were rushing into the city, tearing up sidewalks and dislodg- 
ing merchandise, sweeping away tents and upsetting houses, — at this 
very time, and throughout the inundation, the city seemed almost 
mad with boisterous frolic, with the most irresistible disposition to 
revel m all the drinking, talking, swearing, dancing and shouting that 
were ever patronized by the wine-drinking son of Jupiter and Semele. 

"All the shipping and two-story houses became crowded with the 
unwebbed bipeds of hilarity and merriment. When hundreds of 
thousands of dollars in merchandise were being wrested from the 
merchants and traders by the sweeping currents that were running 
through the streets, in some places with irresistible force, no one 
could have found among the losers of the property a single dejected 
face or dejected spirit. There were no gloomy consultations, no long- 
ing looks cast upon the absconding produce, no animosities excited. 
A man who would purposely roll into the water that he might share 
in the general laugh that was entailed upon one who had accidentally 
fallen in, would not wet the sole of his foot to save a barrel of pork 
that was being carried off by the current. 

"In the early part of this great flood small boats would bring 
almost any price on sale or hire. A common-sized whale boat would 
bring $30 an hour, and sell readily for $1,000; but in an incredibly 
short time every particle of lumber that would answer for boat or 
raft making was appropriated, and in a few days the people were 
enabled to emigrate to the adjacent hills, where settlements were made, 
similar to the Hoboken of 1853. It would be impossible to estimate 
the amount of property destroyed by this terrible visitation." Team- 
sters lost from forty to fifty yoke of oxen and a large number of 
horses and mules were drowned, write the historians. On the 18th 
the water so far subsided as to leave some dry spots on the Embar- 
cadero and most of Second street. The great number of cattle drowned 
created much discomfort to the people. 

Another flood occurred in March, in which the city was saved 
from a second disaster by the energetic etforts of Hardin Biglow, 
who had built a levee across the sloughs at his own expense. This was 
the inception of the present system of levees which so effectually 
protects our city at present and renders it practically impregnable 
to the waters. 

Two years later came another devastating flood. For some days 
prior to Simday, March 7, 1852, both the Sacramento and American 


rivers had taken on a threatening form, heavy rains in the foot-hills 
and a very heavy snowfall in the mountains having filled them bank 
full. About 1 a. m. Sunday the citizens were aroused from their 
slumbers by the clanging of the alarm bell, warning them of impending 
danger. Excited men soon thronged the streets, anxious to ascertain 
the cause. On investigation it was found that, owing to a sudden rise 
in the American river, the levee near its mouth had given way and 
the water was rushing fast through a breach in its crumbling banks. 
The mayor, chief engineer and many citizens were soon on the ground, 
making every effort to avert disaster. Timber, hay, sacks of barley, 
dirt and other things were cast into the breach, but to no avail. The 
earth on which the timbers of the sluice gate rested became loosened 
and about two o'clock the bridge gave way and was swept away by the 
current into the slough. Brooks' store house, on the levee, followed 
the bridge and as the opening widened the rush of waters increased 
and trees, houses, scows and tents were swept into the vortex and 
coming with tremendous force against the bridge across Third street 
snapped it like a pipe stem and it too was swept away, cutting off all 
communication with the peninsula and imperiling the safety of many 

Boats were quickly procured and after great exertions all were 
rescued and conveyed to a place of safety. By four o'clock the water 
had reached the level of I street and was running up Second to J. 
The mayor issued a proclamation, calling on all to helj^ stem the tide. 
A temjiorary embankment stopped the water at I street, but it soon 
found its way around to Seventh and submerged I street again. The 
embankment was continued to Seventh, where the ground was higher, 
but soon the water was pouring into J street through the slough. The 
Sacramento river at this time was two feet lower than in the flood 
of 1850, and lacked twenty inches of overtopping the levee, and the 
sloughs below the city contained less water than at the former flood. 
But the American was higher and was rising, while the Sacramento 
was stationary. The levee was crumbling and the water was trickling 
through and it appeared certain that the levee must ^deld to the 
rising waters. Much property had been destroyed already. Cattle, 
pigs and poultry floated by on the flood and the water stood from a 
few inches to two feet deep on the lower floors on I street. By six 
o'clock the city was almost wholly submerged, the buildings rising like 
so many pyramids on the desert over the face of the waters, only 
Sutter's Fort and the "Ridge" being above the flood. 

By this time the American river, which had overflowed its lianks, 
had crept insidiously around the city and a torrent rushed in on the 
opposite side. The east levee had broken and the water poured vio- 
lently in. The stores on K street were nearly all flooded several inches 
deep, but J street, being higher, was still above the flood. The entire 
city was wild with excitement. Every one who possessed goods or fur 


niture was removing them to higher apartments or gTound. Houses 
on the outskirts were almost deserted and the residents took refuge 
on scows. Carpenters became boat builders, but there was not half 
enough material or labor on hand to supply the demand. The water 
still rose and by Monday morning scarcely a foot of land was visible 
in the city. Then a cold southeast wind rose and the water receded 
four inches by noon, but still stood two feet deep on K street and also 
covered J, but not so deeply. From the commencement communication 
with the outside had been cut off. Stages for Auburn and Nevada 
leaving on the 6th were forced to turn back. On the following day 
one was wrecked while trying to cross a slough at Sutter's race, and 
the horses were saved with difficulty. Little's bridge at Coloma, the 
bridge at Uniontown, the two covered bridges at Salmon Falls and all 
the bridges on the south and middle forks of the American river were 
carried away. Many horses and mules were drowned while trying 
to swim a deep slough near Brighton. Most of the losses sustained, 
however, were in the suburbs, or outside of the city. The merchants 
had, as a rule, profited by their experience in 1850, and removed their 
goods in time to escape damage. 

But with all the damage and danger, not to say discomfort, the 
elastic spirits of the pioneers were undaunted. Many enjoyable ex- 
periences were not lacking and pleasure excursions took place over the 
submerged country outside. The Sacramento Daily Union of March 9, 
1852, had the following to say : 

"J street, up town, proved to be the center of attraction yester- 
day, and presented many enlivening and animating scenes through 
the day. Its bosom was covered with unique water craft of every con- 
ceivable description, and the ingenuity displayed in their construction 
was only equalled by the tact and skill with which they were managed. 
The greater number consisted of skiffs, and these constituted a regular 
line of ferry boats, plying from block to block. There were also 
freight boats laden with hay, barley, provisions, etc.. which articles 
were transported in accordance with established rates. Then came 
the fancy sail boat of the man of leisure, shooting swiftly past the 
meaner craft and stretching upward for more sea room! We noticed 
one of these far out on the prairie, close-hauled to a southeast wind 
and a])parently bound for Stockton. Among other craft, the omnibus 
boat was conspicuous. They are made by fastening two or three empty 
boxes together. These appeared to be the favorite conveyance of 'the 
people,' although scarcely a trip was successfully performed, owing 
to the ])ilots getting off their course, throwing their craft on their 
ends, and spilling their passengers overboard. Then, by hoisting 
signals of distress, these attracted the attention of some other catama- 
ran, which bore down to their relief. One cute chap built a big box 
with wheels attached, and after getting 'steam up' threaded his way 
through K street. Besides these, there were metallic boats, dug-outs, 


hide boats and canoes — all filled with people, out on business or pleas- 
ure — all, too, joyous and happy. It was, in fact, an aquatic carnival, 
and the town was afloat on a frolic." 

The high land at the head of I street, near the plaza, was densely 
crowded during the flood with human beings, wagons, tents, cattle and 
horses. As in the flood of 1850, the dwellers near the sloughs on the 
south side of the city and all those on lower ground escaped from the 
water and made this their camping ground. On J street a number 
of Mexicans and boys improved the opportunity given them by free 
water, of washing the surface ground in front of the different banking 
houses, in some instances with considerable success. The wild animals 
also sought refuge and fifteen rabbits were caught at one time in a 
dwelling near the slough, which proved a treacherous refuge for them. 
A large number of rats took up their abode on a big stump on Sixth 
street, where they were soon slaughtered by men and boys, much to 
the disgust of a crowd of Chinamen who deprecated the destruction 
of so much good food. 

The flood lasted four days before it began to subside. Before this, 
those who had urged the necessity of a substantial levee on the river 
front to keep out the flood waters had been largely in the minority 
and their arguments had been scornfully rejected and they often sub- 
jected to public denunciation for advocating the incurring of such 
a needless expense. It was claimed and believed by many that even 
if a levee were built, the water would percolate through and undermine 
it. But public opinion now underwent a radical change. The last 
flood had demonstrated the fact that it might become an annual occur- 
rence and men thought it wise to heed the warning, and arrange- 
ments were made at once to construct more efficient levees. 

December 19, 1852, a break occurred in the levee on the American 
river, between Stuart's and the "Eidge." By the morning following 
the business portion of the city was submerged to a depth of several 
inches, but the water soon subsided, but little damage being done by it. 

The city was again completely flooded January 1, 1853. The 
water of the Sacramento river was twenty-two feet above low-water 
mark and two feet higher than during the great flood of 1850. Boats 
were again in great demand and New Year's calls were made in them. 
But the trade, although profitable, was brief, many of the boats being 
stranded by the quickly-receding waters. While but little damage 
was done in the city, the county and those adjoining it suffered con- 
siderable destruction of property and the incidental discomfort and 
suffering. The city now passed an ordinance for the improvement of 
the river levees. 

For nearly eight years after this Sacramento escaped the floods 
and her prosperity increased. She was fast growing into a large 
city. She had passed through fire and flood and all the privations and 
misfortunes incident to the histoiy of a pioneer city, and far more than 


the average of them. Her people had met all these discouragements 
and misfortunes with a smiling face and an undaunted courage. It 
seemed as if they had surmounted all their trials and their career 
henceforth was to be one of continued prosperity. But the end was 
not yet. Fate had not yet shot all her arrows of misfortune and one 
more, the most destructive of all, was yet to strike the city. 

The precursor of the great misfortune was a flood March 28, 1861, 
when the American again rose, quickly reaching a point twenty feet 
above low water mark. It swept away the wing-dam at Eabel's tan- 
nery and damaged the levee at that point greatly. The water from 
Sutter's lake overflowed its bounds and cut a channel tln-ough First 
street to the American river, Swift's bridge, and Lisle 's bridge across 
the American were both destroyed. Norris' bridge became impassa- 
ble and ferries had to be established, there being no other means of 
crossing the American between Folsom and Sacramento. 

About 8 o'clock on the morning of December 9, 1861, the an- 
nouncement was made that the levee on the eastern boundary of the 
city had given way and that the waters of the American river were 
sweeping down on the devoted city with uncontrollable fury. On they 
came with irresistible force. Well was it for Sacramento in that hour 
of trial that the break in the levee had not occurred in the night. Had 
it done so the loss of life would have been heavy. As it was, a number 
of persons were drowned and the property destroyed far exceeded in 
quantity and value that of any preceding flood. Bursting through the 
eastern levee, the water poured down along Thirty-first street till it 
struck the R street levee, which was swept away like an eggshell by 
the tremendous force of the current and the city was at the mercy of 
the flood. The other levees surrounding the city instead of proving a 
protection, now constituted a source of danirer and damage, confining 
the waters and forcing them to rise to a liigher level than they might 
otherwise have attained. 

Within an hour of the first alai'm many persons on Eleventh 
street found themselves surrounded by water and unable to escape. 
Their appeals for help were heartrending. Stock owners began to 
bestir themselves, and great numbers of horses, mules, cattle, hogs and 
sheep were driven across the Yolo bridge and down to Sutterville. By 
eleven o'clock the water had risen to such a depth at Fifth and Sixth 
streets that many houses were overturned and set afloat. Women 
and children clung to the doors and windows of these and cried out for 
assistance. There was a scarcity of boats, and for a time many per- 
sons seemed doomed to perish inevitably. Many families were driven 
from their homes in the vicinity of the Pavilion, on the corner of 
Sixth and M streets. The upper doors of the Pavilion being locked, 
they were burst open and many sought refuge in the building. 

The Howard Benevolent Society made its headquarters here, and. 
having four boats at its disposal, furnished soup and blankets to all 


who came through the day. In turn M, L, K and J streets were 
flooded by the water backing up from the R street levee. Inmates of 
one-story buildings deserted them while those living in two-story 
structures carried their bedding and furniture upstairs. Cellars were 
flooded and large quantities of merchandise of all descriptions de- 
stroyed. Boats and all imaginable kinds of craft were employed in 
saving life and property, and moved back and forth laden with pas- 
sengers and various things. Many were upset, and many a foot pas- 
senger plunged into a deep hole, suffering temporary submergement. 

Finally, the chain gang cut a hole through the R street levee and 
the water poured out of it in a torrent. The force of the water here 
drew many houses afloat in the vicinity — some of them two-story 
edifices — into the break, where they were torn to pieces. It was im- 
possible to obtain any data as to the number of persons who perished. 
A teamster was drowned near Sutter's Fort. A man was drowned 
with his team at the corner of Ninth and M streets through falling into 
an open cistern, and a child in the wagon was saved with great diffi- 
culty. It was generally supposed that many women and children were 
drowned in one-stor.v houses, being unable to escape to the roofs of 
their dwellings. 

The only dry portions of the city were I street, the river front, the 
R street levee and Poverty Eidge, now known as Sutter terrace. I 
street and the levee were crowded with stock taken there for refuge. 
Many boats were employed in the evening in taking passengers to and 
from the hotels and restaurants for meals, the fires in many of which 
had lieeu extinguished by the waters. 

The steamer Swallow, coming from Marysville, was dashed 
against the bridge jiier, injuring two of her passengers. The train for 
Folsom went only to Poverty Ridge, passengers being carried thence 
in boats for half a mile and put on another train and carried to their 
destination. In many places the railroad track was destroyed. Early 
in the day the city gauge showed the water had risen to twenty-one 
feet, and at sundown it had risen six to eight inches higher, while 
the Yolo side was but slightly overflowed. During the night several 
houses floated down the river and female voices within them were 
heard shrieking vainly for help. Two sections of Lisle 's bridge across 
the American were swept away, but lodged against the Sacramento 
bridge and were secured there. 

The next morning was clear and the waters had sulisided several 
feet, leaving L street a bed of mud and those north of it likewise. 
Planks of sidewalks and crossings, stranded boats and scows used the 
day before, were scattered all around. The city south of L street was 
still under water, having first felt the fury of the flood, and here boats 
were still in use. The area was crowded with capsized houses, mer- 
chandise and other things, and the loss of property here was great. 

Many acts of humanity were performed, but avarice and callous- 


ness were also found during these perils. Some men borrowed boats 
on the levee under pretense of rescuing sufferers, but instead turned 
them into a means of extortion. One man had placed his wife on the 
roof of a house about to fall, and was obliged to pay one of these 
scoundrels $75 to carry her to a place of safety. A man standing in- 
side of a house, up to his chin in water, begged to be taken into a boat. 
The boatman demanded $15 fare, but he said he had no money. ' ' Then 
I'll leave you to drown," was the unfeeling reply. Fortunately an- 
other boat came along and rescued him. Such things were common, 
and near midnight two women were saved who had been on the roof 
of a house on Eleventh street, near L, for seven hours, unable to find 
a boatman who would take them off. The loss of property was esti- 
mated at $1,500,000. How many lives were lost will never be known. 
By December 11 the water had subsided and traffic was resumed. 

Scarcely had this flood passed away, however, than it was suc- 
ceeded by another. On December 23, while men were still employed 
in building up and strengthening the levee on Burns' slough, the 
American river rose again so rapidly that it carried away a portion 
of the new embankment and that portion of the city lying south of 
Tenth and L streets was inundated the second time to a maximum 
depth of about four and a lialf feet. The water soon subsided and the 
levees were so far repaired and strengthened that, although the Sac- 
ramento river five days later stood twenty-two feet and seven inches 
above the low water mark, the highest yet recorded, the city was quite 
free from water in its business portion. 

The rains still continued and as the lowlands could not clear 
themselves of flood water, a still greater calamity hung over the de- 
voted city and would have been the climax of disaster had not the 
previous floods warned the inhabitants to be prepared for anything. 
That there was less loss of life and property is largely due to this 
fact, as the flood came suddenly. On Thursday, January 9, 1862, in 
consequence of the continued rains and the melting of the snows in 
the Sierras, the American river overflowed the levee at Eabel's tan- 
nery and speedily covered the entire area lying east of the Thirty-first 
street levee, and before ten o'clock that night the water had covered the 
lower part of the city a foot deep. 

The levee commissioners after the flood of December, 1861, had 
established a cam]i of about thirty men in the vicinity of Burns' 
slough, imder Charles Farley. The flood of January 9 came on them 
without warning, swept away the house and compelled its inmates to 
take shelter upon the roof of the barn, which, being banked up by sand 
and sediment withstood the flood. 

About four o'clock Burns heard their cries and came in a whale 
boat with an old sailor, to succor them. Farley, seeing his men pre- 
paring to jump into the boat, threatened to shoot the first one who 
did so without his orders, telling them that such a move would result 


in the loss of all their lives. As a result, only five men were taken off 
at this time and it then being too late to do more, the remaining 
twenty-five spent the night on the roof. During the night Mrs. Burns 
prepared soup and food for them and in the nioruing the wliale Ijoat 
brought them a large milk fan filled with the hot soup. Burns, the old 
sailor and S. D. Carkhuff toiled all day and all were safely landed by 
night, Farley, the overseer, being the last man to leave the roof. 

At daybreak on the lOtli the southern part of the city was under 
two and a half feet of water, while the eastern part, north of J street, 
was also flooded, and by one o'clock J and K streets were flooded to 
Ninth and during the afternoon the flood attained the same height as 
the highest rise of December 8, 1861. 

The scene in the afternoon was an animated one. Merchants 
erected platforms for their goods above the line of supposed danger 
and stock owners were driving their horses, mules and cattle to the I 
street and Front street levees. Women and children moved to the 
upper stories or to the higher streets and hundreds of boats were afloat 
on the streets, carrying passengers. Many of them contained people 
apparently bent on pleasure excursions. There was much less danger 
than on former occasions and fear and anxiety were also less. The 
balconies were crowded with spectators and there was plenty of mirth 
and hilarity. In the southern and eastern parts of the city, however, 
many were forced to leave their homes without knowing where to go. 
All the hotels were soon overcrowded and the pavilion again came into 
requisition as the headquarters of the Howard Benevolent society, 
many persons being lodged and fed there. 

The committee of safety had some time previous to this flood 
constructed a new levee at Rabel 's tannery, leaving the old one stand- 
ing to protect it as a lireakwater, letting the water in gradually to 
form a basin of still water and thus protect the new enbankment. A 
person cut the old levee without authority and let the current flow 
against the new one, and only by the most strenuous exertions and the 
liberal use of gimny sacks, was the danger averted. A subsequent 
report of the engineers to the state board of swamp land com- 
missioners states that at this point the river makes an acute angle to 
the northwest, the effect being to throw up a wall of water there, two 
feet higher than at any other point in the channel, and the water 
flowed over the levee, causing a crevice through which the flood jioured 
at the rate of 60,000 cubic feet per second, with a torrent velocity due 
to the fall in the river of 3000 feet in seventy-five miles. 

During this inundation four deaths from drowning were reported 
and the destruction of property was considerable. About three- 
quarters of a mile of the Folsom railroad track was washed away. 
Many small buildings were carried through the R street levee and 
destroyed. One thousand feet of the wall surrounding Agricultural 
park, which was twenty feet high and fourteen inches thick, fell to the 


ground. The river rose five inches higher than on any previous 
occasion. The fires in the Daily Union office were extinguished, 
stop]nng the press while it was running off its weekly edition. The 
steamer Gem of the California Navigation company was swept by the 
current through the break at Rabel's tannery, and stranded at 
Twenty-third and Z streets in a peach orchard, whence she was 
launched with much difficulty in the following February. Two dead 
bodies were found floating on the American river and two milkmen 
on Eighteenth street near R, lost seventy head of milch cows. The 
new levee at Rabel's tannery was only saved by using all the raw 
hides in the tannery to spread over its weak points. 

The legislature was then in session and on January 11th, a resolu- 
tion was adopted by the senate, by a vote of 20 to. 13, to adjourn to San 
Francisco for the remainder of the session. The resolution was de- 
feated in the assembly after a long discussion, by a vote of 40 to 36, 
but a further flood appearing, the assembly agreed to the measure 
and on January 23, the legislature, with its attaches and furniture, 
removed to San Francisco. 

Ou January 12, the steamer Defiance went up the river to Patter- 
son's, twelve miles above the city and seven miles higher than any steam- 
boat had hitherto reached, and for some time after she made daily trips 
to that point. On the same day Wilson's bridge over the Cosumnes 
was overturned by the flood. From this time on the flood began to 
subside and navigation of the streets soon became impossible, the only 
means of traversing them being to wade through the mud with its accu- 
mulated filth and carcasses of dead animals. The half-drowned and 
starving cattle along the rivers gave employment to all the steamboats 
and other craft in rescuing them. The flood was equally destructive 
throughout the county. At this time the only mining that had been 
done was mostly in a primitive way. No levees, except in the case of 
the city, had been erected to repel the flood waters, as hydraulic mining 
had not yet raised the bed of the river. The water had full sweep over 
the valley, almost to the foothills of the Coast Range on one side and 
to the rolling lands west of Folsom ou the other. This fact may give 
some idea of the innnense volume of water poured into the valley by 
the continued rains. As one pioneer expressed himself to the writer: 
"We had six weeks' rain in January." An equal amount of rainfall 
now, in so limited a time, would do incalculable damage to the dwellers 
of the lowlands. 

The Daily Union of Monda}', January 13, 1862, has the following: 

"Upon Friday night the American river rose sixty feet above low 
water mark, and destroyed a large amount of property. The old flour 
mill of Stockton and Coover, built some seven or eight years ago, and 
the new one built by them last summer in conjunction with Carroll & 
Moore of this city, were both carried away, and in their course took 


off the wire suspeusion bridge of Kinsey & Thompson. The new mill 
was designed to run nine pair of burrs, and is reported to have cost 
between $20,000 and $30,000. A large quantity of wheat therein stored 
was also lost. The wire bridge was built in the summer of 1856, and 
cost about $18,000. A wooden bridge some ten feet lower had been 
previously destroyed. The railroad bridge belonging to the California 
Central Railroad Company, some fifteen feet higher than the wire 
bridge, and of a single span, is still standing. So far as we have 
received information from various parts of the country, we are con- 
vinced that the late flood spread over a much greater area of territory 
and was far more destructive than any which has occurred since the 
county was settled. 

"The waters from the American did great injury at Brighton; 
those from the Sacramento, a great deal in the townships bordering 
on that river, and those from the Sacramento and Mokelumne, pro- 
duced a corresponding result in the southern part of the county. 
We are informed that families were taken from the tops of houses 
in boats, their buildings were carried away, and most of their stock 
destroyed. A large amount of stock on the Lower Stockton road has 
been lost. Norris' bridge, on the American river, some four miles 
from its mouth, which withstood the flood of December 9th, gave way 
on Saturday afternoon (January 11th) to the still stronger torrent. 
At about half jiast four o'clock two sections of the structure were 
carried off, and lodged on the north bank of the river, a short distance 
away. There is -now no bridge standing on the American river, that 
we are aware of, excepting onlj^ the railroad bridge at Folsora." 

While the elements were dealing death and destruction to man- 
kind, animals and property, human philanthropy was not idle. Steam- 
boats were dispatched daily from San Francisco, laden with cooked 
food for the sufferers. An aid society was organized at Folsom, and 
a deputation sent to Sacramento to invite the suffering and distressed 
to partake of the hospitality of that town. The work of the Howard 
Society of Sacramento should never pass into forgetfulness. It will 
always live in the memory of those who were its beneficiaries and 
should never be forgotten by their children or descendants. 

But the troubles of the city from flood were not yet ended. 
January 23, 1862, the new levee at Rabel's tannery broke and a crevice 
of 150 feet wide was opened, which speedily increased to 800 feet, 
flooding the business portion of the city. While it lasted only a short 
time, it was followed by the flood of February 24, which poured in 
through a break in the same place. The water encroached on the 
following day to such an extent that the great railroad scales on 
R street, sixty feet in length, had to be removed. The railroad soon 
after being repaired, communication with Folsom was once more 

The city was by this time aroused to the necessity for better pro- 


tection and the authorities began to take active steps in the matter, 
and moved energetically to that end. Between the recession of the 
flood and January 1, 1863, more than $200,000 was spent in elevating 
the streets and otherwise improving them and in strengthening the 
levees. Since that time many hundred thousands of dollars have 
been spent in raising and strengthening the levees. After the flood 
of 1862 it became evident to the business men of the city that it was 
unsafe to depend entirely on the levees. A movement was put on foot 
for raising J and K, the principal business streets. It was an arduous 
job, but men were found to contract to do the work, and the buildings 
were raised, the streets filled in from six to eighteen feet and the 
city began to take on a more solid and permanent appearance. The 
flood of '62 was the last one to do any damage to the business portion 
of the city, and it was not till sixteen years afterwards that the water 
invaded the city limits. 

On the morning of February 1, 1878, it was reported that a break 
had occurred in the levee below the city, near the Lovdal ranch. The 
gophers had honeycombed the levee and in a very short time the 
crevice, at first about twelve feet wide, had grown much larger and 
by the next morning was 300 feet wide and very deep. The roar of 
the waters pouring through the break could be heard for a great dis- 
tance. The lowlands were soon flooded and the road to the city ceme- 
tery was soon covered and impassable. Attention was immediately 
turned to closing the openings on the streets passing under the R 
street levee, which at that time was the city's only protection on the 
south. By nightfall these were rendered secure, but the seepage water 
came up as far as Sixth and N streets before the flood subsided. 

On February 14 it was found necessary to cut the R street levee 
at Eighteenth street, to allow the accumulation of water from Burns' 
slough to pass away. On the 20th the river rose to twenty-five feet 
ten inches above low water mark and a strong gale forced the flood 
up against the levee, endangering it, but the citizens turned out at 
the alarm and made it secure. Steps were taken to close the break 
at the Lovdal place and by April 10 the city was once more safe. 

The last flood of any consecjuence was in 1904, and is known 
as the "Edwards break." It occurred on February 26, of that year, 
at a place in the levee about three miles below the city. It was said 
at the time that it was caused by water seeping through gopher holes 
in the levee, and that it was discovered by a Portuguese in the vicinity 
just after it had begun to trickle through, and could have been stopped 
at the time by stuffing a bale of hay or straw into the hole, but that 
the man valued the straw too highly to use it in that way. By night 
the crevasse had increased to one hundred and fifty feet wide, and 
later it widened to three hundred feet. About fifteen thousand acres 
were flooded, the water running down until it emptied into Snodgrass 
slough. A number of residents had narrow escapes from drowning. 


but no lives were loat. Much saud was carried down by the current, 
badly damaging a number of farms. So strong was the current that 
many attempts to close the break by driving piles and hllmg in were 
unsuccessful, and not until some months afterwards, when the river 
fell, was it possible to repair the levee. At present the levee below 
the city is high and strong, the Southern Pacihc having built one on 
which to run the Sacramento Southern railroad traius. 



Sacramento county lias furnished a long list of legislators to the 
history of the state and many of them finished their career begun 
in the state legislature by being promoted to high office. 

At the first session of the legislature the members represented 
Sacramento district, which was the northern part of the state, there 
being at that time no county subdivisions. It was provided in the 
constitution of 1849 that i;ntil the legislature should divide the state 
into counties, and into senatorial and assembly districts, Sacramento 
district should be entitled to four senators and nine assemblymen. 
The list of the first legislature shows twelve assembhT;nen, but this 
was caused by the resignation of three of those originally elected. 
Cornwall resigned January 28, 1850, and was succeeded on March 4th, 
by Deal. White resigned February 9, 1850, and was succeeded on 
March 15th, by Henley. Dickerson's seat was declared vacant De- 
cember 18, 1849, and Bigler was seated in his place. 

The first legislature made Sacramento county the twelfth sen- 
atorial district, April 4, 1850, and pro^dded for its representation 
by one senator and three assembhmien. May 1, 1851, the county 
was made the eleventh senatorial district, to be represented by two 
senators and four assembhmien. There was a reapportionment of the 
state, May 18, 1861, and the county was constituted the sixteenth 
senatorial district, to be represented by two senators and five assem- 
blymen. The Political Code, adopted March 2, 1872, retained this 
a]iportionment, but May 16, 1874, the legislature fixed the apiwrtion- 
ment at two senators and three assembhmien and renamed the county 
the eighteenth senatorial district. March 8, 1883, there was another 
reapportionment and the county was changed to be the thirteenth 
senatorial district, with one senator. By the act of March 13, 1883, 
the first and third wards of the city were made the eighteenth 
assembly district, the second and fourth wards the nineteenth assembly 
district and the remainder of the county the twentieth district, each 
being entitled to one assemblyman. 

The senators from the county have been as follows : 1849-50, John 
Bidwell, Elisha 0. Crosbv, Thomas J. Green and Henry E. Robinson. 


Bidwell was a man who became prominent in the history of the state. 
He was one of the earliest pioneers, arriving here in 1841 by the 
overland route, after a journey of six months. He was given charge 
of Forts Bodega and Eoss and also of General Sutter's Feather river 
property. During the war with Mexico he saw service in the army 
and rose to the rank of major. He was the first man to find gold 
on the Feather river. Elected from the Sacramento district to the 
constitutional convention in 1849, he did not serve as a delegate. He 
was a delegate to the Charleston national Democratic convention in 
1860, and was elected to congress from the old third district in 1864. 
He was defeated by George Gorham for the nomination for governor 
in the Eepublican convention of 1867, and Gorham was beaten at the 
election by Henry H. Haight. In 1875 Bidwell was nominated for 
governor, but was defeated by "William Irwin, the Democratic nominee ; 
he was nominated again for governor on the Prohibition ticket in 
1890, and on the same ticket for president in 1892. For many years 
he made his home at Chico and there he died, April 4, 1900. 

Arriving in California in 1848, Elisha 0. Crosby was a member of 
the first constitutional convention and lived at Alameda for a number 
of years. Green was elected a major-general by the legislature in 
1850. He left California a few years afterwards and died in Warren 
county, N. C, December 13, 1863. Eobinson, a lawyer by education, 
but engaged in mercantile pursuits, arrived in San Francisco in 
March, 1849, on the California, the first steamer that ever entered 
that port! In his will he left $40,000 to be used by the board of 
supervisors of San Francisco for the benefit of the poor of that city. 
Robinson was a member of the first council of Sacramento and one 
of the early postmasters. He amassed a large fortune in Alameda 
county and died at Norwalk, Conn., January 9, 1880. 

1851, Henry E. Eobinson; 1852, Henry E. Eobinson and James 
H. Ealston. Ralston was for a number of years one of the leading 
lawyers in Sacramento, but went to Washoe during the mining excite- 
ment in that district and afterwards settled at Austin, Nev. While 
prospecting in search of mineral ledges in May, 1864, he lost his way 
and perished of starvation after manv days of wandering. An Indian 
discovered and buried his body, which was afterwards disinterred and 
buried at Austin. 

1853, James H. Ealston and A. P. Catlin; 1854, A. P. Catlin and 
Gilbert W. Colby. The latter was a pioneer who in the early days ran 
a ferry across the Upper Sacramento at Colby's landing. He was 
surveyor of Sacramento county two terms, from 1862 to 1866. For 
a number of years afterwards he made his hoine at Nord, but later 
located at Martinez and became interested in banking. He died in 
San Francisco, August 20, 1881. A. P. Catlin was born in New 
York and came to California in July, 1849. He was instrumental in 


getting the capital located in Sacramento, was prominent in politics 
and as a lawyer. He died on November 5, 1900. 

1855, Gr. W. Colby and A. S. Gove. The latter, who was a mer- 
chant, returned to Vermont and died there. At the time he was 
elected to the senate he was a member of the city council. 

1856, A. S. Gove and W. I. Ferguson. The latter was a na- 
tive of Illinois and was shot in a duel with George Pen Johnston, 
dying in San Francisco from the effect of his wound, September 
14, 1858. Ferguson was a lawyer of much ability and an 
effective and popular speaker. The nick-name of "Ipse Doodle" was 
given to him, for some reason not explained. Ferguson was a man of 
great courage and it is stated that when he received the wound that 
caused his death, he exclaimed as he fell, "I am a gone community." 
His body is interred in the state plat of the Sacramento city cemetery. 
Johnston died in San Francisco, March 4, 1884. 

1857, W. I. Ferguson and Josiah Johnson. Johnson was at one 
time a member of the board of supervisors and afterwards a city 
trustee. He died in Sacramento, December 10, 1888. 

1858, W. I. Ferguson and Josiah Johnson; 1859, J. M. McDonald 
and Dr. Johnson Price. McDonald removed to San Francisco some 
years after and became prominent as a capitalist and mining man. 
Price was a Kentuckian and was elected at a special election to fill 
the vacancy caused by Ferguson's death. He had been an officer dur- 
ing the Mexican war and a member of the convention to revise the 
constitution of his own state. He came to California in 1849 and 
practiced medicine in Sacramento. He was appointed secretarj^ of 
state January 10, 1860, by Governor Latham, and held the office 
until the expiration of Governor Downey's term. Afterwards he was 
a stock broker in San Francisco and died there of consumption, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1868. 

1860, J. M. McDonald and Robert C. Clark. The latter, a son of 
James Clark, an early congressman, supreme judge and governor of 
Kentucky, arrived in this state in 1853 and began practice of the law 
in Sacramento. He was elected county judge in 1861, and was contin- 
uously re-elected to that office until it was abolished by the new con- 
stitution in 1879, when he was elected superior judge of this county, 
filling that office until his death, which occurred January 27, 1883. 

1861, R. C. Clark and E. H. Heacock. Heacock practiced law in 
this city for- a number of years, and was city attorney from 1863 to 
1867. He moved from here to Santa Cruz and served as county judge 
there for a number of years. Later he removed to Santa Barbara 
and was appointed superior judge of that county by Governor Per- 
kins, to succeed Eugene Faucett, deceased. Faucett will be recol- 
lected as the judge who tried Sprague for the killing of Moore. Hea-. 
cock represented the counties of San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara and 
Ventura in the state senate for several terms. 


1862, E. H. Heaeock and Dr. A. B. Nixon. Dr. Nixon practiced 
medicine in Sacramento for many years and was in charge of the 
Railroad hospital here. He was one of the first in the county who 
espoused Republican principles. Later he became identified with the 
Prohibition movement and ran for mayor in 1884 on the Prohibition 
ticket against John Q. Brown. He also ran as a St. John elector in 
1884. He died in this city, November 2, 1889. 

1863, Dr. A. B. Nixon and Newton Booth. A sketch of the latter 
will be found elsewhere. 

1864, J. E. Benton and E. H. Heaeock. At the time of his elec- 
tion Mr. Benton was a minister at Folsom. An anecdote regarding 
him relates that on one occasion he was so shocked at a remark made 
by a young rough in Sacramento that he reproved him for his lan- 
guage. The young man asked him brusquely who he was, and Mr. 
Benton replied, "I am a follower of the meek and lowly Jesus." 
"Well," rejoined the offender, "if I was the meek and lowly and 
such a looking fellow as you was following me around, I would hit 
him on the nose." Benton built the first church erected in Folsom. 
Afterward he became postmaster of Oakland, and died there, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1888. 

1865-66, J. E. Benton and E. H. Heaeock. 

1867-68, E. H. Heaeock and N. Greene Curtis. Curtis arrived in 
California in May, 1850, and was recorder or police judge of this city 
from 1853 to 1855. For many years he practiced law here and was 
regarded as the best among the criminal lawyers of the state. Soon 
after his arrival in Sacramento he was appointed deputy postmaster 
and shortly afterwards Jonathan Tittle, the postmaster, having gone 
east on business, left Curtis in charge of the office. While Tittle was 
absent, Richard Eads appeared and claimed that he had been ap- 
pointed to the office. Curtis refused to surrender the office imtil Eads 
presented his commission and filed his bond, and he retained the office 
for some months, until Eads had complied with these formalities. 
When Eads came in he retained Curtis as his deputy until the latter 
was elected recorder. Curtis was a Democrat, and was elected to 
the senate three times and the assembly once. He was a regent of 
the State University from 1880 to 1883, and was Grand Master of 
Masons of California from 1857 to 1860. He died at Sacramento, 
July 27, 1897. 

1869-70, N. Greene Curtis and A. Comte, Jr. Comte was a lawyer 
and afterwards went to San Francisco. He graduated from the 
pubUc schools of this city a.nd from Harvard Collesre, and received 
his legal training and was admitted to the bar from our local law 
offices. He also served in the assembly from Sacramento. 

1873-74, James A. Dut¥y and Henry Edgerton. A native of Ver- 
mont and a distinguished lawyer, Edgerton served for several terms 
as district attorney of Napa county. As such, he conducted the 


prosecution of Edward McGowan for his connection with the killing 
of James King of William (the editor of the San Francisco Bulletin), 
which led to the forming of the vigilance committee of 1856, and the 
purification of San Francisco. He was senator from Napa county in 
1860 and 1861, and ran unsuccessfully for congress in 1861 and 1862. 
He was also a member of the last constitutional convention and was 
the only Republican presidential elector elected in 1880, and was 
re-elected in 1884. He died in San Francisco, November 4, 1887. 

1875-76, Henry Edgerton and Creed Haymond. Haymond was a 
brilliant lawyer, with a national reputation. He came from Virginia 
to California in 1852, and locating in Plumas county, practiced law 
there for a number of years, removing thence to Sacramento. In 
3870 he was appointed one of the commissioners to draft a code of 
laws for the state. He was a delegate to three national Republican 
conventions and held a prominent position in the law department of 
the Central and Southern Pacific railroads at San Francisco until his 
death there, January 13, 1893. 

1877-78, Creed Ha^anond and N. Greene Curtis. 

1880, Grove L. Johnson and William Johnston. In 1849 Johnston 
came from Pennsylvania to this state and engaged in mining, but 
afterward bought a place near Richland, in this county, where he 
passed the rest of his life, dying at his home, November 15, 1905. 
He was a member of the senate for two terms and of the assembly 
one term. He was master of the State Grange two terms and twice 
a delegate to the National Grange, and was Grand Master of Masons 
of California. In 1883 he was a member of the state board of equal- 
ization by appointment of Governor Perkins, served as a dele- 
gate to the national Republican convention in 1880, and in 1886 was 
a prominent candidate for the Republican nomination for lieutenant- 

1881, Grove L. Johnson and William Johnston. 

1883, Frederick Cox and Joseph Rentier. Routier was born in 
France and came to California in 1853. He planted one of the first 
orchards near Folsom and settled ten miles from Sacramento, becom- 
ing a successful fruit-raiser. In 1877 he was a member of the assem- 
bly, and in 1886 he was appointed by Governor Bartlett as a member 
of the board of fish commissioners. He died at his home at Routier 's, 
February 6, 1898. Frederick Cox came to this state in 1850. He was 
president of the State Agricultural Society for several years. With 
C. W. Clarke he engaged in raising cattle for many years, on a 
large scale. 

1885, Frederick Cos and Joseph Routier. 

1887, Findley R. Dray. As a boy of seventeen, Mr. Dray came 
to California with his father in 1850. He mined and farmed for 
several years in different parts of the state, and finally settled here 
in 1863, being appointed a deputy by Sheriff James McClatchy. After 


the close of MeClatchy's term Mr. Dray was elected public adminis- 
trator, and then assessor, for eight years. Judge Clark then ap- 
pointed him a supervisor, to fill out the term of H. 0. Seymour, 
deceased. He engaged in real-estate and insurance and later became 
connected with the Sacramento Savings Bank. He died in this city, 
November 30, 1901. 

1889-91, Findley R. Dray. 

1893-95, Elijah C. Hart. Judge Hart is well known throughout 
the state, and for many years has been a resident of Sacramento. 
He was a member of the assembly in 1889-91, served as superior 
judge of this county from 1897 until 1906, and was elected in 1907 
a justice of the third district court of appeals, which office he has 
filled most creditably. Judge Hart possesses a host of friends. 

1897-99, Gillis Doty. Mr. Doty was one of the sturdy farmers 
of the county, respected by all for his high character and incorrupti- 
ble integTity. He was a member of the assembly for the twenty-fifth 
and twenty-ninth sessions, and from 1897 to 1902 was a inember of 
the auditing board to the conunissioner of public works. In addition 
he served two terms as a member of the board of supervisors of this 
county. He died at his residence in Elk Grove July 23, 1909. 

1901-03, R. T. Devlin. Mr. Devlin was born in this city and 
resided here all his life until recently, being a member of the law firm 
of Devlin and Devlin ever since its formation many years ago. In 
1884 he was appointed a state prison director. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed penology commissioner and continued as a member of the 
board of prison directors until 1905, when he was appointed United 
States district attorney for the northern district of California, which 
office he still holds. He is considered one of the soundest and most 
capable lawyers in the state. 

1905-07, J. A. McKee. For a generation Mr. McKee has been 
a successful practicing physician in this county and resides in this 
city, still practicing his profession. 

1909-11, Charles B. Bills. Mr. Bills is a successful business man 
of this city and is the head of the Pioneer Fruit company. 



The first assemblymen, members of the legislature of 1849-50, 
were IT. C. Cardwell,"P. B. Cornwall, Rev. W. Grove Deal, W. B. 
Dickerson, T. J. Henley, E. W. McKinstry, John Bigler, George B. 
Tingley, Madison Walthal, T)r. Thomas John "\\'hite, John T. Hughes 
and John F. Williams. Sacramento district was entitled at that time 
to nine assemblymen, as it comprised all of the northern part of the 
state, but Cornwall resigned and was replaced by Deal; White re- 


signed and was replaced by Henley, and Bigler took the place of Dick- 
erson, whose seat was declared vacant. Cardwell died at Los Angeles, 
Jnly 4, 1859. 

Cornwall arrived in Sacramento in Augnst, 1848, and was a mem- 
ber of the first city council. He, with Sam Brannan, foresaw that a 
great city would soon spring up on the Sacramento river at the head 
of navigation, so thej' came up from San Francisco to investigate. 
Seemingly unimportant events often bring about great changes. Tliey 
decided that Sutterville would be the most eligible spot for the city, 
on account of the high ground there. Accordingly, they endeavored 
to make satisfactory arrangements with L. W. Hastings, who owned 
the land there, for going into business. They were unable to do so, 
and having on their way up passed two launches loaded with supplies 
for the mines, they returned and met them and persuaded them 
to go farther up and unload their cargoes on the Sutter Embarcadero 
at Sacramento. Through this little circiimstanee their trading ])ost 
was established at this place, and soon a small city sprang u\o. Had 
Hastings agreed with them, the city would have been located at Sat 
terville. Cornwall afterwards went to San Francisco and engaged 
in business and died there September 5, 1904. He was a member of 
the first constitutional convention and of the board of regents of the 
University of California. 

Henley was the father of ex-Congressman Barclay Henley, and 
was a native of Indiana. In that state he served several tenns in the 
assembly, being once speaker. He was congressman from Indiana 
three terms, serving with President Lincoln. He arrived in California 
in 1849 and engaged in banking in Sacramento. In 1852 he was a 
presidential elector; was chosen postmaster in San Francisco in 1853; 
appointed superintendent of Indian affairs in 1S54. and defeated for 
presidential elector in 1868. He died at his farm in Round valley, 
Mendocino county. May 1, 1875. 

McKinstry was a native of Michigan, and arrived in California 
in March, 1849. He was elected judge of the seventh district, Novem- 
ber 2, 1852 ; re-elected September 1, 1858 ; elected judge of the twelfth 
district (San Francisco) October 30, 1873, but resigned in the latter 
part of 1873, having been elected a justice of the supreme court Oc- 
tober 15, 1873. He was re-elected supreme justice September 3, 1S79, 
and resigned October 1, 1888. He died at San Jose, November 1, 1901. 

Bigler was a Pennsylvanian, and was a journalist and lawyer. 
He arrived in Sacramento in 1849, and became an auctioneer and 
also a woodchopper. For a time he was speaker of the first assem- 
bly; he was elected governor September 3, 1851; re-elected September 
7, 1853 ; defeated for that office in 1855. He served as United States 
minister to Chile from 1857 to 1861; was defeated for congress in 
1863; served as a delegate to the Democratic national conventions of 
1864 and 1868; was appointed assessor of internal revenue for this 


district in 1866 and edited the State Capital Reporter from January, 
1868, until his death, November 29, 1871. His body was interred in 
the City Cemetery. 

Tingley was a native of Ohio and was a brilliant lawyer. He 
removed to Indiana and there served in the legislature with T. J. 
Henley and Vice-President-elect T. A. Hendricks. He was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the United States senate and was defeated for 
congress in 1851. He died at San Francisco, Aug-ust 3, 1862. 

White served as speaker till February, 1850, when he resigned 
the office and was succeeded by Henley. He was at one time city coun- 
cilman, and died at Los Angeles in December, 1861. 

Deal, a Methodist minister, was elected to succeed Cornwall 
(resigned) and he qualified March 4, 1850. He died in Indiana in 
June, 1892. 

1851, John Bigler, D. J. Lisle and Dr. Charles Robinson. liisle 
built the Twelfth street bridge across the American river. At a 
special election he was chosen to till the vacancy caused by the death 
of L. Dunlap, who had been elected, but died of cholera before the 
meeting of the legislature. He went to San Francisco and died there 
February 8, 1855. 

Robinson came here from Massachusetts. He was prominently 
identified with the squatter element in 1850 and was second in com- 
mand of the forces of that party in the riot which took place in 
August of that year. He was wounded in the fight and was arrested 
on the oath of several citizens that he had been seen to aim deliber- 
ately at the mayor, who was shot four times during the fight. He 
Avas confined in the prison brig when he was elected to the assembly. 
In 1854 he, with S. C. Pomeroy, led one of the parties of free state 
men into Kansas, and was prominently connected with the Free State 
party in the slavery agitation in that commonwealth. He was elected 
governor by the Free State men under the Topeka constitution Jan- 
uary 15, 1856, and was indicted in May by the grand jury for treason, 
with the other officers who had been elected. Some of them fled from 
the territory, but Robinson was arrested and confined for four months. 
While in prison his residence was burned in the sacking of Lawrence. 
He was elected the first governor of the state after the adoption of 
the constitution in 1859, and died at Lawrence, August 17, 1894. 

1852, Gilbert W. Colby, Alpheus Kip, G. N. McConaha and Dr. 
Joseph C. Tucker. Colby was also senator one term. McConaha was 
a lawyer and was drowned by the upsetting of a boat at Seattle, 
May 4, 1854. Kip lived on the farm near Brighton where Sheriff 
McKinney was killed by Allen, its then owner (1850). The farm was 
owned later by John Rooney. Kip left this country many years ago. 
Tucker went to live in San Francisco and died in Oakland, Decem- 
ber 22, 1891. 

1853, J. W. Harrison, J. Neely Johnson, Robert Robinson and 


J. H. Estep. Robinson was afterward county judge, and was for 
many years connected with the law department of the Central Pacific 
Railroad Company. He was adjutant-general in 1865-66 and died at 
San Francisco, September 26, 1894. Estep removed from Sacramento 
and died at Lakeport January 11, 1876. Harrison left Sacramento 
in the '50s. Johnson was elected district attorney of Sacramento in 
1850 and in 1855 he was elected governor on the Know Nothing ticket. 
After his term as governor he removed to Nevada, where he served 
as a member of the constitutional convention and as supreme justice. 
He died from the effects of a sunstroke at Salt Lake Citv, Augiist 
31, 1872. 

1854, J. M. McBrayer, Dr. F. A. Park, T. R. Davidson and J. W. 
Park. F. A. Park was a dentist and at one time was deputy sheriff. 
He died at San Francisco, November 13, 1870. The others removed 
from Sacramento some years after they served. 

1855, John G. Brewton, Philip L." Edwards, H. B. Meredith and 
James H. Vineyard. Edwards was a native of Kentucky. He visited 
San Francisco with a party of traders in 1836 and returned to the 
east. He was admitted to the bar, elected to the Missouri legislature 
in 1843, chosen a delegate to the Whig national convention in 1844, 
removed to Sacramento in 1850, defeated as the Whig candidate for 
congress in 1852, and ran unsuccessfulh' for United States senator 
in 1855. He died here May 1, 1869. Vineyard was a member of the 
city council at the time of his election to the assembly. He died at 
Los Angeles, August 30, 1863. Meredith, a brother of ex-supervisor 
James H. Meredith, of Folsom, practiced law while living in Sacra- 
mento county. In 1864 he removed to New York, where he carried 
on business as a broker, and where he died. Brewton went to San 
Francisco and died there. 

1856, George H. Cartter, George Cone, George W. Leihy and 
Dr. J. W. Pugh. Cone was for many years justice of the peace in 
Center township and was an unsuccessful nominee for coimty treasurer 
on the Democratic ticket. He was a brother of ex-Railroad Commis- 
sioner Cone, and died at Red Bluff, November 12, 1883. Leihy, a 
farmer and miner, was murdered by Indians in Arizona November 18, 
1866. Cartter was district attorney in 1852 and 1853. He left this 
state many years ago and went to Oregon, where he died at Portland 
February 24, 1862. Pugh removed from the county many years ago, 
and died at Stockton January 24. 1896. 

1857, A. P. Catlin, Robert C. Clark, L. W. Farris and John H. 
McKune. Catlin and Clark were also senators. A sketch of Judge 
McKune will be found elsewhere. Farris was in business here for a 
number of years, but removed to another part of the state, and died 
at Altaville, Tuolumne county, in April, 1878. 

1858, R. D. Ferg-uson, Charles S. Howell, James E. Sheridan and 
Moses Stout. For manv vears Ferguson conducted a horsemarket 


here and then went to Nevada and in 1868 was a member of the 
legislature of that state. Later he went to Arizona. Sheridan was 
a farmer near Georgetown (now known as Franklin) and died on his 
farm there, October 12, 1872. Howell was a farmer living near Wal- 
nut Grove and was killed by the explosion of the steamboat J. A. 
McClelland, near Knights Landing, August 25, 1861. Stout died on 
his farm in this county December 20, 1879. 

1859, Dr. R. B. Ellis, A. R. Jackson, James E. Sheridan and Dr. 
Charles Duncombe. Jackson, a well-known school teacher, died in 
San Francisco, August 30, 1876. Ellis practiced medicine here at 
the time of his election. He removed to Nevada in 1861 and died at 
Carson, that state, January 12, 1873. Duncombe was once a member 
of the city council. His election gave rise to a novel contest in the 
assembly and one that is often cited in the legislature in contested 
election cases. He was born in Connecticut and about 1817 removed 
to Canada. A couple of months afterwards he was elected to the 
colonial parliament and took an oath of allegiance to the then English 
king. He was denounced as a rebel and fled to the United States in 
1837, but was never naturalized. His seat in the assembly was con- 
tested on the ground that he was not a citizen and January 22, 1859, 
the house declared his seat vacant. A special election was called and 
on February 19 9he was elected again by a large majority. On the 14th 
he had been admitted to citixenship under the act of 1795. His seat 
was again contested on the ground that he had not been a citizen 
for the constitutional period at the time of his election, and the house 
again declared his seat vacant. Sacramento county therefore lost 
part of its representation at the session. Duncombe died at Hicks- 
ville, October 1, 1867. 

1860, Dr. R. B. Ellis, L. C. Goodman, Henry Starr and D. W. 
Welty. Goodman was at one time a supervisor and afterward re- 
moved fi-om the county. Starr was a practicing attorney and died 
in this city about three years ago. Welty removed to Nevada, then 
returned to Sacramento and practiced law. He removed to Oregon 
and died 'at Chehalis, Wash., March 24, 1891. 

1861, Amos Adams, Charles Crocker, N. Greene Curtis and Dr. 
Jose]3h Powell. Adams, at that time a farmer, afterward became 
prominent as a member of the Grange. He removed to San Francisco 
and died at San Jose, March 18, 1896. Crocker was then a dry-goods 
merchant and afterwards acquired national reputation as one of the 
builders of the Central Pacific Railroad. He was at one time a city 
councilman. He died at Monterey, August 14, 1888. Powell prac- 
ticed medicine at Folsom, where he died November 27, 1869. 

1862, W. H. Barton, John E. Benton, James B. Saul, James H. 
Warwick and R. D. Ferguson. Barton was president of the New 
Liverpool Salt Company in San Francisco for many years. Benton 
served also as a senator. Saul removed to Yolo county, where he 


managed a large fruit ranch. He died at Davisville, October 30, 1881. 
Warwick, an actor of ability and a fine orator, removed from here 
many years ago. 

1863, Amos Adams, W. H. Barton, M. M. Estee, James H. War- 
wick and Dr. Charles Buncombe. Estee served the county as district 
attorney in 1864-65. In 1882 he ran for governor and was defeated 
by Stoneman. He was chairman of the national Republican conven- 
tion; a presidential elector in 1876; nominee for governor in 1894; 
United States district judge of the Hawaiian Territory, appointed 
June 5, 1900. He lived for a number of years at his home in Napa, 
and died at Honolulu, October 27, 1903. 

1863-64, Alexander Badlam, William B. Hunt, John P. Rhodes, 
Francis Tukey and J. R. Watson. Badlam, in partnership with M. M. 
Estee, John Simpson, H. C. Bidwell and others, published a paper 
called the Evening Star for about three months from May 25, 1864. 
He removed to San Francisco and was elected assessor. He ran for 
re-election in 1882 and when his friends expressed fear that he might 
not win, he said that "it would be a cold day when he got left." The 
day after the election some of his friends sent him a ton of coal and a 
cord of wood, with a note sa>'ing that it might serve to keep him 
warm during the cold da}'. He was port warden at San Francisco, 
1890-91, and died in that city, January 25, 1898. Hunt kept the French 
Hotel on Second street for many years. He was an old New York 
fireman in the days of the volunteer companies and was chief en- 
gineer of our fire department. He was known as the "Sacramento 
Statesman" when he was assemblyman; was an assemblyman from 
San Francisco in 1885, and died there November 13, 1889. Rhodes 
was a farmer on the Cosunmes, and died there on his farm, December 
20, 1866. Tukey was marshal of Boston at the time of the Webster- 
Parkman murder. He was city superintendent of schools in 1855 and 
died on his farm near this city, November 23, 1867. For many years 
Watson was purchasing agent for the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, and superintendent of the hospital. He died in this city, Sep- 
tember 11, 1889. 

1865-66, Thomas Hansbrow, Dwight Hollister, Peter J. Hopper, 
William B. Hunt and J. B. Maholmb. Hansbrow was in business in 
Sacramento for some years. He was at one time a supervisor, and 
died August 31, 1868. Hollister was a farmer and fruit-grower near 
Courtland. He was once a supervisor and served in the assembly 
a second time, in the twenty-sixth session. He died on his ranch at 
Courtland, September 7, 1904. Hopper was a lawyer and newspaper 
publisher at Folsom and afterward moved to Sacramento. He died 
July 22, 1883. Maholmb was a farmer on the Cosumnes, but afterward 
moved to San Francisco. 

1867-68, Marion Biggs, Paschal Coggins, A. Comte, Jr., Bruce B. 
Lee and Charles Wolleb. Marion Biggs removed to Butte county, 


where he lived until his death. He was a member of the second con- 
stitutional convention and a member of congress from 1887 till 1891. 
Coggins was for some time local editor of the Union, and was a mem- 
ber of the board of education, but left here, shot himself in the head 
in San Francisco and died from the effects of the wound, November 
18, 1883. Comte was also a senator. Bruce B. Lee was a son of 
Barton Lee, one of the pioneer merchants and bankers, whose deeds 
of charity in the early days of Sacramento are worthy of remem- 
brance. He was subsequently harbor commissioner and later removed 
to Eed Bluff and engaged in the real-estate and insurance business. 
A prominent Mason, he was chosen grand commander of the Knights 
Templar of California. He died at Eed Bluff, October 30, 1890. 
WoUeb was secretary of the Germania Building and Loan Association 
for years. He died at Fruitvale, Alameda coimty, December 21, 1883. 

1869-70, James A. Duffy, Isaac F. Freeman, M. S. Hor.qn, John A. 
Odell and R. D. Stephens. Duffy was also a senator. Freeman was 
a farmer near Elk Grove. Born in Ohio, he came to this state in 1852, 
driving a herd of cattle across the plains and walking all the way. 
After staying a year he returned east, but came back in 1859, settled 
near Elk Grove and carried on a farm there for many years. He was 
highly respected by his neighbors, by whom he was familiarly known 
as "Uncle Isaac." He died at his home, December 7, 1892. Horan 
was afterwards a police judge and practiced law in San Francisco and 
died there, December 10, 1892, three days later than Freeman, his 
colleague. Odell died at Folsom, May 29, 1881. Stephens was born 
in Illinois and came overland to California in 1849 with his father. 
They located near Mayhews, where the son still has a very valuable 
vineyard and orchard. He has been one of the foremost fruit-growers 
in the county and has done much to build up the fruit interests of the 
state. He was elected constable in 1859, to the legislature in 1869, 
served as warrant clerk in the controller's office from 1875 to 1880, 
and was a candidate for controller in 1882 in the Democratic conven- 
tion. He took an active part in the constitutional convention of 1879, 
and in 1885 was appointed by President Cleveland postmaster of Sac- 
ramento. He was state library trustee, 1889-94; member of the state 
board of vitieultural commissioners, 1890, and the state board of hor- 
ticulture from 1896 to 1903. He still lives in Sacramento and carries 
on his horticultural interests. 

1871-72, C. G. W. French, Dr. Obed Harvey, Peter J. Hopper, 
William Johnston and E. B. Mott, Jr. French practiced law at Fol- 
som and in this city for many years. He was appointed chief justice 
of Arizona by President Hayes in 1877; was trustee of the state 
library from 1866 to 1870, and died in San Francisco, Aug-ust 13, 1891. 
Dr. Harvey came from Illinois to California in 1850. In 1859 he was 
a delegate to the first railroad convention held in the state. In 1869 
he located near Gait and acquired large land holdings. He served in 


the state senate and was a director of the insane asylum at Stockton 
for many years. He died at Gait, January 16, 1894. Johnston was 
also a senator. Mott was for many years a member of the firm of 
Gillig, Mott & Co., and was afterward connected with the Pacific Mu- 
tual Life Insurance Company. He was trustee of the state library 
from 1872 to 1878, and died here August 4, 1882. 

1873-74, James N. Barton, W. E. Bryan, Paschal Coggins, Reuben 
Kercheyal and P. H. Russell. Barton remoyed to Humboldt county. 
He was a member of the second constitutional conyention. He is still 
liying near Sacramento. W. E. Bryan was a farmer residing in this 
county. Kercheyal was a fruit farmer with large holdings on Grand 
Island and died there, May 9, 1881. Russell was formerly a prominent 
grocer in this city. Pie remoyed to San Francisco and died there, 
February 12, 1906. 

1875-76, Marion Biggs, Jr., Thomas J. Clunie and A. D. Patter- 
son. Biggs, the son of Marion Biggs, Sr., was a farmer near Frank- 
lin, but afterwards moyed to Butte county. He died in Sacramento, 
January 19, 1903. Clunie practiced law for many years in this city 
and afterwards removed to San Francisco, being sent to congress from 
that city and also represented it in the state senate. In 1884 he was 
a delegate to the Democratic national conyention. He died in San 
Francisco, June 30, 1903. Patterson was a native of Pennsylvania. 
He came to California in 1849 and soon afterwards located at Ron- 
tier's, his family coming out here in 1852. He was postmaster at 
Routier's for fifteen years. In 1851 he was elected sheriff and the 
first three men executed by the authorities were hung during his term. 
He died at Routier's, December 4, 1884. What is known as Routier's 
for years was called Patterson's, until the name of the postoffice was 

1877-78, Grove L. Johnson, Reuben Kercheval and Joseph Ron- 
tier. Johnson and Routier were also senators. 

1880, Elwood Bruner, Seymour Carr and John N. Young. Brunei- 
and Young were lioth members of the city board of education. The 
former has been grand master of the order of Odd Fellows of Cali- 
fornia, and was elected district attorney in 1886 and 1888. He went 
to Alaska some years ago. Young was an attorney here for a num- 
ber of years and "finally removed to San Francisco, where he still prac- 
tices law. Carr was a farmer near Clay station, where he still lives. 

1881, John E. Baker, W. C. Van Fleet and J. N. Young. Baker 
was a soldier during the Civil War, and was a farmer down the Sac- 
ramento river. He died in this city. May 2, 1881. Judge Van Fleet 
was born in Ohio and came to California in 1869, and studied law 
with Beatty and Denson. He was admitted to the bar in 1873 and 
practiced in Nevada, returning here in 1876; was appointed a state 
prison director in 1883; elected to the superior court in 1885-92; jus- 
tice of the supreme court, 1894-99; trustee state library, 1899; code 
commissioner, 1899-1903; judge of the United States district court, 
northern district, in 1907, which office he still holds. 


1883, Gillis Doty, Hugh M. LaRue and Frank D. Ryan. Doty 
was for many years a farmer near Elk Grove and enjoyed the con- 
fidence of the community. He was sui^ervisor several times and was 
also a state senator for two terms. He was a member of the auditing 
board for the commissioner of pnblic works from 1897 to 1902. He 
died at Elk Grove, July 23, 1909. La Rue was born in Kentucky and 
came to California in 1849, locating at Fiddletown (now called Oleta), 
but came to Sacramento in 1850. In 1857 he was elected sheriff by a 
few votes, but lost the office on a contest. He was elected again in 
1873, and in 1879 was a member of the second constitutional conven- 
tion. In 1863-64 he was a member of the assembly, being speaker for 
both terms.- He was a delegate to the national Democratic conven- 
tion in 1884; was president of the State Agricultural Society for sev- 
eral years and an ex-ofificio regent of the State University, and served 
as railroad commissioner from 1895 to 1899. He died at Sacramento, 
December 12, 1906. Ryan was born in Sacramento, was admitted to 
the bar in 1880; was grand president of the Native Sons in 1889; 
trustee of the state library, 1898-1902; trustee Chico Normal School, 
1899-1901; trustee Sutter's Fort, 1891-1903; commissioner of public 
works, 1899-1907; died near Pleasant Grove, Februarv 9, 1908. 

1885, Winfield J. Davis, Charles T. Jones and Dwight Hollister. 
Davis was a valuable man in the history of this county. Having a 
taste for literature and history, he preserved many of the early in- 
cidents and records, and in 1890 published a history of the county, 
collected with much care and to which the writer of this history is 
much indebted for valuable matter, both then and subsequently. A 
biograpliical sketch of him will be found elsewhere. He died at 
Marysville, August 3, 1909. Jones served the county several terms 
as district attorney and still livfes in this city, practicing law. He was 
chosen an alternate elector in 1888. 

1887, H. W. Carroll, L. S. Taylor and Seymour Carr. Carroll was 
born in Sacramento, was a University of California graduate, and 
engaged in various kinds of business here. He was a prominent 
Mason and was engineer officer, brigade inspector, lieutenant-colonel 
and aide-de-camp on the staff of Governors Stoneman and Bartlett. 
He removed some years ago to Seattle, where he is city controller at 
present. Taylor was a native of Ohio and came to this state in 1850. 
He spent some time in the mines and later went to Solano, holding for 
a year the position of deputy district attorney. For some years he 
practiced law in this city and was a county commissioner. He was a 
past grand master of Odd Fellows, and died in this citv, Februarv 6, 

1889, E. C. Hart, W. M. Petrie and L. H. Fassett. Judge Hart 
was a member of the senate in 1893-95, and is now a justice of the 
third district appellate court. Mr. Petrie has been for nearly fifty 
years a resident of this city and a successful merchant. He served a 
number of terms as a member of the city board of education, of which 


he was a member until the uew city charter abolished the board, hav- 
ing been re-elected term after term. Mr. Fassett was a farmer and 
died at his home near Freeport, December 16, 1889. He served one 
term as supervisor. 

1891, Elwood Bruner, Judson C. Brusie and Gillis Doty. Mr. 
Bruner was for many years a resident of Sacramento, but went to 
Alaska during the gold excitement some years ago and still resides 
there. He was also a member of the assembly in 1879 and was dis- 
trict attorney of this county for a time. Judson C. Brusie, a prac- 
ticing attorney of this city and previously an assemblyman from 
Amador county, was secretary of the railroad commissioners from 
1903 to 1908. He died in Los Angeles, June 10, 1908. In addition to 
being an attorney and public man, he was a very versatile writer 
and the author of a successful play. 

1893, H. C. Chipman, W. A. Anderson and Eben B. Owen. Mr. 
Chipman was a resident of this city for many years and died here. 
May 26, 1899. Judge Anderson is an old-timer, having come to this 
county with his father at four years of age, in 1849. lie was elected 
city auditor and took the office four days after attaining his ma- 
jority; was admitted to the bar of the supreme court while yet a 
minor. In 1868 he entered the practice of the law and has been for 
many years one of the best known and successful attorneys in the 
state. He has filled the office of city attorney for several terms and 
also that of city justice. From 1867 to 1875 he was assistant ad- 
jutant-general of the Fourth Brigade, N. G. C, with the rank of 
major. Mr. Owen was a farmer living near McConnell's on the 
Cosumnes, where he has a large ranch. 

1895, L. T. Hatfield, John E. Butler and Judson C. Brusie. Mr. 
Hatfield, an attorney, has been for a number of years legal adviser 
of the Sacramento Electric Gas and Railway Company of this city. 
Mr. Butler was a farmer who lived above Folsom. He died about a 
vear ago at his home in Oak Park. 

1897, Scott F. Ennis, L. M. Landsborough and William M. Sims. 
Mr. Ennis is a prominent citizen of Sacramento, in the wholesale 
produce and commission business. Mr. Landsborough was a fruit- 
raiser of Florin and is now a successful business man in that town. 
Mr. Sims was for a niimber of years a practicing attorney here, but 
of late years has been a resident of San Francisco, where he prac- 
tices his profession. 

1899, W. D. Knights, Grove L. Johnson and Morris Brooke. Mr. 
Knights was for a number of years engaged in business here, but has 
for sonie years past been a resident of San Francisco. Mr. Brooke 
was a fruit-raiser for some years, but is at present the head of a 
large and successful real-estate firm. 

1901, Louis F. Reeber, W. W. Greer and Grove L. Johnson. Mr. 
Reeber was a well-known citizen of Sacramento. He was elected 
as a Democrat and was backed by the labor organizations of the city. 
Mr. Greer was a farmer and prominent in Grange circles. He still 


resides on his farm, southeast of the city. 

1903, Grove L. Johnson, W. W. Greer and J. M. Higgins. Mr. 
Higgins has been for a number of years foreman of the bindery in the 
state printing office and is very popular among the labor unions. 

1905, Frank J. 'Brien, Edward F. Ljnich and C. 0. Busick. Mr. 
'Brien and Mr. Busick are both practicing lawyers of this city. Mr. 
L^^lch is a farmer living near Mills station" on the Folsom and 
Placerville railway. 

1907, Grove L. Johnson, Frank J. O'Brien and Edward F. Lynch. 

1909, E. L. Hawk, W. W. Greer and Grove L. Johnson. Mr. 
Hawk has been for many years a prominent real-estate dealer of this 
city, and is very prominent in Grand Army circles, having been de- 
partment commander in 1910. 

1911, John C. March, Charles A. Bliss and E. F. Lynch. Mr. 
March is well known in this city, and was city justice for two terms. 
Mr. Bliss, a practicing attorney here, at the recent election under the 
new charter was elected one of the city commissioners. 


In 1850 the legislature took the first active step toward securing 
a state library by enacting a law directing that the scattered books 
which were the property of the state be gathered together and placed 
in the custody of the secretary of state, who should also serve as 
state librarian. This was done, but no considerable addition was 
made to the number of volumes so collected until 1856, when 3500 
standard law books were bought, at a cost of about $17,000, and 
placed in the library, which soon began to grow, comprising in 1860 
about 20,000 volumes; in 1870 it had increased to 25,000; in 1880 
to 50,000 ; in 1890 to about 70,000. 

Nearly every stranger in Sacramento visits the California State 
Library, whose headquarters are in the Capitol building, where they 
occupy the largest part of the east wing, extending from the base- 
ment to the top floor. On the shelves of the library are about 
165,000 volumes. Its average annual income has been about $45,000. 
The institution was established by an act of the state legislature in 
1851, and was intended originally as a legislative reference collection 
only. In 1899 the right to appoint the state librarian passed from the 
legislature to the governor, thus taking the state librarianship out 
of the danger of periodic scrambles for office incident upon legis- 
lative changes. The strength and influence of the office was greatly 
strengthened by the api)ointment in the same year of the present 
state librarian, J. L. Gillis, a librarian of unusual executive power. 
Under his administration the library has widened its sphere of use- 
fulness until it has become the controlling factor in library work 
throughout the entire state. 


The work of the institution is carried on through about seven de- 
partments, briefly summarized as Order and Accessions; Catalogue; 
Law ; Reference ; Documents ; California ; Department for the Blind, 
and County Library Extension. The most original work is conducted 
by the last three departments. The California includes besides all 
books written about California or by California authors, a splendid 
file of pioneer records, arranged in card-catalogue form, and con- 
taining invaluable information concerning the social and political 
history of the state written first-hand by actual observers of the 
events that make up the annals of early California. A like record is 
kept of the state's authors, musicians and artists, together with files 
containing reproductions of the canvases of California painters. Pho- 
tographs are also on file of the interesting persons connected with any 
part of the state's history, political, social or artistic. An unique 
index to California's newspapers and magazine literature is main- 
tained by this department. 

Books for the blind are sent out upon request to coimtless readers 
all over the state. The resources of this branch of the work are 
some 2,132 books in different kinds of raised ijpe, and nearly all the 
leading magazines for the blind; to which are being constantly added 
writing appliances, games and puzzles of new invention. 

Nowhere is the influence' of the state library more helpful thkn 
in its organization and encouragement of the county libraries which 
are rapidly appearing on every side, and promise to spread throughout 
all the counties of the state. These county libraries, through a well 
organized system of inter-library loans managed by the state library, 
are able to secure a constant supply of rare, valuable or technical 
books which would otherwise be unattainable by them. Also the 
standard of scholarship and efficiency of these smaller libraries is 
kept u]! to a high level through a system of report-making to the 
state library; through county library conventions conducted by the 
state library ; through personal yearly visits of the state librarian, and 
through the influence of the state library board of examiners, which 
conducts competitive examinations for applicants for county librari- 

California is among the first of all the states to reeogTiize the 
large value of a strong, central library which shall foster the smaller 
county organizations, and naturally the people of the state are in-oud 
of the good work accomplished and yet to be accomplished by their 
state library at Sacramento. 



Along in the middle '50s the need for a piiblic library began to 
be recognized, and in 1857 the Sacramento Librarv Association was 


organized and a good library collected, which, in spite of loss by fire, 
steadily increased. In 1872 the building on I street, between Seventh 
and Eighth, which is now occupied by the Sacramento City Free 
Library, was erected, and furnished at a total cost of $17,000. $11,000 
of this amount was raised by a gift enterprise and mortgage for 
$6,000 was given. The library opened under favorable auspices, but 
its existence was not as prosperous as had been expected or was 
desirable. In 1879, therefore, the directors offered to donate the 
property to the city, to be maintained as a free library, if the city 
would assume the debt. When the question was submitted to the 
voters of the city at the election in March following, the offer was 
accepted. Soon after the library was re-arranged and re-catalogued 
and on Ji;ne 15, was thrown open to the jjublie as a free library with 
6,067 volumes on the shelves. It has steadily gTOwn in size and use- 
fulness and comprises many thousand volumes. The leading papers 
of the state and many of the leading newspapers of the Union are 
to be found in its reading room, besides a number of representative 
foreign newspapers and periodicals, numbering in all, between two 
hundred and three hundred. Books may be drawn from the library 
by any citizen of Sacramento, free of cost, upon obtaining the neces- 
sary permit. The library is supported by a public tax and is under 
the control of a board of trustees appointed by the mayor of the city. 
For a number of years they were elected by the people. Among those 
who have served as library trustees were the following: Judge S. C. 
Denson, William H. Mills, William C. Fitch, Samuel Howard Gerrish. 
Add C. Hinkson, Mrs. G. W. Hancock, Miss Georgiana Brewster, 
Albert Hart, Kirke W. Brier, Francis Le Noir, A. S. Hopkins, L. E. 
Smith, E. B. Willis. 

In 1908 the library, under an agreement with the board of super- 
visors, extended the library privileges to all the residents of Sacra- 
mento county, being the first library in the state to undertake this 
county library work. Branch libraries and deposit stations to the 
number of twenty-eight have been established in various parts of the 
county, and school-room libraries have been provided for all schools 
desiring this service. 

The library now has approximately 50,000 volumes, including 
the county and schools collections, serves 10,000 card holders, and 
circulates about 200,000 books a year. Under the new city charter, 
effective July 1, 1912, the management of the library is placed in the 
hands of a librarian, subject to the supervision of the commissioner 
of education. The last board of library directors to serve in this 
capacity, who will go out of office with the incoming of the new charter, 
consists of W. C. Fitch, president; S. H. Gerrish, secretary; L. J. 
Hinsdale, F. B. Sutliff and D.. S. Watkins The first two have served 
continuously since the library became a free library. The librarian, 
Lauren W. Ripley, has been connected with the institution since Jan- 


uary, 1882, and is assisted by a staff of ten people at the central 
library and twenty-eight branch librarians and custodians of deposit 


The Sacramento postoffice was established in the early days of 
the city's existence. Since that time its business has increased with 
the growth of the city, but the facilities for carrying it on have 
always been less than its needs. The rapid growth and extension 
of Sacramento and its suburbs during the past few years have sorely 
taxed the resources of the office, the government furnishing additional 
carriers and clerks when it could no longer shut its eyes to the fact 
that the force was inadequate. 

R. M. Richardson, the latest postmaster, assumed his duties in 
1904. The total receipts of the office for that year were $117,792.55. 
The tremendous growth since then is apparent when it is stated that 
for the year ending December 31, 1911, the receipts were $284,807.86. 

When Mr. Richardson took charge in 1904, there were twenty-six 
carriers and twenty-two clerks. At the present time the force con- 
sists of forty-one carriers and forty-nine clerks, with the prospect 
that another increase will be necessary before long. The addition 
which during the past year has been made to the building provides 
for about double the lobby space, and greatly increases the general 
working room of the main office. At the i^resent rate of increase in 
postal receipts and the amount of work to be handled, the present 
building will hardly be sufficiently large to accommodate the postal 
business of this city in a few years. 

It is estimated that over 60,000 people are now receiving city 
delivery service, which includes Oak Park, Highland Park, Curtis 
Oaks and East Sacramento. The adjacent country Mng within a 
radius of about nine miles from Sacramento is served by two rural 
carriers. Owing to the fact that it has become so thickly populated, 
it has become necessary to make request for two additional rural 
routes in order to serve the patrons. 

In addition to the main office there are fifteen branch offices within 
the old limits of Sacramento and one at Oak Park. 

The Post Office, Internal Revenue Office, United States Land 
Office, Weather Bureau and some minor offices are in the fine sand- 
stone Government building that stands on the northeast corner of 
Seventh and K streets, on the site formerly occupied by St. Rose's 
Rou'an Catholic Church. 

The United States Land Office dates back to the early history 
of the state, after its admission. There were formerly United States 
land offices at Marysville and Stockton, but the two offices were con- 


solidated with the Sacramento office a few years ago and all their 
records transferred to Sacramento. John F. Armstrong is the reg- 
istrar and John C. Ing the receiver, and they have given to the office 
a reputation of promptness and careful management. 

The Internal Revenue office for this district comprises Northern 
California and Nevada — a wide extent of country — and which gives 
employment to a large clerical force, as well as numerous store- 
keepers, gangers, etc. It has been vex'y efficient in the discharge of 
its duties for many years, and stands high on the roll of efficiency 
in the revenue department in Washington. It has not lost any of 
its prestige during the management of the present incumbent, Hon. 
W. A. Shippee, and his clerical force. (It was incorporated lately 
with the San Francisco office.) 

The United States Weather Bureau station in Sacramento was 
established July 1, 1877, by Sergeant B. B. Watkins of the Signal 
Corps, U.S.A. The office was located on the fourth floor of the St. 
George building, on the corner of Fourth and J streets. November 
28, 1879, the office was moved to the Fratt building, corner of Second 
and K streets, and June 1, 1882, it was again moved to the Arcade 
building, on Second street, between J and K. February 1, 1884, it 
was moved to the Lyon & Curtis building, on J street, between Front 
and Second, and April 30, 1894, it was removed to the postoffice 
building, at Seventh and K streets, where it now is. The station was 
in charge of Sergeant Watkins until April 15, 1879, when he was 
relieved by Sergeant M. M. Sickler, who was relieved by Sergeant 
James A. Barwick, March 15, 1881. Sergeant Barwick remained in 
charge of the station, except as temporarily relieved on account of 
sickness or other causes, until August 18, 1901, when he was relieved 
by James H. Scarr, and transferred to Denver, his health having 
failed. Mr. Scarr was relieved May 3, 1908, by T. A. Blair, who 
had temporary charge until relieved by N. R. Taylor, the present 
incumbent. May 8, 1908. By his uniform courtesy and personal quali- 
ties Mr. Taylor has made many friends in the community, and during 
his incumbency has instituted great improvements in the service. 

During his incumbency of twenty years Sergeant Barwick made 
great strides in the efficiencj" of the service and is held in most kindly 
regard by older residents of the city. Formerly the data concerning 
the stage of the river and the forecasts in winter concerning it were 
published in the San Francisco office, but May 1, 1905, the data con- 
cerning the river were transferred to Sacramento. Here the river 
observation service was re-organized by Observer Scarr, and he 
made great improvements in it, which brought it to a high state of 
efficiency and which have been continued and expanded by Observer 
Taylor. Today all the flood stages of the Sacramento river and its 
tributaries are accurately forecast by him from data gathered from 
the stations in his district. This station now has the collection of 


data from the San Joaquin watershed below the mouth of the Mokel- 
umne, embracing that of the Mokehimne, Cosunmes, Stanislaus, Cala- 
veras rivers, and Mormon slough. Observer Taylor has also, within 
the past two years, established a number of stations for the observa- 
tion and recording of the snowfall in the Sierra Nevada mountains. 



In an earlier chapter reference was made to the suffering in 
1849 and 1850 of the inhabitants of Sacramento and the immigrants 
who came across the plains or "around the Horn," in search of gold. 
Some of them had lost their stores of provisions or exhausted them. 
Some had started without calculating on the conditions they would 
find here. Some had been despoiled by the attacks of Indians, and, 
losing their horses or cattle, had been obliged to abandon part of 
their wagons and stores. And some of those coming by both of the 
routes had been attacked by scurvy on account of the scarcity of 
vegetables, and were in wretched condition when they arrived here. 
The generosity of General Sutter afforded the impoverished strangers 
temporary relief, but more than temporary relief was needed where 
there were so many destitute and suffering. 

The situation in Sacramento was graphically set forth by Dr. 
Morse in his history. He says: "At this time Sacramento was a 
nucleus of attraction to the world. It was the great starting point 
to the vast and glittering gold fields of California, with the tales of 
which the whole imiverse became astounded, and which men of every 
clime and nation sought to reach, without a moment's reflection upon 
the cost or hazard of such an adventure. The only consideration 
upon the part of a hundred thousand gold-seekers who were prepar- 
ing for emigration to California was dispatch. Time wasted on pru- 
dential outfits, upon the acquirement of means beyond the passage 
fee to San Francisco, and peradventure a little spending money to 
dissipate the impatience of delay, was as well wasted in any other 
way. What were a few dollars that required months to accumulate in 
the Atlantic states, to the gold-gleaming ounces that California gave 
weekly as compensation to the simplest labor? 

"All that men seemed to wish for was the means of setting foot 
on California soil, and few were sufficiently provident in their calcu- 
lations to provide anything beyond the mere landing at San Francisco. 
Out of the thousands who landed at the above place in the interval 
referred to, not one in a hundred arrived in the country with money 
enough to buy him a decent outfit for the mines. Such was the heed- 
lessness with which people inunigrated to this country during the 
incipient progTess of the gold-seeking fever. In all parts of the world 
vessels of every size and condition were put up for the great El 


Dorado, and as soon as put up were filled to overflowing with men 
who had not the remotest conception of the terrible sufferings they 
were to encounter. Along the entire coast of the American continent, 
in every prominent port in Europe, in nearly every maritime point 
in Asia, and in nearly all the islands in the world, were men struggling 
with reckless determination for the means of coming to California. 
The savings of years were instantly appropriated, goods and chattels 
sold at ruinous sacrifices, homesteads mortgaged for loans obtained 
upon destructive rates of interest, and jewelry, keepsakes and pension 
fees pledged for the reimbursement of a beggarly steerage passage 
for thousands of miles to the town of San Francisco. 

"These are facts with which the world is now familiar, and this 
being the manner in which people embarked for the Eureka state, it 
can be easily imagined how those landed who survived the untold 
and unutterable suffering endured from port to jDort. From the 1st 
of August, 1849, the deluging tides of immigrants began to roll into 
the city of San Francisco their hundreds and thousands daily; not 
men robust and hearty by a pleasant sea voyage, but poor miserable 
beings, so famished and filthy, so saturated with scorbutis diseases, 
or so depressed in spirits as to make them an easy prey of disease 
and death, where they had expected naught but health and fortune. 

"Thus did mining adventurers pour into San Francisco, nine- 
tenths of whom, for a few months, took passage to Sacramento. How- 
ever debilitated they might be, however penniless and destitute, still 
this, the great focus of mining news, the nearest trading point for 
miners situated on a navigable stream, was the only place that men 
could think of stopping at for recuperative purposes. Hence, from 
Cape Horn, from all the isthmus routes, from Asiatic seaports, and 
from the islands of the Pacific, men in the most impoverished health 
were converging at Sacramento. But these were not the only sources 
of difficulty to Sacramento in 1849; for at the same time that the 
scurvy-ridden subjects of the ocean began to concentrate among us, 
there was another more terrible train of scorbutic sufferers coming 
in from the overland roads, so exhausted in strength and so worn 
out with the calamities of the journey as to be but barely able to 
reach this, the Valley City. 

"From these sources Sacramento became a perfect lazar house 
of disease, suffering and death, months before anything like an ef- 
fective city government was organized. It must be remembered that 
in proportion as these scenes began to accumulate, men seemed to 
grow indifferent to the appeals of suffering, and to the dictates of 
benevolence. The more urgent and importunate the cries and be- 
seeching miseries of the sick and destitute, the more obdurate, des 
potic and terrible became the reig-n of cupidity. 

"In the month of July, 1849, these subjects of distress and the 
appeals of misery became so common that men could not escape them ; 


and if there had been the utmost attention paid to the exercise of 
oharity and protection, it would have been impossible to have met the 
demands of the destitute, sick and dying as a commensurate sympathy 
would have dictated. Such was the difficulty with which facilities for 
the care of the sick could be procured, that even the few who had 
money could not purchase those comforts which even the poorest 
in the Atlantic states can enjoy. Dr. Craigan's hospital at the Fort 
was the most comfortable place, but such 'were the necessary demands 
for boarding and nursing that men could not avail themselves of such 
care. Soon after the establishment of this hospital, Drs. Deal and 
Martin opened another hospital in one of the bastions of the old 
Fort. This led to a reduction of the cost of hospital board and 
attendance, but still it was too dear a comfort to be purchased 
by more than one in five of the accumulating invalids of the town. 
The sick of the city were in consequence thrown upon the exclusive 
attention of a society which had become so mammon-ridden as to be 
almost insensible to the voice of want. Not only were the victims 
of scurvy evolving a general distress, but also those who supposed 
themselves acclimated were beginning to feel the sweeping miasmatic 
fevers which were peculiarly severe during this first season." 

The first organized efforts to relieve the suffering were made 
by the fraternity of Odd Fellows, individual members of which formed 
an informal organization. Gen. A. M. Winn was elected president, 
Mr. McLaren, secretary, and Captain Gallup, treasurer. They devoted 
themselves untiringly to the sick and suffering, and an immense 
amount of relief was dispensed. Still men sickened and died and 
often were not even wrapped in a blanket for burial. Coffins were 
from sixty to one hundred and fifty dollars apiece and could not 
always be procured, Imt the association spent thousands of dollars 
for them. 

As before related, the cholera made its appearance oh the 20th 
of October, 1850, and raged for nearly a month, the death roll of 
which can never be known. The stricken city was nearly dejioim- 
lated for a time. In A]n-il, 1850, the Freemasons and Odd PVllows 
together built a hospital, the board of trustees being elected by linth 

Dr. Dow had a "Thompsonian Hospital and Botanic Medicine 
Store" on K street, between Second and Third. The price of admis- 
sion per day was from five to twenty- five dollars, "according to 
trouble and expense." 

Drs. T. J. White and C. D. Cleveland had a large hospital at 
the corner of Ninth and L streets that would accommodate one hun- 
dred patients, and Drs. James S. Martin and B. R. Carman eon- 
ducted the "Sutter's Fort Hospital" inside of the Fort. Drs. Morse 
and Stillman also had a hosjutal at the corner of Third and K streets. 

Besides these, there were several physicians, first at Sutter's 


Fort and afterwards in the city, who received boarding jDatients, but 
very few sick persons had the means with which to pay the prices 
asked. It became necessary, therefore, at an early date, for a public 
hospital to be established, at which all cases could be taken in and 
cared for. This was done, the first one being opened in the business 
part of the city, Drs. J. F. Montgomery, Johnson Price, George W. 
Williams and Proctor being among the first physicians connected 
with it. The city directory of 1853 contains the announcement, "Drs. 
Johnson Price and George W. Williams, Physicians to the County 
Hospital, corner of I and Seventh streets." About that time Proctor 
and Price established a hospital on Second street, between I and J, 
with seventy-five or eighty beds, and entered into a contract with the 
county for keeping the poor, numbering about fifty, and charging very 
high prices. Three or four years afterwards the county, having 
meanwhile built itself a hospital on the corner of Tenth and L streets, 
endeavored to break the contract, but Price and Proctor sued and 
obtained judgment against it. This county hospital was erected on 
the northeast corner of the present Capitol Park. It was torn down 
and removed shortly after it was vacated, soon after the Civil War. 

Dr. Montgomery was the county physician again in 1857 ; 1858-59, 
Dr. G. L. Simmons; 1859-60, Dr. Montgomery; 1861, from November, 
Dr. G. J. Phelan; 1869, from September, Dr. Montgomery; 1870, Dr. 
A. C. Donaldson, with Dr. G. A. White as assistant. 

The county then purchased some land from James Lansing, there 
being about sixty acres on the Upper Stockton Road, a mile south of 
the city limits, paying about $11,000 for it. Here the county erected 
a fine building and removed to it about seventy-five patients from the 
old one. This hospital was burned October 5, 1878, and the patients 
were removed to the "Old Pavilion," corner of Sixth and M streets 
and cared for temporarily, until the present one was built, in 1879. 
It was more eonunodious and better arranged than the first one, but 
has nearly outlived its usefulness and a new one will undoubtedly 
be constructed in the near future, with more up-to-date appurtenances. 
It was built on the "pavilion" plan with four wings radiating from 
the central structure and cost about $65,000. The farm provides 
fruit, vegetables, milk and various other things for the use of the 

Dr. G. A. White became county physician in 1872, and continued 
as such until 1908, with the exception that in the spring of 1879, the 
homeopathists were put in charge of the hospital, Dr. George Pyburn 
serving for three months, and Dr. George M. Dixon the succeeding 
four. Dr. Laine, regiilar, finished out the unex]Hred term. Dr. 
White brought the hospital up to a high state of efficiency and stands 
in the front rank of the surgeons of the state. He was succeeded, 
in 1904, by his son, Dr. John L. White, who is the present county 


physician and has already won the name of one of the most promising 
yoimg surgeons on the coast. 


In the early days of the Central Pacific history, the road i-an 
through a sparsely settled country, with the towns few and far be- 
tween and of small size. Accidents in the railroad man's life are 
frequent. In those days most of the road's employees were new men 
on the coast and but few of them had relatives that could take care 
of them when disabled. It remained then, in most cases, for the com- 
pany and their comrades to take care of them. These calls for dona- 
tions were frequent and burdensome and the company finally con- 
cluded that it would be best and most humane for it to build a hos- 
pital where the emploj^ees could be treated and cared for when sick 
or disabled, whether they had means or not. Sacramento was the 
place chosen for the hospital and an old residence was leased for the 
purpose. In 1869 the Central Pacific Hospital was built at a cost of 
$64,000. It was of four stories, 60x35 feet, and two wings, 35x52 
feet, and a kitchen twenty-four feet square. It had six wards, be- 
sides eight private rooms for patients, and had a library of fifteen 
hundred volumes. The executive and medical staff was excellent. 
It was supported by a monthly contribution of fifty cents from each 
officer and employee, which entitled them to free medical treatment 
in case of sickness or injury while in the employ of the company. It 
proved of very great benefit to the employees. In 1900 it was aban- 
doned and removed to the Charles Crocker residence on F street and 
Eighth, where it now is, but the construction of a new one was begun 
in 1911 on Second street. It was completed in 1912, and has since 
been used chiefly as an emergency hospital, most of the ordinary eases 
being sent to the company's hospital in San Francisco. 


Early in 1858 the necessity for caring for orphan children was 
discussed, and an association for that purpose was formed, but it did 
not prove of long continuance and the matter was dropped for some 
years. In 1867, however, the governor and a number of citizens were 
interested through the efforts of Mrs. Elvira Baldwin in the care of 
a family of seven children orphaned by the death of their mother, a 
poor woman. The direct influence of this movement was the awaken- 
ing of a new interest in the subject, and the organization of a society 
for the care and maintenance of destitute orphans in the county, and 
ultimately in the state. Mrs. I. E. Dwinell was the first president 
of the organization and the society rented and furnished a building 
at Seventh and D streets, where fourteen or fifteen children were 
immediately placed in the care of the first matron, Mrs. Cole. The 
association erected a building the next year on the block between K 
and L, Eighteenth and Nineteenth streets, where the new high school 
building now stands. The building was considerably damaged by fire, 


December 7, 1878, but was soon repaired and another and better 
building was added to it, making it commodious and well-arranged. 
The year previous a neat school building had been erected, and the 
school was made part of the city public-school system and placed 
under the care of the city board of education. No children except 
the inmates of the institution were allowed to attend the school. 

Many noble women have devoted much time and money to the 
welfare and upbuilding of the institution. Among them was Mrs. 
Sarah E. Clayton, who was president of the society in 1877-88, and 
traveled nearly five thousand miles in fifteen years, caring for orphans 
who were afterwards furnished with homes through the efforts of 
the society. In 1905 the propertj^ was sold to the city of Sacramento 
for high school purposes and the institution was removed to a site 
on the Lower Stockton Eoad, just beyond the William Curtis jilace. 


The first of the monuments to the memory of Mrs. Margaret 
Crocker was the home for aged women known as the MargTierite Home, 
the second being the gift of the Crocker Art Gallery to the city. The 
home is situated at Seventh and I streets and was originally the 
residence and grounds of Capt. William Whitney, comprising a half- 
block on I street. A fine building was added to the residence, mak- 
ing twenty-eight large bedrooms, with parlor, reception room, office, 
kitchen, laundry and diningroom. Everything was done for the com- 
fort and convenience of the inmates and the rooms are well-lighted 
and ventilated, and the house heated by hot-air pipes. The grounds 
are well shaded by fine trees and kept in good order by the trustees. 

The Marguerite Home was dedicated February 25, 1884; the 
sixtieth anniversary of the birth of Mrs. Crocker, the occasion being 
celebrated by a reception of the older citizens of Sacramento at the 
home. After the congratulations were over, Mrs. Margaret Crocker 
made the presentation of the home to the trustees in the following 
words, which explain the purpose and status of the gift: "Frank 
Miller, Albert Gallatin, John H. Carroll, Gustavus L. Simmons and 
Charles McCreary: Gentlemen — Herewith I deliver into your pos- 
session a deed in trust for certain money, real and personal prop- 
erty, by means of which I propose to establish a home for aged 
and indigent women in Sacramento, to be known as the 'Marguerite 
Home.' I have the honor, gentlemen, to solicit your acceptance of 
this trust; the deed expresses my intentions without placing restric- 
tions on your mode of management. 

"Knowing your intelligence and ability, and having full faith in 
your character and in your disposition to aid in all benevolent pur- 
poses, and believing you to be in full accord with my views in respect 
to the especial objects in my regard in this gift, I have left, as you 
will see upon a careful examination of the deed, to your discretion 


and superior knowledge and to your kind and earnest efforts, wliich 
I most heartily invoke, the success of this trust." 

Mayor John Q. Brown, Dr. G. L. Simmons and Hon. Joseph Stef- 
fens made appropriate responses to the tender of the generous gift. 
The deed, in addition to the property purchased for the home, dedi- 
cated also $50,000 as an endowment fund, besides $12,000 as a further 
aid to the maintenance of the home. While the money was apportioned 
to the support of the inmates, the trustees, anxious to extend the 
benefits of the institution to a wider range, concluded to take for life 
such worthy and respectable women as may desire to enter the home 
and as are able to pay the expenses incident to their maintenance. 

Of the original trustees, all except Frank Miller are dead, Dr. 
Simmons passing away a little over a year ago. The present board 
of trustees consists of Ludwig Mebius, president. Dr. W. A. Briggs, 
vice-president, Dr. W. E. Briggs, C. F. Dillman and H. A. Fairbanks. 
The death of Dr. Simmons was a great blow to the board of directors, 
as he had given his time and eifort unstintedly and unselfishly to 
looking after details important to the efficiency of the home and the 
comfort of its inmates. The patronesses of the home are Mrs. W. A. 
Briggs, Mrs. Mebius, Mrs. C. F. Dillman, Mrs. W. E. Briggs and 
Mrs. Fairbanks. Miss Sue M. Clarke is the present matron. 


From time to time other hospitals have been provided for the 
care of the sick, which, while not strictly speaking, charitable institu- 
tions, are for the alleviation and cure of the ills of suffering humanity, 
and may therefore be spoken of under this head. All "water cures" 
and "health institutes" are hospitals, and after the rush of the gold 
seekers to this state was fairly on, it is surprising how quickly all 
the eastern institutions of that class were established on this coast, 
although not on an extensive scale. There is no record as to when 
the first water cure was established in this city, but it was probably 
in the early '50s. We find Dr. T. P. Zander in 1857 advertising one 
at the southwest corner of Fifth and K street, and later a Dr. Burns 
established one which afterwards became the Pacific Water Cure and 
Electric Health Institute. 

This fell later under the management of Dr. M. F. Clayton, a 
graduate of the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio, who 
carried it on until his death, when Mrs. Clayton took charge of it 
for a number of years, being succeeded in its active management by 
her daughter, Mrs. A. J. Gardner. In 1910 the institution was closed 
and the fine structure known as the Hotel Clayton was erected on 
its site. 


The care of the sick is one of the chief objects of the order of 
Sisters of Mercv, and as Sacramento for so many years could not 


lay claim to any institution for the care of the sick except those of 
the city and county and the railroad hospital, the Sisters, in 1895, 
with very little money, but with great faith in God's providence, pur- 
chased the half block between Q and R, Twenty-second and Twenty- 
third streets, of the late Dr. G. L. Simmons for $12,000 on a 
mortgage note. The two small buildings known as the "Ridge Home," 
on Twenty-second street, were a small beginning, and poorly equipped, 
but their faith was rewarded bj' the appreciation of the public and 
in 1896, the large building now known as the Hospital Mater Miser- 
icordiae was erected. It has since been enlarged, and porches run 
all around it, and is one of the best equipped and best patronized 
hospitals on the coast, having four elegant operating rooms of the 
latest pattern. Ridge Home is now utilized as a home for the aged. 


The Wentworth Igo Hospital was opened September 1, 1900, at a 
cost of $13,000, at No. 2515 I street. It had twenty-five beds, and 
increased rapidly in popularity. Dr. Wentworth died in 1901 and 
Miss Louise Igo continued .the management of the hospital until 1902, 
when she severed her connection with it and graduated from the 
Medical College of the University of California. In March, 1910, 
she opened the Louise Igo Hospital with eight rooms for patients, 
and her business grew so rapidly that she has determined to build a 
larger institution. 


January 12, 1910, Dr. J. L. White opened tlie White Hospital at 
Twenty-ninth and J streets, with five four-bed wards, two four-lied 
wards and thirty private rooms. He is the owner and manager. For 
more than ten years he was superintendent of the County Hospital 
and is considered one of the most successful young surgeons in North- 
ern California. Mrs. Staley is superintendent of the nurses and has 
a number of assistants, and twenty-one nurses in training. The ap- 
proximate value of the hospital is $90,000. The annex was completed 
in May, 1911, with twelve rooms on the upper floor for patients. The 
hospital rapidly found its way into public favor and is in a very 
prosperous condition. 


The Home of the Merciful Saviour, on the J Street Road, is an 
institution for the treatment of crippled and invalid children. Al- 
though under the fostering care of the Episcopal Church it is 
wholly non-sectarian as to admissions and has received as patients 
children from the length and breadth of California, the only requisite 
for their acceptance being a physician's certificate indicating their 
need of medical or surgical treatment and the age restriction of twelve 
years for boys and fourteen for girls. 


The Home owes its existence to a memorial gift of $250, donated 
by the late Mrs. James Palache, of Berkeley, in remembrance of her 
daughter. That nest egg was augmented by the generosity of many 
Sacramentans and other friends in the diocese, and the property on 
J street was purchased, the house renovated and the Home opened 
for the reception of patients, June 1, 1907, with an initial family of 
three little ones. 

In the five succeeding years one hundred and twenty-five children 
have been admitted, many have been discharged "cured," some "im- 
proved" and there have been eight deaths. The fatalities have al- 
most invariably been due to the hopeless condition of the children when 
brought to the Home. The average size of the family at the pres- 
ent time is from twenty to twenty-five. 

The organization of the Home consists of a board of directors 
from whose number are elected a president, vice-president, treas- 
urer, corresponding and recording secretaries, the bishop of the 
diocese being ex-officio president. There is a sustaining member- 
ship of annual subscribers and a life membership comprising don- 
ors of one hundred dollars or more in one sum. 

There is also a Memorial Endowment Fund, the interest from 
which is applied to the maintenance of the Home, and from which 
it is hoped in time to realize an adequate annual income for the 
support of the institution. This is being created by special gifts, 
endowed beds and bequests. Legacies to this charitable institu- 
tion are made payable to the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of 
Sacramento, a Corporation Sole, in trust for the Home of the Mer- 
ciful Saviour. 

"the howaeds" 

The Howard Benevolent Association of Sacramento was organ- 
ized in a time of great tribulation and distress in this city. Tlie 
rush of gold seekers in 1849 had brought with it much of disease 
and poverty, and the Masons and Odd Fellows had risen nobly to 
the occasion and dispensed charity with open hands and willing 
hearts, counting not the cost when they could alleviate distress. In 
later times, when the floods and fires brought poverty and suffer- 
ing, another organization arose. This one was formed purely and 
solely for the relief of the destitute and sick, and well and faith- 
fully it played its part. No one will ever know how much it did 
for the needy, for those who disbursed its funds never boasted of 
the deeds, and most, if not all, of the original members have passed 
away. The name of the Howards, however, should always be held 
in reverence by every citizen of Sacramento. 

The first steps looking to the organization of the society were 
taken as early as December 21, 1857, N. A. H. Ball being the leader in 
the good work. The officers elected for the first year were: George 


W. Mowe, president; L. A. Booth, James P. Robinson, Jobn McNeill, 
E. A. Pearis, James E. Perkins and N. A. H. Ball, directors; James 
M. Kennedy, secretary, and John S. Bien, treasurer. The income 
of the society was derived from membership fees, voluntary con- 
tributions, donations by the legislature, and various other sources. 
None of the officers except the steward received any salary. Dur- 
ing the floods of 1861-62 the association had its headquarters at the 
Old Pavilion on M street, as stated in a previous chapter, and as- 
sisted hundreds of homeless people. For many years it distributed 
to the needy about $4000 a year and numbered about thirty active 
members, who elected the directors. Of late years the Howards have 
not had so many calls on their charity, as the county has taken hold 
of such matters more systematically. For this reason their reserve 
fund has accumulated until it amounts to about $20,000. The pres- 
ent board of directors consists of R. D. Finnic and Fred Biewener, 
John Weil, the third member having died in January, 1912. 

The Catholic Ladies' Relief Society, No. 1, has been in ex- 
istence for many years and has faithfully looked after the needs of 
the destitute and sick of their denomination. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was organized October 
3, 1866, and elected officers as follows: N. N. Denton, president; H. 
B. Eddy, secretary, and M. L. Templeton, treasurer. Twenty-six 
names were enrolled at the organization. At a subsequent meeting 
October 22, 1866, at the Congregational Church, the organization 
was completed by electing other officers, as follows : Sparrow Smith, 
corresponding secretary; George "Wick, librarian; H. W. Earl, regis- 
trar; G. W. Bruff, Seth Babson, A. Aitken, J. M. Ripley, G. W. 
Bonner, board of managers ; and the following vice-presidents : Frank 
Miller (Congregational Church), G. R. Forshee (Sixth Street Metho- 
dist Church), A. Aitken (Presbyterian Church), C. Emery (Baptist 
Church), and Henry Garrett (Christian Church). 

The association died down in 1877 and 1878, but was soon after 
revived. Its headquarters were at No. 309 K street, the St. George 
Building, and on the west side of Sixth street, between K and L. 
At present they own the building at the Northwest corner of Fifth 
and J streets, but it has been razed, and a splendid building, costing 
with the lot about $200,000, is being erected on the site. The associa- 
tion is strong and prosperous and has a large membership. 


The New Helvetia Cemetery, which lies south of and adjoining 
McKinley Park, just east of Thirty-first street, is the oldest bury- 
ing ground in Sacramento, and is embraced in the original plat of 
Sutter's Port. Ten acres here were donated for burial purposes 
by Gen. John A. Sutter to the city, about the first of December, 
1849. The first person buried was Major Cloud, a paymaster of 


the United States army, who was killed in 1847 some distance south- 
east of the fort, by being thrown from a horse. The second person 
buried in the cemetery was Miss Susanna Hitchcock, who died early 
in 1849 at the new diggings on the Stanislaus; the third was James 
McDowell, who was shot in Washington, just across the river from 
this city. Many interments were made here in 1849 and 1850, dur- 
ing the times when sickness and cholera were so prevalent. Since 
the annexation of the suburbs beyond it in 1911, bringing this and 
the Jewish cemeteries within the city limits, it is proposed to re- 
move the remains of those buried there to some other place, and 
abolish those cemeteries. 

The City Cemetery was located south of Y street in 1850, on 
the southern boundary of the city limits, on Tenth street. It origin- 
ally comprised about twenty acres, but the area has been largely in- 
creased by additions. It is beautifully adorned with trees, flowering 
shrubs and plants, and many fine monuments are to be seen there. 
The Freemasons, Odd Fellows, Red Men, Firemen, Pioneers, Print- 
ers, Veterans of the Mexican war, and other organizations have 
plats within the enclosure, as has also the state, where a number of 
state officials were buried. This cemetery is owned by the city, and 
is controlled by a. superintendent elected by the board of trustees. 

The Hebrew Cemetery is under the control of the Congregation 
B'nai Israel, but is owned by the Hebrew Benevolent Society. A 
chapel has been erected on the grounds, which are enclosed by a 

St. Joseph's Cemetery belongs to the Catholic diocese of Sac- 
ramento and was consecrated by Archbishop Alemany in 1865. It is 
located at Twenty-first and Y streets, and is well kept by the sup- 

East Lawn Cemetery is the most modern of all the cemeteries, 
having been opened by a private corporation in 1904. It is located 
on a knoll which is part of the farm formerly owned by Governor 
Booth, on the M street road, or Schley avenue, as it is called, a short 
distance east of the former city limits, but now far within them 
since the annexation of the eastern suburbs. It occupies a beautiful 
site and will, in time, be one of the first in the state. It was fur- 
nished with a furnace for cremation a year or two ago. 



One of the first accomjianiments of civilization is the newspaper. 
The savage communicates with his fellows by breaking twigs on the 
trail or by smoke and other si.gnals in the hills and on the plains. 
Civilized man uses more universal and wide-spread devices for dis- 
seminating the news. In the days of '49 the people were no less 


eager to hear the news than are we of the present day, who must 
devonr the news from the daily paper while we devour our break- 
fast. News from the mines was no less eagerly sought by the dweller 
in the city than was the news from the city and the east by the 
miner at his claim. It was a foregone conclusion, therefore, that 
as soon as society was organized, the journalist should open his 
office and begin to supply the demand. 

The Monterey Californkm was the first newspaper issued in 
California and was published and edited by Rev. Walter Colton, a 
chaplain in the United States navy, and Dr. Robert Semple. The 
type was principally long primer, an old Spanish font, badly worn 
and battered. As there is no "w" in the Spanish language, two 
"v's" were substituted in words containing "w. " The press was 
an old Eamage, which had been used by the Mexican authorities for 
printing their edicts and other public papers. The first issue of 
the Californian was printed on an inferior quality of paper used 
for tobacco wrappers, and was issued in the summer of 1846. John 
R. Gould, of Baltimore, afterwards secretary of the Maryland As- 
sociation of Veterans of the Mexican War, assisted by a boy, set 
the tj'pe, worked off the paper and kept the books of the office. B. 
P. Kooser, a corporal in the United States army, was compositor 
and pressman on the Californian in 1847, and subsequently pub- 
lished the Santa Cruz Sentinel and was a commissioner from the 
state at the Centennial Exposition. 

The second paper published in this state was the California 
Star, the first number being issued in San Fi-ancisco January 9, 
1847. It was a weekly a little larger than the Californian and was 
published by Sam Brannan and edited by E. P. Jones. The press 
was a tolerably good one and the Sonora Herald afterwards used 
it. On the 17th of April, 1848, Mr. Jones resigned and E. C. Kemble 
succeeded him as editor. The last number of the first volume was 
issued January 1, 1848. The first number of the second volume ap- 
peared January 8, 1848, in enlarged form and its publication was 
continued regularly till May 26, when the printers went to the mines 
and its publication was discontinued. The Californian having been 
discontinued for the same reason, California was without a news- 
paper from the last of May till the latter part of June, 1848. 

About July 1, 1848, a few printers returned disgusted from the 
mines and commenced the publication of the third volume of the 
Californian, and published it irregiilarly until August, when it re- 
commenced its regular weekly issues under the editorial manage- 
ment of H. I. Sheldon. In September Mr. Kemble, who had re- 
turned from the mines, purchased the Californian, as well as the 
interests of his partners in the Star, and united the two under the 
title of the Star and Californian and recommenced where the Star 
had left off — Volume III, No. 24. It was the only paper then pub- 


lished in California and was issued weeklj- till the last of December, 
1848, when it was discontinued. January 1, 1849, Mr. Kemble took 
into partnership Messrs. Gilbert and Hubbard, and began publish- 
ing the Alta California. They published it weekly until November 
10, 1849, when it was issued tri-weekly and after January 23, 1850, 
it was published daily, simultaneously with the Journal of Com- 
merce, published by W. Bartlett. March 4, 1849, the Pacific News 
also appeared daily. The fourth paper started in California and the 
second published in 1849 was the Placer Times, at New Helvetia, 
Sutter's Fort April 28, 1849, published by E. Gilbert & Co., in Sac- 
ramento, and edited by Jesse Giles. It was a weekly sheet and a 
small one. It was printed on sheets of foolscap size. Printing paper 
was very scarce in California, but the market was overstocked with 
unruled foolscap, which was made a substitute. The Pacific News 
was the third newspaper published in the state, at this time, and 
was the first tri-weekly. It was published in San Francisco on fools- 
cap paper, fte lack of size being compensated for by supplementary 

During the winter of 1849-50, George Kenyon Fitch came by 
the Isthmus route, bringing with him a hand and a card press, ink, 
tjTse and about thirty reams of printing paper. He proposed to five 
attaches of the Pacific News — F. C. Ewer, H. S. Warren, J. M. 
Julian, Theodore Russell and S. C. Upham — the formation of a com- 
pany to publish a newspajDer at Sacramento, and the proposition was 
accepted. They rented the second floor of a frame building on Second 
street, between J and K streets, and April 1, 1850, the initial number 
of the tri-weekly paper was issued, which was christened the Sacra- 
mento Transcript. It was published on a folio sheet, in brevier and 
nonpareil type. A steamer edition, for circulation in the Atlantic 
states, was printed once a month, selling at fifty cents a copy, while 
the tri-weekly sold at twelve and one-half cents and advertisements 
were inserted for $4 a square, each insertion. The six copartners 
accepted positions on the paper as follows: G. K. Fitch, heavy and 
fighting editor; F. C. Ewer, literary editor; H. S. Warren, foreman; 
J. M. Julian, compositor; Theodore Russell, pressman; and S. C. 
Upham, local reporter, business manager, printer's devil, "dead 
head," etc. 

In its salutatory the Transcript uttered a sentiment that it would 
be well for the papers of the present day to adopt. It said in part : 

"The opening of a new paper is like the planting of a tree 

Its shade should be free to all. It should reach forth its branches to 
shield the innocent from the pelting storm, and, conscious of its fear- 
less might, men should come to it for protection, and find refresh- 
ment in its shade. It should be nurtured by no unhealthy influences; 
it should be propped up by no interested motives; its growth should 
be free and unrestrained. Perchance it may wither in its youth, and 



no longer be tlie home of healthy influences. Perhaps it may be 
stricken in its manhood by the storms of adversity. Perchance it 
may flourish through the years and grow green; but of all dangers 
that assail it from without, the insidious influence of those who may 
cluster round it for their own jDrivate ends is the most withering 
and the most to be feared. A newspaper should never be used. It 
is too tremendous a lever to be brought to bear for any jjurpose, 
save for the good of the public." , 

The day of publication of its first number was, besides being 
"All Fools' Day," the first election day under the new charter and 
there were three tickets in the field — the Democratic, the ranchers' 
and the citizens' ticket. The total number of votes cast was 2,943, 
and Hardin Biglow, the people's candidate, received a majority of 
323 over all the others. The Transcript was the fifth newspaper pub- 
lished on the Pacific Coast and the first daily outside of San Fran- 
cisco published in California. Ten days later the Placer Times came 
out daily. 

The Transcript was a financial success, but Mr. Julian retired 
within two months and Mr. Upham a month later sold his interest 
to G. C. Weld, California correspondent of the New York Journal of 
Commerce. Mr. Weld was a model business man and a fine writer, 
but died within six weeks of the time he became one of the proprie- 
tors and the paper beginning to run down, was consolidated with the 
Placer Times. A year later, the Times and Transcript removed to 
San Francisco and took a leading position as a Democratic organ, 
under Pickering and Fitch. It died in 1856 of a Democratic contro- 

When the Placer Times was started the office was not equipped 
with a modern plant equal to those nowadays. A lot of old t^qse 
was picked up out of the Alta office, an old Ramage press was re- 
paired, a lot of Spanish foolscap was secured in San Francisco, and 
the whole was shipped to Sacramento on a vessel named the Dice me 
Nana (says my mamma), the first craft to carry type and press to 
the interior of California, and which made the trip in eight days. 
An office was built for the paper about six hundred feet from the 
northeast corner of the bastion of Sutter's Fort, and near what is 
now" the corner of Twenty-eighth and K streets. The structure was 
a queer mixture of wood, adobe and cotton cloth, but it answered 
the purpose. The paper was 13x18 inches in size, and the title was 
cut from wood with a ]5ocket knife. All sorts of expedients were 
resorted to in cutting off and piecing out letters to round out a com- 
plement of "sorts" for the cases. The press had a wooden platen, 
which needed constant planing to keep it level, and the rollers were 
not a most brilliant success. The plant like its owners was a pioneer 
in that line, but with all its defects, it "filled a long felt want," and 
the merchants of the city rallied around the pioneer publisher and 


subscribed liberally to secure bim from loss. It bas been said tliat 
in tbis country tbe newspaper is tbe berald of progress, and in an 
energetic community like that of early Sacramento tbe truth of the 
assertion was certainly made good. 

When tbe Times and Transcript were combined under the double 
head in June, 1851, the new paper was enlarged. Tbe Transcript 
bad been started as an independent paper, but in 1850 it came out 
for the Democratic party, thus being the first interior Democratic 
paper. The Times had also originally been neutral, but bad also in 
1850 leaned toward Democracy. When the Squatter riot excitement 
arose, it had been valiant in defense of the real-estate owners, but 
under its new management it became less partisan. At tbe time of 
tbe consolidation G. K. Fitch had become state printer and Lorin 
Pickering bad the city printing. This formed an advantageous basis 
for the fusion, Fitch retaining a half interest in the printing and 
Pickering and Lawrence the other half. The three were the editors. 
The State Journal became an active rival to the new paper and in 
June, 1852, tbe Times-Transcript abandoned the field to its rival and 
removed to San Francisco, where it was published by the old firm, 
which was afterwards succeeded by George Kerr & Co., composed of 
George Kerr, B. F. Washington, J. E. Lawrence and J. C. Haswell. 
From then it passed to Edwin Bell and later to Vincent E. Geiger & 
Co. In the meantime Fitch & Co. bad acquired the Alta California 
and December 17, 1854, they repurchased tbe old Times-Transcript 
and absorbed it into tbe Alta. 

October 30, 1850, the Squatter Association started a paper, styl- 
ing it the Settlers' and Miners' Tribune. Dr. Charles Robinson, who 
had become noted for tbe part be took in tbe Squatter riots and who 
subsequently became tbe free-state governor of Kansas, was the 
editor; James McClatchy and L. M. Booth were the associate editors. 
The type was brought from Maine by Sirus Rowe. Except for Sun- 
days, it was a daily for a month, but then declined into a weekly and 
after another month it died quietly and took its place in the journal- 
istic boneyard. 

Tbe Sacramento Index was started December 23, 1850, by Lynch, 
Davidson & Rolfe, practical printers, with J. W. Winans, since a 
prominent San Francisco lawyer, as editor, and H. B. Livingstone as 
associate. It was of good size, typographically neat and a paper of 
rare literary ability. It was the first evening paper in Sacramento 
and was printed in tbe Times ofSee. Having taken ground against 
the action of a vigilance committee in hanging a gambler, it lost in- 
fluence. After a career of three months it died March 17, 1851, and 
joined tbe squatters' paper in the boneyard. 

Before the union of tbe Times and tbe Transcript, tbe compe- 
tition between them became so fierce that the prices of advertising 
declined until they fell below the price of composition. At last the 


printers in both offices rebelled and the greater number of them quit. 
They held a meeting in a building adjoining the Transcript office, 
which thereby acquired the name of "Sedition Hall," and resolved 
to start a new i3aper, for which they secured as editor Dr. J. F. 
Morse. Buying their stock in San Francisco, they launched the Sac- 
ramento Daily Union at No. 21 J street, March 19, 1851, renting 
rooms for it in the Langley brick building. The fate of several of 
the proprietors was tragic. Alexander Clark went to the Society 
Islands and was never heard from afterwards; W. J. Keating died a 
few years afterwards in an insane asylum; Joe Court was burned 
to death at the Western Hotel fire in this city, in the fall of 1874. 
The others were Alexander C. Cook, E. Gr. Jeffries, Charles L. Han- 
secker, J. H. Harmon, W. A. Davidson and Samuel H. Dosh. The 
latter subsequently became editor of the Shasta Courier and died 
prior to 1875. 

It was nearly a year, however, before type could be procured. 
A lot had been ordered, but failed to arrive. J. W. Simonton having 
made an appearance with a full fledged printing office, with the in- 
tention of starting a Whig paper, was persuaded to sell and his 
stock was purchased by the Union men. 

The daily edition of the Union started with five hundred copies 
and rapidly increased. The paper was 23x34 inches, with twenty- 
four columns, thirteen of which were filled with advertisements. It 
was an independent, outspoken paper and ably edited. The edition 
printed March 29, 1851, was entitled the Steadier Union, and was 
designed for reading in the eastern states. April 29, 1851, the Union 
hoisted the Whig flag, at the same time declining to be ranked as a 
subservient partisan. S. H. Dosh soon sold out for $600 and in 
June, Harmon sold out for a like sum. On April 23 the paper was 
enlarged to the size it has since averaged, and appeared in the new 
ty|3e at first ordered. H. B. Livingstone became associate editor in 
January, 1852, and Hansecker sold out for $2,000, the firm now be- 
coming* E. G. Jeffries & Co. They next sold out to W. W. Kurtz 
for $2,100. The first Weekly Union was issued January 10, 1852. 
February 13, Cook sold out to H. W. Larkin, and April 3, Davidson 
sold to Paul Morrill. In May Dr. Morse retired as editor, being 
succeeded by A. C. Russell, who remained until August. Lauren 
Upson succeeded him as editor, retiring for a time in 1853, when 
John A. Collins filled the place. 

November 2, 1852, the Union was burned out in the great fire. 
A small press and a little type were saved and the second morning 
after the fire the paper came out foolscap size, but soon resumed its 
former dimensions. A brick building was erected for it on J street. 
near Second. May 16, 1853, Jeffries & Kurtz sold to the other part- 
ners and to James Anthony, who had been in the business depart- 
ment of the paper since November, 1851. The firm became James 


Anthony & Co. Keating sold to Morrill, Anthony, Clark and Lar- 
kin, and in December Clark's interest passed to the firm. A steam 
engine was installed Jime 20, 1853, to rim the press. 

In May, 1858, Morrill sold his interest to J. Gray, and went to 
New Hampshire, reiraining between one and two years, when he re- 
turned and bonght back Gray's interest. In February, 1875, the 
firm sold out to the Sacramento Publishing Company, which also 
purchased the Sacramento Daily and Weekly Record and the two 
papers assumed the title of the Sacramento Daily Record Union. Be- 
sides the daily issue, the semi-weekly feature of the Record was 
maintained, being issued on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Since that 
time the daily has been issued on each day of the week except Sun- 
days, which day was added in 1893, with a double or eight-page edi- 
tion on Saturdays and a mammoth sheet on each New Year's day. 

Mr. Upson remained chief editor of the Union about twelve 
years. He was succeeded by H. C. Watson, who served until his 
death in June, 1867, and was succeeded by Samuel Seabough, who 
served until the merging of the Union with the Record. George 
Frederick Parsons, editor-in-chief of the Record, then became editor- 
in-chief of the Record-Union, and continued as such until his re- 
moval to New York in 1883, and J. A. Woodson became the editorial 
writer. When the Record was consolidated with the Union, W. H. 
Mills, one of the proprietors of the Record, became the manager and 
remained in charge until his removal to San Francisco in January, 
1883, and C. E. Carrington was appointed local manas-ing editor, 
with T. W. Sheehan business manager. April 1, 1889, Mr. Carring- 
ton retired and E. B. Willis and T. W. Sheehan were appointed 
general managers of the paper, the former assuming the duties of 
managing editor and the latter remaining in immediate charge of 
the business department. Mr. Willis continued as managing editor 
for seventeen years, the longest term of anyone who held that posi- 
tion, resigning to accept the secretarvship of the state commission 
to the St. Louis Exposition. Mr. Sheehan remained as business man- 
ager until after the paper changed hands in June, 1904, Alfred Hol- 
man becoming publisher. Mr. Holman remained as publisher until 
the paper was purchased by Col. E. A. Forbes in December, 1906. In 
February, 1908, the paper again changed hands, the Calkins Syndi- 
cate purchasing it, but becoming involved in financial difficulties 
caused by broadening out and assuming the proprietorship of several 
other papers in the state, the control passed from the hands of the 
syndicate. In 1910 the paper was purchased by Lewey E. Bontz. 
who had been superintending it for the creditors, and had been busi- 
ness manager from Holman 's time. The paper is now owned by the 
L. E. Bontz Publishing Company. 

May 19, 1889, the publication of the Sunday Union was begun 
and it was mailed to all the subscribers for the Weekly Union, the 


semi-weekly having been discontinued. The fine three-story build- 
ing which was built for the Union in 1861, on the east side of Third 
street, is now occupied by the Union, the name of the paper having 
been changed from the Record-Union to the Union by Mr. Holman 
during his proprietorship. The building was remodeled by the 
Calkins Syndicate during their ownership and a splendid new press 
put in, besides other expensive changes. 

Among the earliest of the defunct journals comes the Democratic 
State Journal, the initial number appearing February 5, 1852. It 
was a morning paper, about the size of the Record-Union. V. E. 
Geiger & Co. were the publishers and Geiger and B. F. Washington 
were the editors. It battled valiantly for the Democratic party, sup- 
porting John Bigler in his political aspirations, while its contem- 
porary, the Times and Transcript, supported William M. Gwin. Early 
in 1853 Washington retired, and was employed on the Times and 
Transcript, and B. B. Redding, afterwards land agent of the Central 
Pacific Company, became editor. The destruction of the office by the 
great fire of 1852 greatly impeded the paper, and in June, 1853, a 
new firm was composed, consisting of B. B. Redding, P. C. Johnson, 
S. J. May and James McClatch\. In April, 1854, Johnson sold to 
Colonel Snowden, and in June, Mr. May sold to Redding and Snow- 
den. All of these pioneer newspaper owners have been dead for many 

In the fall of 1854 William Walker, who afterward became known 
as General Walker, of Nicaragiia filibuster fame, the "gray-eyed man 
of destiny," became editor. Mr. McClatchy sold out to D. J. 
Thomas in October, 1854. Walker retired in February, 1855, and Mc- 
Clatchv became editor, being succeeded in a month by John White. 
In 1856 Snowden sold out to Redding and Thomas and in June, 1857, 
the party having failed to give adequate support to it, the paper was 
sold, under attachment and bought in by the printers in the office. 
It resumed publication in about four weeks, with Henry Shipley & 
Co. as publishers, and after various vicissitudes yielded up the ghost 
June 24, 1858. At one time it ran a column in French and was the 
only Sacramento paper that had a department in a foreign tongue. 

In August, 1852, T. Alter began the publication of a weekly Bap- 
tist paper, with 0. C. Wheeler and E. J. Willis as editors. It had its 
office in the courthouse and lived about a year, losing $3000 to its 

November 17, 1852, E. Williamson & Co., with James McClatchy 
and D. J. Thoiuas as editors, started a settler Democratic daily 
paper, super-royal in size and in April, 1853, S. J. May bought one- 
fourth interest and became editor. It was burned out and started 
again in an old deserted kitchen bought from the county for that pur- 
pose. On July 30th it fused with the State Journal. 

The California Statesman, a morning paper published by J. W. 


Gisli & Co. and edited by Henry Meredith, started November 13, 
1854. It was Democratic and supported William M. Gwin for United 
States senator against Broderick. March 1, 1855, Gish & Woodward, 
the publishers, sued Gwin and Ilardenbergh on a claim that they had 
agreed to pay $2500 for the support of Gwin by the paper. They 
alleged that Gwin also agreed to give the paper the public printing. 
They placed their damages at $20,000, but were thrown out of court 
on the ground that the agreement was contrary to public policy. 
Hardenbergh then sued for possession and the Statesman died. 

The California Farmer and Journal of Useful Science, which 
had been published in San Francisco, appeared in Sacramento in 
May, 1855, as a weekly paper, published by Warren & Son, and J. 
K. Philips & Co. In 1856 it moved back to San Francisco. 

In March, 1854, Dr. Morse and S. Colville issued the first and 
only number of a monthly magazine called "Illustrated Historical 
Sketches of California, with a minute liistory of the Sacramento Val- 
le^^" It was a good number, but the business department was poorly 
managed and the second number never appeared. 

The Pacific Recorder appeared July 15, 1854, edited by E. J. 
Willis and was to be the organ of the Baptist church. It was a neat 
semi-monthly and July, 1855, it became a weeklj^, but in March follow- 
ing it was discontinued. 

June 8, 1855, the State Tribune, a daily paper, appeared, edited 
and ]nihlished by Parker H. French and S. J. May. It was pro- 
fessedly independent of politics, but had Democratic proclivities. 
In Se]5tember French sold out to May and left with the Nicaragua 
expedition. J. N. Estill became editor August 1st, and opposed John 
Bigler and the Democracy so vigorously that it soon became promi- 
nent as an opposition journal. French returned to the state and 
bought into it again, but some of the arrangements for pa>Tnent were 
left in such form that difficulty ensued. He sold to George W. Gift, 
who had assigned to Monson and Valentine, who attached the paper. 
S. J. May and his three remaining partners set out these things in 
a card and issued a new Tribune, so that October 16, 1855, two 
Tribunes appeared, each claiming to be the genuine one. May & 
Co.'s issue was from the material of the defunct Statesman. The 
other Tribune was published by Farwell & Co. Both papers were 
ardent American or Know-Nothing sheets, and each was very bitter 
against the other. The war lasted two weeks, when Farwell & Co. 
Tribune gave up and the Tribune came out with James Allen & Co., 
as publishers, still advocating Know-Nothin.gism. It lived till June 
1, 1856. A new paper sprang up the next day from its ashes, called 
the California American, and was as radical in its Know-Nothingism 
as its predecessor. James Allen, J. E. Eidge and S. J. May were 
the proprietors. Allen at the time was state printer and was said to 


have sunk $15,000 on the paper, which never was a success. He died 
in February, 1856. 

The Water Fount and Home Journal, a weekly paper, was issued 
December 15, 1855, by Alexander Montgomery & Co., with Montgom- 
ery as editor. It was the official organ of the Sons of Temperance 
and lived only nine months. 

December 6, 1855, George H. Baker and J. A. Mitchell started an 
independent evening paper called the Spirit of the Age. In June, 
1856, it changed its name to the Sacramento Age, and was enlarged, 
with A. A. Appleton & Co. as publishers. In the summer of 1856 
it was sold to the Know-Nothings and made their fight till the elec- 
tion was over, dying in 1857. 

December 24, 1855, A. Badlam & Co. started the Daily Evening 
Times, a gratuitous advertising sheet 10x18 inches and worked on a 
wooden press made bv the publishers. It died of inanition in March, 

December 11, 1856, C. Babb and W. H. Harvey, with Paschal 
Coggins as editor, started the publication of a daily morning inde- 
pendent paper of small size, called the City Item. It lived seven 

Cornelius Cole & Co. commenced the publication August 15, 1856. 
of the Daily Times, a morning paper. Republican in politics. It was 
very lively in the canvass for Fremont, and was edited with ability. 
It became an evening paper in November and issued a weekly, but 
became so weakly that it succumbed January 24, 1857. Mr. Cole, the 
editor, aftei'wards became United States senator. 

The Chinese News, which began publication in December, 1856, 
lasted for a couple of years, first being a daily, then a tri-weekly, 
next a weekly and finally a monthly. It was printed in the Chinese 
language, Ze Too Yune, alias Hung Tai, being editor and publisher. 

The Temperance Mirror, a quarto monthly, issued one number in 
January, 1857, 0. B. Turrell, publisher, and W. B. Taylor, editor. 
It removed to San Francisco, where it died in March. 

The Daily Morning Bee was born February 3, 1857, as an inde- 
pendent in politics. J. R. Ridge and S. J. May were the editors, and 
the proprietors were L. C. Chandler, L. P. Davis, John Church and 
W. H. Tobey. It was much smaller than the present Bee, having but 
five columns to the page. April 6, 1857, it became an evening paper, 
and in the following summer Ridge retired and James McClatchy suc- 
ceeded him. The firm changed in 1858 to F. S. Thompson, L. P. 
Davis and W. H. Tobey and the paper changed its size to seven col- 
umns. April 8, 1860, Thompson's interest was purchased by J. 
O'Leary and the firm name changed to L. P. Davis & Co. Decem- 
ber 28, 1863, C. H. Winterburn bought out Tobey and sold his in- 
terest to James McClatchy, February 12, 1866. McClatchy bought 
the interest of Davis June 26, 1872, and the firm name became, as 


at present, James McClatchy & Co. Au^st 1, 1872, J. F. Sheehan 
purchased a one-third interest from McClatchy. Since that time the 
paper has been further enlarged and is today one of the most pros- 
perous and profitable journals in the history of Sacramento. James 
McClatchy admitted his son, Charles K. McClatchy, to a partner- 
ship in the business and the firm members were then J. F. Sheehan, 
James McClatchy and C. K. McClatchy. October 23, 1882, James 
McClatchy died at Paraiso Springs, leaving his title and interest in 
the paper to his wife and two sons. January 29, 1884, J. F. Shee- 
han sold his interest in the paper, it being purchased by the mem- 
bers of the McClatchy family, the firm name remaining James Mc- 
Clatchy & Co. From then on the paper was conducted by the two 
sons, C. K. as managing editor and V. S. as business manager. 
Steadily progressing in circulation and influence, it is one of the 
afternoon papers that receive the full Associated Press report, and 
is regarded as one of the most influential papers on the coast. It 
put in a fast stereotyping plant in 1888, and was the first evening 
paper in California to do so. 

In July, 1857, the Star of the Pacific, a religious journal, Rev. 
A. C. Edmonds, a Universalist minister, editor and proprietor, re- 
moved from Marysville to this city. In December, 1857, it suspended 
animation, revived in May, 1858, and iiassed away that fall. 

The Daily State Sentinel, a Eepublicah paper, was issued in small 
size July 27, 1857, by J. E. Atkins & Co., as a morning paper. In 
October C. D. Hossach & Co. took hold of it and C. A. Sumner be- 
came its editor. It had bright prospects for a while, but followed to 
the charnel house in 1858. 

C. A. Sumner, August 22, 1857, began the publication of a sheet 
called the Eye Glass, but only one number appeared. 

The Covenant and Odd Fellotvs' Magazine, a monthly of thirty- 
two pages, started August 31, 1857, with J. D. Tilson publisher and 
A. C. Edmonds, editor, but gave up the ghost with the tenth number, 
in 1858. 

The Temperance Register, H. Davidson & Co., began as a monthly 
September, 1857, changed to a semi-monthly in October, and on De- 
cember 12 became a monthly again and then died. 

A Sunday paper, the Herald of the Morning, appeared in De- 
cember, 1857, with J. C. McDonald & Co., publishers, and Calvin 
McDonald, literary editor. It was a spiritualistic paper and passed 
to the spirit land in four weeks. 

The Phoenix, afterwards the UUcuitous, was a scurrilous sheet, 
fathered by E. McGowan, issued as an occasional in the fall of 1857. 
and as a weekly during the following winter. The hot summer 
weather killed it. 

The Watch Dog, a similar publication, issued January 1, 1S58, 
died in the following March. 


During the same March, the Sacramento Visitor, by Brown, 
Ingham & Co., J. Coggins, editor, a daily evening paper of moderate 
size and lively and independent in tone, began publication, but ceased 
to exist Jime 1, 1858. 

The Sacramento Mercury, a straight-out Democratic newspaper, 
began publication March 28, 1858, with H. Foushie, publisher, and 
W. S. Long, editor. It was about half the size of the Record-Union 
and in the summer A. Montgomerv became its editor, but it died 
October 12, 1858. 

The second California Statesman took the place of the old one 
in May, 1858, with S. W. Eavely, publisher, and A. C. Russell, edi- 
tor, as a Democratic daily. It succumbed June 24th, the same year. 

The Californian, second of that name, a neutral daily of small 
size, was edited by D. J. Thomas. It was born July 9, 1858, but lived 
only one week, departing Jvily 15th. 

The Baptist Circular, the third effort of the Baptists to start a 
paper in Sacramento, commenced in August, 1858, with Rev. J. L. 
Shuck as editorial manager, but only survived until the next spring. 

In 1858 and 1859 the Democracy became split into two factions 
— the Lecompton and the anti-Lecompton. The contest between them 
became so hot that the anti-Lecomptonites, goaded by the assaults 
of Charles I. Botts from the Lecompton side, started a paper called 
the Daily Register and issued every morning except Monday. It 
was about the size of the Bee. Dr. Houghton furnished most of the 
money and the firm was Harvey, Houghton & Co. The editors were 
J. C. Zabriskie and William Bausman, who held small interests. It 
was vigorous, but too scholarly and not lively enough for the times 
and Bausman soon left it. The Register office was at the corner of 
Fifth and J streets and the outfit and dress of the paper were good. 
Houghton sunk a large amount of money in it, but the second day 
before the general election that fall, it died a peaceful death. 

The Register's rival, the Daily Democratic Standard, a better 
paper from a purely journalistic point of view, was born February 
26, 1859. J. R. Hardenbergh was its publisher and Charles T. Botts 
its editor. It was a morning paper, about the size of the Record- 
Union and was a vigorous exponent of the doctrine of the Lecomp- 
ton faction. In July, 1859, Bolts became its proprietor. Its office 
was on Third street, between I and J. June 2, 1860, it ceased its 
daily issues, and for some months appeared weekly, with M. Gr. 
Upton and Hon. Gr. Gorham as editors, but soon after the fall elec- 
tion in 1869 it became defunct after draining the pockets of its owners. 

In June, 1860, Henry Bidleman & Co. started the Daily Demo- 
crat, issued from the Standard office, with M. G. Upton as editor. 
It made a lively campaign, but died with the election. 

June 24, 1860, F. R! Folger & Co. put forth the Daily Morning 
News, a Douglas Democratic newspaper and the Folgers were its 


first editors. Later, George C. Gorliam and Albert S. Evans were 
its editors. It continued about nine months. 

The Evening Post, published by R. W. Lewis & Co. in October, 
1860, as an independent paper, subsequently became Republican in 
politics. Small in size at first, it was enlarged and when it was five 
months old W. S. Johnson & Co. took hold of it. Various writers 
became its editors and it was discontinued September, 1861. 

The Independent Order of Good Templars began the publication 
of its organ. The Rescue, in San Francisco, in 1862, removing shortly 
to Stockton and then to Sacramento. Its first editor was Edwin H. 
Bishop. He was followed by W. H. Mills, 1864 to 1871. Then came 
Albert D. Wood, of Vallejo, who conducted it till 1876 and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. George Morris of Dixon. It was removed successively 
to San Francisco, Los Angeles and San Francisco again. In October, 
1855, it was brought back to this city and George B. Katzenstein became 
its editor. The editors of the paper were elected by the Grand Lodge 
of the order or its executive committee. It has been removed from this 
city since. 

The Evening Star was started as a daily by J. J. Beebe, Alexander 
Badlam, G. I. Foster, J. Simpson, M. M. Estee and H. C. Bidwell, May 
25, 1864. It was an independent journal. It sunk under financial diffi- 
culties in about three months. 

The California Republican, a Democratic paper of the hard shell 
variety, began publication January 4, 1863, and died a natural death 
that fall. The publishers were Conley, Patrick & Co., and the editor 
Beriah Brown, afterwards of the Free Press of San Francisco, which 
was destroyed by a mob in the early part of 1863. 

The Golden Gate, a spiritualistic weekly started by Ingham & Mc- 
Donald in the spring of 1894, died soon after its birth, surviving only 
a few weeks. 

Judd & McDonald started a gratuitous sheet called the Advertiser, 
in 1860, but it lived only a few weeks. 

December 23, 1866, Alexander Montgomery removed the California 
Express, a Democratic journal he had been publishing at Marysville, 
to this city, expecting patronage from the then dominant party. He 
did not receive it, however, and the paper, which was issued as a morn- 
ing daily, died in July, 1867. 

The Sacramento Daily Record, published by an association of 
printers composed of J. J. Keegan, John L. Sickler, J. R. Dray and 
R. E. Draper, first appeared as an independent evening paper Felnmary 
9, 1867. Its first editor was Draper, who was succeeded in about a 
month by W. S. Johnson. He remained about a year and was succeeded 
by J. B. McQuillan, who gave way in a few months to R. A. Bird. The 
paper was subsequently sold to "William H. Mills and A. D. Wood. 
Mr. Wood was afterwards manager of the Record-Union. A portion 
of the then and subsequent Record editorial staff, as also a portion of 


the Sacramento Union's then and subsequent staff, afterwards com- 
posed the Record-Union staff. Among these was E. B. Willis, who had 
been a member of the Union statf, and also of the Record staff. The 
Record became a morning paper December 2, 1867. At first it was a 
small five-column sheet, but after being enlarged several times finally 
attained the present size of the Record-Union. During the winter of 
1871 and 1872 the Record distinguished itself by the fullest and most 
elaborate phonographic reports of legislative joroceedings ever pub- 
lished in the United States, frequently printing morning after morning 
nineteen columns of solid nonpareil of the proceedings of the Senate 
and House. For several years the Union had published annual New 
Year's statistical sheets. The Record entered the same field January 1, 
]873, and eclipsed its rival by publishing the largest and fullest holi- 
day statistical sheet ever published in the United States to that time. 
Each year afterwards until 1906 it and its successor issued a similar 
mammoth paper. It was the first daily paper here to publish and main- 
tain a semi-weekly edition. The contest for patronage and public 
favor was very warm between the Record and the Union for years, 
and until they were consolidated in February, 1875. Thereafter the 
consolidation was known as the Record-Union. 

The Expositor, published by C. D. Semple, as a daily and old-line 
Democratic paper, appeared July 23, 1867, and died the 9th of Sep- 

February 24, 1864, Richard Bowden published a juvenile paper, 
The Young American, as a weekly. It ceased publication eleven weeks 
after, on the death of Mr. Bowden, who was accidentally killed. 

Several other weekly papers, of a local character, were published 
about this time, viz: My Paper, Pioneer, Blusterer, The Anti-Office 
Seeker, a lot of State Fair papers, the Sunday Times, Hesperian, Stu- 
dents' Repository, and others. 

Charles De Young, afterwards of the San Francisco Chronicle, 
began the publication in the winter of 1864, of the Dramatic Chronicle, 
a gratuitous daily advertising sheet of small dimensions. He removed 
it to San Francisco about nine months later, enlarged it and published 
it until the Daily San Francisco Chronicle grew up from it, the old 
Dramatic Chronicle being swallowed up by the Figaro of San Francisco, 
published by J. P. Bogardus. 

The Traveler's Guide was published as an advertising sheet weekly 
by L. Samuels and N. Towns in 1865. T. W. Stanwell began in the 
same year the monthlv Railroad Gazetter, published bv H. S. Crocker 
& Co. ' 

The State Capital Reporter, a daily Democratic paper, appeared 
January 12, 1868, with a glowing announcement of its plans, and nomi- 
nated H. H. Haight for President of the United States. By legislative 
enactment it became the litigant paper, in which all summonses had to 
be published. While this gave it a good income, it rendered it obnox- 


ious to the entire press of the State and made it unpopular with the 
people. The act of February 21, 1872, repealed the litigant act and 
deprived the Reporter of its fat job. It ceased to appear as a daily, 
sending out its last daily issue May 7, 1872, when the law took effect. 
Thereafter it issued a half sheet once a week, to run out the legal adver- 
tisements on hand and July 30, 1872, it gave up the ghost quietly. It 
was 23ub]ished by a joint stock company and lost money for every one 
who touched it. At first it was controlled by John Bigler, and its first 
editor was Henry George, afterward of the San Francisco Post, who 
became widely known to the world as the author of "Progress and 
Poverty," and the chief ai30stle of the land theory of single tax. The 
paper was edited with much ability and for a long time was a vigorous 
periodical. J. F. Linthicam, an old editor, still living in this city, suc- 
ceeded Mr. George, and kept up the able tone of the paper. Jolm Bigler, 
ex-governor of California, who about this time had returned from Chile, 
where he had filled the post of minister, was editor of the Reporter some 
months before it died and conducted it with vigor and dignity. O. T. 
Shuck was its last editor. 

The Sacramento Democrat was a small daily born August 3, 1871; 
died Sejitember 5, 1871, just after the election. It was started under 
the auspices of a publishing company, with Cameron H. King as editor 
and its office was at the corner of Third and J streets. 

The Locomotive was a six-column weekly advertiser and local pa- 
per which was excellent in its way and did a prosperous business for 
some months with E. L. Lawrence as the manager in the spring of 1873. 
Its office was on J street between Second and Third streets. T. F. Case 
bought a half interest and subsequently the whole interest, selling half 
of it to Dr. A. P. Truesdell, who became editor. The name of the 
paper was changed to that of the People's Champion, but in the 
summer of 1874 it threw up the sponge and was counted among the 
dead ones. 

The only foreign paper, with one exception, published in Sacra- 
mento prior to 1885, was the Semi-weekly Sacramento Journal (German) 
published by K. F. Wiemeyer & Co., and edited by Mr. AViemeyer. Its 
first number came out June 6, 1868, and it had a successful career for 
many years. The Sacramento office was at No. 314 J street and about 
1890 Wiemeyer & Co. established an office in Oakland, publishing the 
paper at both places simultaneously. It was Eepublican in tone and 
independent in its utterances. 

H. B. Eddy early in 1873 started a small weekly paper called the 
Valley World. It aimed at literary excellence, and was neatly printed 
and critical. Mr. Eddy died that fall, and the paper was continued for 
a few weeks, being ably edited by Eev. J. H. C. Bonte, Eector of 
Grace Church and afterwards secretary of the University of California, 
since deceased. 

The Evening News, a daily, Sundays excepted, and neutral, was 


first published March 26, 1869, by B. F. Huntley & Co. Vincent Ryan, 
a member of the firm, did most of the writing, with Frank Folger and 
W. S. Johnson in the other departments. The paper died in three 

The Sunday Free Press was started in February, 1873, by Beers 
& Co., but its initial appearance was also its last, although it was a 
lively number, local and jolly, and its proprietors mourned its loss for 
grave financial reasons. 

In February, 1874, the Sacramento Valley Agriculturist began its 
existence as a monthly, with Davis and Stockton as editors and pub- 
lishers. In June, 1874, it changed to a weekly and the next month it 
bought up the old Champion material and was enlarged considerably. 
April 15, 1875, Davis sold his interest to W. T. Crowell. The paper 
was devoted entirely to agricultural matters, with a city edition on Sun- 
day mornings, and some local news. It ceased publication many 
years ago. 

The Occidental Star, a weekly paper of four pages, devoted to the 
interest of the return of the Jews to Palestine, began in January, 1873, 
and ran for about five months, with Mrs. L. I. L. Adams as proprietor. 

The Winning Way was a weekly paper edited and published by 
Mrs. Clark and Mrs. Potter and devoted to the cause of woman and 
sociability. It was started in September, 1873, and went the way of 
many others in February, 1874. 

Common Sense was piiblished as a weekly of four pages by Dr. 
A. P. Truesdell in January, 1873, and discontinued in March, 1874, but 
was afterwards revived and published in San Francisco. 

The Mercantile Globe was an advertising sheet published by Byron 
& Co., August, 1872, and changed to the Sacramento Globe October 18, 
and published by Kelly & Farland. It ran for several months, sus- 
pended, and was again started by Raye & Ford, December 5, continuing 
weekly until April 17, 1875, being afterwards published at intervals 
by B. v. R. Raye. 

The California Teacher was started by the State Board of Edu- 
cation about 1877, being purchased from the San Francisco Teachers' 
Association. It has had a checkered existence since, with various pub- 
lishers, as a state journal, under various titles. 

The State Fair Gazette has been published by H. S. Crocker & 
Co. for a number of years at the annual State Fair, as an advertising 
sheet distributed gratuitously. 

The Evening Herald was started March 8, 1875, as a small evening 
paper, independent in policy. The publishers were Gardner, Larkin, 
Fellows, and Major E. A. Rockwell, a well-known journalist of wide 
experience, as editor. He had formerly occupied a position on the 
Morning Call of San Francisco and had served a time in the legislature 

The Enterprise was started as a Sunday morning paper, by Crites, 


Davis and Alexander, August 29, 1875. It was well conducted and vig- 
orous, but the proprietors were handicapped by not finding a business 
manager to suit them and ceased publication with the ninth issue. It 
was printed from the old Reporter t3^e. 

The Seminary Budget, an occasional publication by the young ladies 
of the Sacramento Seminary, was issued for some years, attaining some 
literary excellence and doing credit to its student editors. 

The Business College Journal was issued occasionally for a number 
of years by E. C. Atkinson, lately deceased. 

The Sunday Leader appeared in October, 1875, issued by J. N. 
Larkin, who retained his connection with it as editor and proprietor 
until his decease in May, 1911, since which time his son, W. H. Larkin, 
who had been associated with him for some years, under the firm name 
of J. N. Larkin & Son, continues its publication. In 188-4-5 it was the 
official paper of the county. In politics it has always been straight 
Republican. Mr. Larkin was a veteran of the Civil War, straightfor- 
ward and uncompromising, and had a host of warm friends who re- 
gretted his passing away. The Leader is a neat sheet, 28x42 inches, 
and presents a creditable appearance. 

The Daily Sun was started as a workingTQan 's organ immediately 
after the adjournment of the legislature of 1879, which provided for a 
constitutional convention. It was published by a company of stockhold- 
ers, with William Halley as manager. When the delegates to the con- 
vention were elected and he was defeated, he withdrew from the man- 
agement. A new company was formed and J. F. Clark continued as 
editor for a few months, when the paper ceased publication. 

The Sunday Capital was started in 1883 by J. L. Robinette and 
C. C. Goode. It was a four-page folio, independent in politics and 
devoted to news and literature. After about a year Robinette disposed 
of his interest to William Ellery, but six months later it was discon- 

The Sacramento Medical Times, afterwards changed to the Occi- 
dental Medical Times, was a large octavo monthly started in March, 
1887, by five physicians and has been a successful publication. J. H. 
Parkinson, M.D., has been its editor-in-chief for many years and among 
his associates have been W. A. Briggs, William Ellery Briggs, W. R. 
Cluness, Thomas A. Himtington and G. L. Simmons of Sacramento; 
J. F. Morse, W. H. Mays, Albert Abrams, W. Watt Kerr and D. W. 
Montgomery of San Francisco, and J. W. Robinson of Napa. Of late 
years Drs. Cluness and Hunting-ton have been residents of San Fran- 
cisco. Dr. Simmons died in 1911. 

The Daily Evening Journal was beg-un July 4, 1888, by H. A. 
Weaver and ran until October 1 following. It was devoted to general 
news and literature. 

Charles Schmitt issued the first number of the Nord-California 
Herald, a German paper, September 5, 1885, and it has taken front rank 


among the German papers of tlie state. Mr. Schmitt came to this state 
in 1865, and after mining several years, became one of the founders 
of the Abend Post, the second German daily published in San Francisco. 
In May, 1868, he came to Sacramento and founded the Sacramento 
Journal (German) and continued with it till 1881. Mr. Schmitt is a 
ready writer of wide experience and intelligence and his paper has a 
powerful influence in the field it occupies. 

Themis was an able eight-page quarto Sunday paper, published in 
the interest of Sacramento and devoted to dramatic and governmental 
criticism and miscellany. It was printed with large type and on the 
finest paper. It was started in February, 1889, by Winfield J. Davis, 
W. A. Anderson and George A. Blanchard. The editors were among 
the early residents of the city and county, thoroughly conversant with 
its history in all respects, and eminently fitted for the task they had 
undertaken. The paper enjoyed a reputation for exceptional literary 
ability and the cessation of its publication in 1894 on account of a 
division of opinion between its proprietors as to the policy of the paper 
during the great railroad strike of that year, was regretted by a wide 
circle of citizens, who had enjoyed the perusal of its columns. 

In the early part of 1856 Dr. Bradley established the Granite 
Journal at Folsom, Granite being at that time the name of what is now 
known as Folsom. He conducted the paper for several years and it 
became one of the most widely known papers in the state in that day of 
only a few newspapers. When the name of the town was changed from 
Granite to Folsom, the Journal changed its name to the Folsom Tele- 
graph. The paper also changed hands about the same time, William 
Penry, afterwards treasurer of Amador county, becoming the editor 
and proprietor, being succeeded several years later by William Aveling. 
When Mr. Aveling died, his widow conducted the paper for a time, but 
soon sold it to Peter J. Hopper. About 1872 John F. Howe purchased 
the paper and from his death ten years later until July 19, 1884, Mrs. 
Howe held ownership. It then passed into the hands of Weston P. 
Truesdell, and he published it alone until August 1, 1888, when I. Fiel 
joined him. Thej^ conducted the paper until March 16, 1889, when Mr. 
Fiel purchased the entire interest and soon after sold out to Thad 
McFarland. Since the death of Mr. McFarland, May 4, 1894, his widow 
has been the owner. The paper has been ably conducted by their son, 
R. D. McFarland, as editor and manager, and has been enlarged from 
six columns to seven. 

The Gait Gazette has been in existence for a number of years and 
has a fair circulation in the southern end of the county. 

The Daily Evening Netvs was started in 1890, by John Dormer, a 
well-known newspaper man of Nevada, and Wells Drury, also a jour- 
nalist from the same state. Under their management the paper was 
published for two years. It was then purchased by John A. Sheehan 
and June B. Harris, who had been for many years attached to the 


editorial staff of the Daily Evening Bee. Sheehan and Harris were 
very capable newspapermen and the Daily Netvs prospered under their 
management. Their financial backers became interested in a plan to 
have the city water works pass into the hands of private interests, and 
as parf of the bargain for the support of other newspapers, the Daily 
News was suspended immediately after an election at which the people 
voted to substitute well water for that supplied from the river by their 
own works. The plan was blocked and ultimately fell through. 

Soon after the suspension of the Daily Evening Neivs, in 1893, the 
Sunday News was started by Messrs. Sheehan and Harris, and was a 
pronounced success from the date of the first issue. About two years 
later Harris died, and his interest in the publication was purchased 
by Winfield J. Davis. In May, 1897, the Sunday Neivs was sold to the 
News Publishing Co., its present owner. Its size and pages were en- 
larged and a large modern iDublishing plant was eqiiipped for its issu- 
ance with other printing and important publications. Mr. Sheehan 
continued as its editor until his decease in 1910. He was succeeded 
by Ennnet Phillips, his former partner and editorial associate, who is 
at present editing the Sunday News, assisted by John H. Miller, for- 
merly of the Evening Bee. The plant of the News Publishing Co. is 
one of the largest in this part of the state, and the Sunday Neivs is 
probably the most widely read and ciuoted weekl}^ newspaper in Northern 
California. The present owners are Emmet Phillips, A. A. Trueblood 
and John H. Miller. 

The Sacramento Star was started November 21, 1904, being fur- 
nished by the Scripps-McRae telegraphic service, the Associated Press 
franchise for the city being owned exclusively by the Union and the 
Bee. It is under the management of E. W. Scripps, who is the owner 
of a large number of papers on the coast and in the west. It started 
as a four-page, seven-column paper, printed on a flat press and in- 
creased successively to eight, ten and twelve pages of eight columns, 
in June, 1907, and subsequently. Henry White is editor and E. H. Car- 
penter general manager. The paper has grown steadily in prosperity 
and importance. 

Several papers printed in foreig-n languages are being published 
in this citj'. 



It is an accepted fact among the educators throughout the country 
that Sacramento has always kept abreast of the times in matters educa- 
tional and the events of the past few years haA'e emphasized the fact. 
One of the first things noted in the history of the city in the days of 
the first rush of immigrants to the land of gold, was the establishment 
of a school in the summer of 1849, when the fevered quest for the yel- 


low metal pervaded all men's minds to almost the total exclusion of all 
other sentiments. And Sacramento has fully kept pace with progress 
along educational lines ever since, the last action of the city in voting 
bonds to the amount of $800,000 for new schools and playgrounds for 
her children being a patent evidence that her people were keenly alive 
to the importance of directing the rising generation into the pathway 
leading to intelligence and good citizenship. Destroyed several times 
by fire, grown decrepit by age, stunted by cramped quarters and 
needing more room for the constantly increasing number of children 
seeking knowledge, the school buildings have time after time risen 
like the Phoenix from their ashes, or given place to more modern 
and commodious ones. Manual training, domestic science and gym- 
nastic training have usurped in late years the time and attention for- 
merly given to fossilizecl studies and ideas and the watchword of 
"Progress" has shouldered out of the way the old and obsolete fea- 
tures that had retarded advancement. Our boys are today being 
fitted for the battle of life by the employment of their minds, eyes 
and hands in a practical way, instead of turning them out upon their 
struggle for a livelihood with their heads crammed with a mass of 
knowledge that can be utilized only in certain directions and in a 
very limited field. Our girls are being trained in the arts that pertain 
to the home and its comforts and conveniences. The arts of cooking 
and sewing, which have become almost lost arts in the feminine part 
of the community, and on which the comfort and harmony of the 
household so greatly depend, have been resuscitated and given their 
proper place in the economy of our daily lives, and the growing gen- 
eration of womanhood is being better fitted for wifehood and mother- 

The influence for good these things will exert on the next gen- 
eration can hardly be calculated and must result in a great betterment 
of future economic conditions. The struggle for existence is becoming 
yearly more arduous and our children must be so trained as to be 
better fitted to encounter its future difficulties. Practical education, 
then, is necessarily taking the place of that" which in the past was 
largely theoretical and impractical. 

Tlie first school recorded in the liistory of our city was opened 
in August, 1849, by C. T. H. Palmer. Rev. J. A. Benton, who was 
the first pastor of the Congregational Church in Sacramento, has 
given an interesting account of the first educational ventures in Sac- 
ramento, as follows: "C. T. H. Palmer, formerly of Folsom, taught 
the first school, so far as I know, that was ever taught in Sacramento. 
He taught during the month of August, 1849, and then abandoned the 
business.' I do not know how many pupils he had, but the number 
could not have exceeded ten. I purchased from him in September the 
benches and furniture he had used, and opened the same school again 
October 15, 1849, at the same place in which he kept it. The place 


was on I street, in a building owned by Prof. F. Shepherd. The struc- 
ture was a one-story house about 14x28 feet, covered at the ends 
with rough clapboards, and the roof and sides were covered with old 
sails from some craft tied up at the bank of the river. Some 'shakes' 
and 'pickets' were nailed over the places not covered by the sails, 
close to the ground. The doorway was covered by a piece of canvas 
fastened at the top and dropping before the opening. There was no 
floor but the ground, and that was by no means level. The school house 
stood on the brink of the slough, or 'Lake Sutter,' near the northeast 
corner of Third and I streets. It was about sixty feet east of the east 
side of Third street and the southern side of it encroached a few feet 
on I street. I street was not then passable for wagons. The remains 
of a coalpit were in the middle of I street, a few yards eastward from 
the building. A small and crooked oak tree stood at the eastern end 
of the schoolhouse, close to it and near the door. A sycamore tree and 
some shrubs of ash and elder grew out of the bank on the northern 
side and close to the building. The filling up of I street and the 
advent of the Chinese now obliterate every trace of the building and 
its exact site. My school opened with four pupils, and increased to 
six, then to eight or nine. I do not think it ever exceeded twelve. 
By stress of weather and other circumstances I was compelled to close 
the school the 1st of December, 1849. That was the end of my en- 
deavors in the way of school teaching. It is my imiiression that 
Crowell opened a school in the spring of 1850, but it might have been 
during the following autumn. In the spring there were enough fami- 
lies to make school teaching desirable, and the weather and other 
circumstances were such as to make it practicable. I know of no other 
schools in 1849 than Palmer's and mine." 

Up to 1854 the public schools had been merged into those of the 
county, and were under the supervision of the county assessor, by 
virtue of his office. The state school law provided for a supervising 
school committee in each city, town and incorporated village. The 
attempt made in Sacramento to establish a common school under that 
law failed and in 1852 the legislature repealed that law and passed 
a new one, which gave to cities and incorporated towns the control of 
the common schools within their limits, with a provision that if the 
municipal authorities did not exercise that power the county assessor 
should have charge of them and be ex-officio county superintendent. 
This act was amended April 26, 1853, and in that year the county 
assessor. H. J. Bidleman, appointed under the law as amended a board 
of school commissioners for the city consisting of Dr. H. W. Harkness. 
G. J. Phelan and George Wiggins. 

Judging from the articles in the newspapers of that dav, fre- 
quentlv demanding that the commissioners do their dutv and open 
a public school, they must have been very dilatory in establishing the 


schools. At last, in February, 1854, the following advertisement ap- 
peared : 

"Public School. The citizens of Sacramento are hereby notified 
that the school commissioners for this city will open a public school on 
the southeast corner of Fifth and K streets, on Monday morning, 
February 20, 1854, at 9 o'clock. G. H. Peck will have charge of the 
male department, and Miss Griswold of the female department. By 
order of the Commissioners of Common Schools." 

The school was opened on the day designated and was the first 
public school opened in this city. The day of co-education had not 
then arrived, and two rooms were occupied, one by the boys and the 
other by the girls. The school opened on the first day with fifty boys 
and forty girls in attendance. Most of them were between seven and 
nine years old and the greater portion had never attended school 
before. The attendance increased rapidly and on the fourth day 
there were ninety boys and seventy girls in attendance. It was found 
that the school was growing so fast that there was not room for 
the accommodation of the pupils and soon there were 200 on the roll. 
The building not being large enough to accommodate all, another 
school was opened in an old building known as the Indiana House on 
I street, near Tenth, and the board appointed A. R. Jackson as 
teacher. This school in turn became too crowded, and another 
building was leased, on the corner of Tenth and G streets. The girls 
of the I street school were removed to this place and placed in charge 
of M. E. Corby. On June 19 a school for girls and boys was opened 
near the corner of Seventh and K streets, W. A. Murray being placed 
in charge. The attendance still increasing, a primary school was 
opened in the rear of the Fifth street school, in a building formerly 
occupied as a mechanic's shop, and the care of the pupils was con- 
fided to Miss A. E. Roberts. 

And still the movement grew. In July, 1854, it is stated that 
there were 261 pupils attending the public schools, and 250 in private 
schools. The day of the children had come, and the city was becoming 
a city of homes instead of men only. From this time on the advance 
in the cause of education was rapid. October 2, 1854, the city council 
passed an ordinance which had been drafted by N. A. H. Ball and 
which provided for the election of a city superintendent of schools 
and a board of education. The board was to assume the control of 
the city schools, which had heretofore been controlled by the county 

The council elected Dr. H. W. Harkness superintendent, and N. A. 
H. Ball, George Wiggins and Dr. T. A. Thomas trustees or members 
of the board, which organized on the 1st of the following month, 
Harkness occupying the chair and Ball being secretary. At this 
meeting the board estimated the school income and expenses necessary 
for the ensuing year at $22,000. A controversy arose between the 


county superintendent and the board, the former declining to sur- 
render control of the schools on the ground that it would deprive him 
of his $1,000 salary. The jiiatter was finally adjusted and on Decem- 
ber 7th the county commissioners and Superintendent Bidleman for- 
mally surrendered all the public schools in the city, the city board 
agreeing to liquidate all indebtedness. On the 11th the county super- 
intendent and commissioners resigned their offices and the city board 
assumed full control of the schools. 

On November 25, 1854, the following teachers were elected by 
the new board: For the Second Ward female grammar school, Miss 
Anderson; Second Ward female primary school. Miss Frost; Second 
Ward Male grammar school, G. H. Peck; Third Ward male grammar 
school, A. R. Jackson. The first common school house was erected 
on the corner of Tenth and H streets, lapon land tendered free by 
John H. Gass, A. B. Asper contracting to build it in fifteen days for 
$1,487. It was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies, January 20, 
1855. February 5, 1855, a primary school was established at Eleventh 
and I streets, with Mrs. Eliza A. Wright as teacher. The board 
apportioned scholars to the different schools, to the number of 574. 
The teachers were to register the applicants and if the pupil absented 
himself for more than a week without good cause the board and the 
parents were to be notified, his name dropped and the next applicant 
on the list admitted. Dr. Harkness in his first report showed accom- 
modations for only 414 pupils — 157 boys, 157 girls and 100 primary 
scholars. Five hundred and seventy-eight pupils had made application 
to enter, and the accommodations were insufficient, there being an 
average attendance of 46.3. 

In March, 1855, the authority to elect the board was taken from 
the council and given to the people by legislative act, the number of 
commissioners being increased to six. At the first election in April, 
1855, Francis Tukey was elected superintendent, and R. P. Johnson, 
H. Houghton, F. A. Hatch, J. F. Morse, George W. Wooley and George 
Wiggins commissioners. The new board organized April 11th, the 
salaries of teachers being at that time $1,350 monthly. On the 15th 
Lee & Marshall's circus gave a benefit to the schools, netting $321, 
and subsequently gave other benefits. The schools grew rapidly and 
on May 5th the new board elected teachers, there being ten principals 
and two assistants. In February, 1856, Tukey resigned as superin- 
tendent and F. W. Hatch was elected in his place, William E. Cham- 
berlain being elected commissioner in place of Hatch. The report of 
Superintendent Hatch on March 18th showed that in the six grammar 
schools there were 199 boys and 267 girls, a total of 466; average 
attendance 254. In the five primary schools there were 270 boys and 
234 girls; total 504, average attendance 250. Twelve of the pupils 
were born in California and one in Cliina. From Illinois came 93. 


Early this year came W. H. Watson who succeeded Mr. Wooiey as 
a member of the board. 

A superintendent and board of commissioners were elected in 
April, 1856, and met on the 11th. It consisted of F. W. Hatch, re- 
elected superintendent; Dr. C. Burrell, David Maddux, John F. Dre- 
man, J. F. Thompson, A. Montgomery and C. H. Bradford. On May 
12th the board apportioned $25 a month for the colored school, which 
was to be taught by J. B. Anderson. This was the first aid the colored 
school had received. In November J. B. Harmon succeeded Burrell. 
The report of Superintendent Hatch showed studies pursued in the 
various schools as follows : Grammar, 312 ; arithmetic, 612 ; reading, 
821 ; spelling, 843 ; writing, 538 ; geography, 372 ; history, 103 ; algebra, 
63; Latin, 28; chemistry, 39; geometry, 4; composition, 227; declama- 
tion, 151. 

A new board consisting of J. G. Lawton, superintendent; Samuel 
Cross, R. A. Pearis, David Murray, H. J. Bidleman, P. W. S. Rayles 
and J. G. Simmons, commissioners, took their places. In the latter 
part of 1857 the building of the Franklin grammar school, at Sixth 
and L streets, now known as the old Armory, was begun. December 
22nd the corner stone was laid in the presence of a large assemblage, 
under the auspices of the Masons. The lot cost $4,500 and the building 

May 4, 1858, the school directors, composed of the board of educa- 
tion appointed under the Consolidation Act, held their first meeting 
and elected Samuel Cross president and Dr. Simmons secretary. 
Daniel J. Thomas was appointed a director by the board of super- 
\dsors in place of Dr. R. A. Pearis, but the board of education de- 
clared the appointment illegal. 

The board of education organized October 4, 1858, consisted of 
G. J. Phelan, A. G. Richardson,"H. J. Bidleman, T. M. Morton, H. B. 
Osborne, G. I. N. Monell, John Hatch and G. L. Simmons; Phelan, 
president. Hatch did not qualify and the board of supervisors elected 
David Meeker to fill his place. Dr. Simmons resigned in January, 
1859, and was succeeded by C. A. Hill. Early in 1859 a school build- 
ing was erected at a cost of $3,800, at Thirteenth and G streets and 
named the Washington school house. Secretary Bidleman was re- 
moved May 9th, and was succeeded by Monell. 

A new board met October 3, 1859, consisting of Cyril Hawkins, 
H. J. Bidleman, J. M. Frey, G. L. Simmons, J. J. Murphy, G. I. 
N. Monell, D. J. Thomas and Henry McCreary. Dr. Frey was presi- 
dent and Monell secretary. An unsuccessful attempt was made to 
establish a Normal School, to be taught two days in the week. At the 
close of the year there were one high, four grammar, two pri- 
mary and intermediate, and six primary schools in the city. Scholars 
enrolled, 1031, with an average attendance of 790. Fifteen teachers 
were employed, one assistant and ten monitors, salaries amounting 



to $1,850 a month, the board believing the monitorial system less 
expensive and giving more teachers. 

The board of education for 1860 met December 3rd, with G. 
Taylor, J. F. Crawford, H. Miller, J. M. Frey, J. M. Milliken, A. C. 
Sweetzer, S. M. Mouser and J. Bithell members; Miller president and 
Sweetzer secretary. It discharged all the teachers and monitors, 
graded the schools, decided that male teachers should be employed 
as principals of the high school and of the first grade of the grammar 
school. J. W. Anderson was elected principal of the Franklin gram- 
mar school and Miss Doyle his assistant. June 7, 1861, Anderson 
was elected principal of the high school, and Mr. Templeton to fill 
his place in the Franklin school. 

January 6, 1862, the board organized was composed of J. P. 
Dreman, D. J. Thomas, W. Bidwell, H. Miller, W. H. Hill, J. M. 
Milliken, S. M. Mouser and Edward Collins ; Hill, president. In March 
Mrs. Folger was elected teacher of the colored school, the board vot- 
ing to pay her salary whenever the building and furniture should be 
furnished by the parents interested. On the 3rd of March the schools, 
which had been considerably" damaged by the flood, reopened, except 
the one at Sixteenth and N streets, which was still surrounded by 
water. Mouser resigned and his place was filled by J. T. Peck. The 
schoolhouse at Tenth and P streets was erected, at a cost of $2,500. 

The board elected in January, 1863, comjDrised Edward Collins, 
John F. Dreman, W. H. Hill, H. H. Hartley, Paul Morrill, D. J. 
Thomas, W. Bidwell and H. J. Bidleman. Hill was president. At the 
close of the year 1093 pupils were enrolled, average attendance, 795. 
The graduating class numbered 215. Pupils in the colored school, 32, 
average attendance 27. A building for the colored school was erected 
at Fifth and streets, but was set on fire by an incendiary and con- 
sumed with its contents. Total disbursements for the eleven schools, 

In January, 1864, W. Bidwell, M. C. Briggs, J. H. Carroll, J. F. 
Crawford, Henry H. Hartley, Paul Morrill, O. D. Lambard and II. J. 
Bidleman composed the board, which elected Briggs president. When 
the year closed the number of schools had increased to thirteen—- 
six primary, three intermediate, one high, one grammar, one ungraded 
and one colored, with 1202 pupils in attendance, 919 of whom were 
born in the state. The intermediate school at Thirteenth and G streets 
was opened, as also an ungraded one at Twenty-ninth and J streets. 
The board, in compliance with a petition from the colored people, 
placed their school on the same footing as the white schools, except 
as to grade. The expenses for the vear were $28,660.08; receipts, 

The board of 1865 organized in January, with M. C. Briggs, 
W. E. Chamberlain, 0. D. Lambard, Eugene Soule, J. W. Avery, 
J. li. Carroll, J. W. Crawford and Paul Morrill. Briggs was re- 


elected president. The Union schoolhouse at Seventh and G streets 
was completed and accepted February 7th. J. L. Fogg was chosen 
principal of the gTammar school, Mr. Templeton being made prin- 
cipal of the high school. The total number of pupils had increased to 
1458, of which 870 were born in the state. The first story of the 
Union high school was completed May 1st, and two schools moved in. 
Cost, $15,786.56. Receipts, $31,489.35. Expenses, $34,459.68. 

In January, 1866, the new board organized, with J. W. Avery, 
W. E. Chamberlain, Paschal H. Coggins, John F. Dreman, G. R. 
Moore, 0. D. Lambard, Paul Morrill and Eugene Soule, directors; 
president, W. E. Chamberlain. The close of the year showed 1524 
pupils enrolled, 1010 born in the state. There were now fourteen 
schools in the city. H. H. Howe was elected principal of the grammar 
school, Fogg having resigned. A schoolhouse for colored children 
was erected costing $700, and a frame schoolhouse at Ninth and M 
streets, costing $3946, and school was opened there Augl^st 1st. Re- 
ceipts for the year, $34,443.31; expenditures, $32,136.43, receipts for 
the first time exceeding expenses. 

The board of 1867 was composed of the same members, Paul 
Morrill being president. At the close of the year 1736 children were 
on the rolls, 1227 born in California and 457 elsewhere. Early in 
the year the Lincoln school building was erected, the cost being 
$8049.69. In March $200 was set aside from the state apportion- 
ment for a school library. About 250 volumes were purchased and 
the number has increased yearly since. Lambard resigned and was 
replaced by John F. Crawford, and Soule resigning, David S. Ross 
was elected in his place. Receipts, $33,639 ; expenditures, $44,207. 

In 1868 the board was: J. F. Crawford, Joseph Davis, J. W. 
Avery, Henry Miller, D. S. Ross, F. A. Gibbs, Paschal H. Coggins 
and Horace Adams. Miller was president. The year closed with 
1727 names enrolled, — 920 boys and 807 girls, — with an average at- 
tendance of 1142. Born in the state 1241. Receipts, $43,194.68; ex- 
penses, $48,362. 

In Februarv, 1869, the board was : J. F. Crawford, J. W. Avery, 
P. B. Redding," Henry Miller, David S. Ross, F. A. Gibbs, W. L. 
Campbell and Henry McCreary; Miller, president. The year closed 
with 2200 pupils enrolled — 1128 boys and 1072 girls; average at- 
tendance 1584. A wooden addition was made to the school building 
at Thirteenth and G streets, but within a fortnight it was destroyed 
by an incendiary fire, together with the old building, and the school 
had to be continued in other quarters until the new two-story brick 
building for the school could be completed. It cost $13,720 and was 
known as the Washington school. A wooden addition was also made 
to Franklin schoolhouse. In November 400 German citizens peti- 
tioned the board to introduce the German language into the schools, 
which was done. Arnold Dulon being elected teacher, with fifteen 


pupils iu the high school and one hundred and ninety in the grammar 
school. At the close of the year there were seventeen schools in the 
city — one high, one grammar with four grades, four intermediate, 
nine primaries, one ungraded and one colored. Recepits, $78,000.94; 
expenditures, $77,840.44. 

In 1870 the board was composed of John H. Dreman, J. W. Avery, 
Henry Miller, David S. Eoss, F. A. Gibbs, Daniel Brown, J. F. Mont- 
gomery and B. B. Redding, with Miller as president. H. H. Howe 
resigned the principalship of the grammar school and A. H. Mc- 
Donald was elected to the position, two new departments being added. 
A two-story brick schoolhouse was erected at Sixteenth and N streets, 
at a cost of $9,000, but a few days after its completion it was set on 
fire and destroyed. The board immediately erected another, which 
was completed the following year. The yearly roll showed 1219 boys 
and 1137 girls; total, 2356. Eeceipts, $81,115.51. Expenditures. $80,- 

The next board organized January 26,1871, was composed of W. 

C. Stratton, J. W. Avery, E. T. Taylor, D. S. Eoss, Henry Miller, 
Daniel Brown, J. F. Montgomery and Henry C. Kirk, Montgomery 
being president. The pupils increased in number to 2458 — 1249 boys 
and i209 girls. There were now twenty schools in the city and receipts 
for the year were $72,810 and expenses, $71,351. 

In i872 the board was: Henry C. Kirk, W. C. Stratton, Henry 
Miller, E. T. Taylor, E. I. Eobinson, John F. Dreman, C. H. Cum- 
mings and H. K. Snow; Miller, president. Judge E. B. Crocker ac- 
quired the ground on which the schoolhouse at Second and P streets 
stood, and the school was removed to Fourth and Q streets. The 
city donated the public square between I and J, Fifteenth and Six- 
teenth streets, and the present commodious brick building, known as 
the Sacramento granmiar school, was erected at a cost of $60,000, to 
accommodate the other grammar schools. George Eowland was 
elected a member of the board, vice Stratton, resigned. Underwood 
resigned as principal of the grammar school and A. H. McDonald suc- 
ceeded him. The board decided to open a night school in the two 
lower rooms of the Franklin grammar school, at Sixth and K streets. 

In 1873 the board consisted of C. H. Cummings, J. F. Dreman, 
James I. Felter, E. I. Eobinson, H. K. Snow, George Eowland, Felix 
Tracy and B. B. Eedding; Cummings presiding. The census showed 
3389 children between five and fifteen years of age, with 3053 en- 
rolled; average attendance, 1810. Receipts, $73,952; expenses, $67,300. 

The board as organized in 1874 consisted of C. H. Cummings, 

D. W. Welty, J. F. Dreman, J. I. Felter, George Eowland, Felix 
Tracy, George Waite and W. F. Knox; Tracy presiding. A new 
course of study gave two grades in the primary schools, instead of 
three. Intermediate School No. 5 and Primary School No. 10 were 
organized and an additional assistant was employed at the gram- 


mar school. The high school opened with a new corps of teachers and 
118 ]mpils. ■ A truant officer was employed in September with good 
results. Mr. Straube resigned as German teacher and A. H. linger 
was elected. The receipts were $95,041; disbursements, $122,249, and 
the deficit of $27,208 was met with borrowed money. 

January, 1875, the new board as organized consisted of C. H. 
Cummings, J. F. Dreman, Albert Hart, W. F. Knox, T. M. Lindley, 
J. F. Montgomery, Felix Tracy and George S. Waite; Tracy pre- 
siding. Superintendent Hinkson reported the receipts as $68,946.05 
and the expenditures, $57,579.72. Total number enrolled, 2633; av- 
erage attendance, 2143; born in California, 2134. The cost for each 
pupil was estimated at $21.86. The Union and Lincoln and other 
schoolhouses were re]iaired during the year. The superintendent's 
report showed the schools to compare favorably with those of the 
other states, and the system of weekly and monthly examinations was 
instituted with satisfactory results. 

In 1876 the board was composed of John F. Dreman, Albert Hart, 
F. M. Lindley, T. B. McFarland, J. F. Montgomery, A. T. Nelson, 
J. F. Richardson, Felix Tracy, and Secretary Hiukson. School Cen- 
sus Marshal's report showed an increase of 355 children during the 
past year. Total number of children attending school, 2850; average 
attendance, 1982; born in California, 1843: number enrolled for 
the German class, 191. Expenses, $64,894.35. The superintendent 
reported against any change in text books. 

The board for 1877 organized with J. F. Dreman, J. I. Felter, 
H. H. Linnell, T. B. McFarland, John Stevens and J. N. Young. 
Felter presided. The superintendent's report showed that there were 
in the city 4011 white and 71 colored children between five and seven- 
teen years of age. Of these 2458 were attending public schools. There 
were 55 public school classes in the city and the high school was 
maintained for ten months during the year. There were in all, twelve 
school buildings; boys enrolled, 1627; girls, 1496; average attendance, 
ninety per cent. The high school erected this year was a fine struc- 
ture with four class rooms, library room, laboratory, etc. 

The board of 1878 organized with J. F. Dreman, J. I. Felter, 
E. Greer, Matt F. Johnson, H. H. Linnell, John Stevens and J. N. 
Young as directors; Felter presiding. Sixty-eight teachers were em- 
ployed, including one of French and German. Several new school 
rooms were rendered necessary this year by the accession of pupils. 
The number of pupils enrolled was 3148. Current expenses were $69,- 
872. The superintendent recommended that school books be fur- 
nished to all children under restrictions that would prevent abuses. 
Eight additional teachers were employed and two new classes estab- 
lished in the grammar grades. 

In 1879 the board organized with Director S. W. Butler, E. 
Greer, Matt F. Johnson, J. F. Dreman, John T. Griffitts, F. A. 


Hornblower, James McClatchy and T. B. McFarland. The latter pre- 
sided. The superintendent reported the value of school property 
at $198,000. Number of pupils enrolled, 3539. Receipts, $78,947.26; 
expenditures, $74,082.94. He recommended the erection of an addi- 
tional school building in the southern part of the city, the grading of 
teacher's salaries, and free supply of books to the pupils; of the 
sixty-three class rooms one had been abandoned on account of its 
unhealthy location. Seventy-three teachers were employed, with an 
average salary of $72.83. Prof. Albert H. linger, principal of the 
German classes, died this year. The night school had one hundred 
pupils enrolled, under Professor Brier, and was reported as in a 
high condition of efficiency. 

The board of 1880 organized with Directors S. W. Butler, J. T. 
Griffitts, F. A. Hornblower, W. R. Knights, J. D. Lord, James Mc- 
Clatchy, W. D. Stalker and K. F. Wiemeyer. Griffitts presided. 

Knights resigned and Felix Tracy was elected to the vacancy. 
F. L. Landes succeeded A. C. Hinkson as superintendent. The latter 
reported receipts for the previous year as $82,380.32; disbursements, 
$81,014.95 ; one new schoolhouse, a fine ten-class primary school on 
Q street, between Ninth and Tenth, costing $9,413, and other build- 
ings, amounting in all to $10,733 and furniture to the amount of 
$1852 were among the items, giving ample accommodations for 
pupils. The sale of the Franklin grammar school, at Sixth and L 
streets, occupied only as a night school, was recommended. Total 
number of pupils enrolled, 3489; teachers employed, 79, two of them 
lieing in the evening school. The ]:)rineipal of the high school was 
0. M. Adams; vice-principal. Kirk W. Brier, who afterwards became 
principal. A. H. McDonald was principal of the Sacramento gram- 
mar school and Joseph W. Johnson principal of the Capital gram- 
mar; W. J. Hyde, principal of the night school. 

Up to this time there had been four superintendents — W. H. 
Hill, S. C. Denson, A. C. Hinkson and F. L. Landes. 

Since 1880 the boards have been as follows: 

1881— K. F. Wiemeyer, W. D. Stalker, J. D. Lord, L. K. Ham- 
mer, S. W. Butler, Felix Tracy, Philip Herzog and W. S. Mesick. 
Mesick resigned and C. H. Stevens was elected to succeed him. 

1882— John F. Slater, Philip Herzog, C. H. Stevens, W. D. 
Stalker, S. W. Butler, Felix Tracy, Mathew C. Cooke, L. K. Ham- 
mer; G. H. Hancock succeeded Hammer, resigned. 

1883— John F. Slater, C. H. Stevens, Mathew C. Cooke, W. D. 
Stalker, 0. P. Goodhue, Felix Tracy, George W. Hancock and S. 
W. Butler. Goodhue died and Elwood Bruner was elected to the 

1884— John F. Slater, C. H. Stevens, Mathew C. Cooke, J. L. 
Chadderdon, Richmond Davis, D. Johnson, Elwood Bruner, Frank 


1885— W. M. Petrie, John F. Slater, A. Conklin, J. L. Chadder- 
don, Richmond Davis, Frank Avery, C. H. Stevens, E. K. Alsip. 

1886— A. Conklin, C. H. Stevens, J. W. Todd, W. M. Petrie, 
Richmond Davis, O. W. Erlewine, John F. Slater, E. K. Alsip. 
Stevens resigned and B. F. Howard was elected to fill the vacancy. 

1887— A. Conklin, W. M. Petrie, J. W. Todd, Richmond Davis, 
John F. Slater, A. S. Hopkins, H. C. Chipman and 0. W. Erlewine. 

1888— Richmond Davis, W. M. Petrie, E. M. Martin, A. Conk- 
lin, J. W. Todd, A. S. Hopkins, H. C. Chipman, John Skelton. 

1889— J. W. Todd, A. J. Senatz, E. I. Martin, Joseph Hopley, 
R. Davis, A. C. Tufts, H. C. Chipman, John Skelton. 

1890— H. C. Chipman, W. H. Sherburn, A. C. Tufts, A. J. Senatz, 
Joseph Hopley, J. N. Pajme, 0. W. Erlewine, Win J. Davis. 

1891—0. W. Erlewine, M. Gardner, W. H. Sherburn, C. M. Har- 
rison, J. N. Payne, R. Davis, A. C. Tufts, H. C. Chipman. 

1892— A. C". Tufts, W. H. Sherburn, C. M. Harrison, Eugene A. 
Crouch, H. J. Davis, 0. W. Erlewine, H. C. Chipman, M. Gardner. 

1893 — No election. Same board held office. Sherburn, president. 

1894-95— Win J. Davis, W. H. Sherburn, E. A. Crouch, J. H. 
Dolan, A. N. Buchanan, T. W. Huntington, D. D. Whitbeck, M. J. 
Dillman, P. S. Driver. 

1896-97— Win J. Davis, E. A. Crouch, J. H. Dolan, T. W. Hunt- 
ington, D. D. Whitbeck, M. J. Dillman, P. S. Driver, W. H. Sher- 
burn, A. N. Buchanan. 

1898-99— P. S. Driver, W. H. Sherburn, George B. Stack, C. A. 
Elliott, F. L. Atkinson, C. C. Perkins, H. K. Johnson, H. S. Ranson, 

E. S. Panabaker. 

1900-01— P. S. Driver, Ed. J. Kay, George B. Stack, J. A. Green, 

F. L. Atkinson, Herman Mier, H. K. Johnson, H. S. Ranson, E. E. 

1902-03— P. S. Driver, Ed. J. Kay, J. A. Green, Herman Mier, 
H. S. Ranson, Edward McEwen, W. M. Petrie, Howard K. Johnson, 
Robert Martyr. 

1904-05— Howard K. Johnson, B. M. Hodson, Daniel FhTin, J. 
A. Green, W. M. Petrie, John T. Skelton, L. G. Shepard, Robert 
Martvr, William Lampert. 

1906-07— J. A. Green, B. M. Hodson, Daniel Flynn, W. M. Petrie, 
William Lampert, J. M. Henderson, Jr., John T. Skelton, W. F. 
Jackson, L. G. Shepard. 

1908-09— W. J. Taylor, R. L. Wait, D. Flynn, J. A. Green, W. 
M. Petrie, T. D. Littlefield, J. M. Henderson, W. F. Jackson, W. 

G. McMiUin. 

1910-11— J. A. Green, R. L. Wait, J. R. Garlick, W. M. Petrie, 
T. D. Littlefield, S. A. Smith, W. J. Taylor, Thomas Coulter, W. 
G. McMillin. 

The superintendents since 1880 have been : Dr. J. R. Lane, 


January, 1882, to January, 1886; M. R. Beard, 1886 to 1890; Albert 
Hart, 1890 to 1894; 0. W. Erlewine, elected under the new charter, 
February 3, 1894, was subsequently re-elected and served continuously 
as superintendent under the commission until he resigned early this 
year, being succeeded by C. C. Hughes. 

Under the new charter adopted in 1911, changing the govern- 
ment of the city to the commission form, the commissioners con- 
stituted the city board of education, Mrs. Luella B. Johnston being 
the commissioner of education for the ensuing year, and being suc- 
ceeded this year by E. J. Carragher. 


The embryo of the high school was created May 22, 1855, when 
it was proposed by Dr. F. W. Hatch that Willson's History, astron- 
omy, bookkeeping, Latin, French and Spanish be added to the course 
of study. An order to add these studies to the course was adopted 
at that time, but was not put in force till the following year, when 
the classes in these studies were taught in the schoolhouse on M 
street, between Eighth and Ninth, by J. M. Howe. Eighteen girls and 
twenty-one boys were enrolled the first year and the remarkably high 
average attendance of 36.8 out of 39 was attained. May 8, 1857. 
Howe declined to be examined in Greek and was succeeded by C. 
A. Hill. Hill resigned in August following and was succeeded by 
A. E. Jackson, and early in 1858 the school was removed to Fifth 
and K streets and J. P. Carleton was elected to teach French and 

May 20, 1858, Charles A. Swift was elected principal, with a 
salary of $200 a month, and Professor Lefebre was chosen to teach 
French and Spanish in place of Carleton. As soon as the Franklin 
grammar school was completed, the high school was removed to it. 
In June, 1859, Professor Lefebre left the state and was succeeded by 
Professor Jofre. In November, 1859, the natural sciences were 
added to the course by the board, and A. E. Jackson was elected to 
teach them. The next October Swift showed evidences of insanity 
and a vacancy in the principalship was declared and Jackson was 
appointed to the position, but refused the following April to serve 
longer as principal, declaring the salary insufficient, and J. W. An- 
derson was appointed in his place. Anderson was succeeded Sejitem- 
ber, 18, 1862, by E. K. Marriner and the latter resigned March 27, 
1865, and was succeeded by J. L. Fogg, who served till April 29th fol- 
lowing and was succeeded by Milo L. Templeton as principal. 

The school was removed to Seventh and G streets July 25, 1865, 
and in November Alexander Goddard was elected teacher of French 
and in April, 1870, Jourdon W. Eoper was appointed principal. He 
resigned in April, 1872, and was succeeded by H. H. Howe, and early 
in the year Edward P. Howe was appointed to take his brother's 


place. His successors to date have been Oliver M. Adams, who re- 
signed in June, 1884; W. W. Anderson from that date until the close 
of the school year in June, 1888, when James H. Pond was elected 
principal. Pond resigned in 1901 to take the principalship in the 
Oakland high school and was succeeded by Frank Tade, who con- 
tinued as principal until the close of the school year in June, 1910. 
when he resigned to take the principalship of the Night High School 
and was succeeded by H. 0. Williams, the present principal. 

The high school building at the corner of Ninth and M streets 
was completed September 2, 1876, at a cost of $10,687, and the school 
was opened in it January 1, 1877. An addition was made to it in 
1904, nearly doubling its size, and in 1909 it was burned. In 1907-08 
a new high school building was erected on the block between K and 
L, Eighteenth and Nineteenth streets, which had been purchased for 
the purpose by the board of education from the directors of the 
Protestant Orphan Asylum. The building is a fine one, the lower 
story being of cement, and .the remainder of brick. It is four stories 
in height, with thirty-five class rooms, and cost in round numbers 
a little over $254,500. It is strictly up to date, has ample apparatus 
for the scientific classes, and a gynmasium for the boys in the lower 
story. It was calculated to furnish accommodations for about eight 
hundred pupils, and that it would be ample for all the needs of the 
school for ten years, but the growth of the city since has been so 
rapid that it is alreadj' overcrowded, the classes for the first semester 
of 1912 showing that about one thousand pupils must be taken care 
of. The bond issue of $800,000 for the schools sanctioned by the 
people in 1911, has provided for an addition to the high school facili- 
ties, and it is advocated by many that a new high school building be 
erected in the suburlian district recently annexed by the city, al- 
though an addition may be built to the present building. 


In 1873 a colored pupil applied for admission to the night school 
and two colored girls applied for admission to the grammar school. 
The question arose as to whether under the statute prohibiting tlie 
attendance of colored children at the white schools they could be 
admitted without endangering the receipt of the state and county 
monevs for the support of the schools. The board granted the re- 
quests, pending the decision of the supreme court on the constitu- 
tionality of the law. 

January 7, 1874, Su])erintendent Hinkson served on Princijial 
McDonald of the grammar school the following notice: 

"You are hereby instructed to admit no children of African de- 
scent or Indian children into your school, and if any make applica- 
tion for arbrission, direct them to the superintendent, who will issue 


permits for their admission into the schools provided for them by 

The admission of colored children to white schools had been 
made an issue in the election of December, 1873, and Ilinkson had 
been elected superintendent, with W. F. Knox and George S. Wait, 
Democrats. J. F. Dreman, Republican, had previously voted against 
admitting colored children. 

The notice called attention to the statute on the subject. The 
])rincipal refused to obey the order and was suspended by the super- 
intendent and a special meeting was called, the principal stating that 
the orders of the superintendent were in conflict with the resolution 
adopted by the board, and asked which he should obey. 

Director Welty offered the following resolution: ''That the teach- 
ers are instructed that the paramount source of power rests with 
the board, in reference to the subject matter embraced in the com- 
munication from the principal of the grammar school." 

The resolution was adopted by a vote of five to three and the 
principal reinstated. Director Dreman offered a resolution as fol- 
lows, which was lost by a vote of three to five : 

"That it is the duty of Superintendent Hinkson to redeem his 
pledge to the people of Sacramento City by using all legal means to 
prevent the admission of colored children into the wdiite schools." 
Director Knox offered the following resolution: 

"That the resolution of December 29, 1873, by the board of edu- 
cation, admitting certain colored children into the white grammar 
school, is a palpable violation of the statute of the state." 

Director Welty offered this in addition: 

"But is in strict harmony with the constitution and laws of the 
United States." 

The resolution as amended was adopted. The supreme court 
soon after declared the statute constitutional and a plan was dis- 
cussed for establishing separate schools, but was deemed impractic- 
able and colored pupils were admitted to the grammar and high 


In 1882 a resolution was adopted by the board that thereafter, 
when high school exercises were held, a premium of $20 would be 
offered to the young lady pupil who would attend in the least ex- 
jiensive and most appropriate dress. It seems therefore, that the 
evil of expensive dressing on such occasions was even then prevalent. 

In 1881 the Fremont primary school at Twenty-fourth and X 
streets was erected. 

In 1882 a two-roojii frame building, the Marshall primary, was 
erected at Twenty-seventh and J streets and afterwards enlarged. 
It stood on one of the city blocks reserved for plazas by General 


Sutter and when the city resolved to make a park there, the school 
was removed and a new one erected on G street. 

In 1884 it was proposed to purchase the Perry Seminary build- 
ing for a high school and $9000 was offered for it, but Mrs. Perry 
asked $10,000. It was finally purchased for $9620 and used for years 
for the night school, but was converted last year into a manual train- 
ing school. In February, 1890, the board of trustees asked that the 
Perry Seminary property be deeded to the city, but the board of 
education declined, saying it had no power to cede it. In 1891 a 
similar request was made and again denied. 

In 1904 the first Chinese school was opened in the Perry Sem- 
inary building. 

In 1885 the Harkness grammar school at Tenth and P streets 
was erected at a cost of $14,992, and the building at Tenth and L 
streets, erected in 1879, named the Capital grammar school and at first 
used as a grammar school, was named the Capital primary school. 
In 1889 the Sutter grammar school at Twenty-first and L streets 
was erected, at a cost of $15,444. In that year, also, the business men 
of the city presented twelve American flags to the board of educa- 
tion, with the request that they be displayed on all legal holidays, 
on the first day of each term and on other occasions as the board 
might deem proper. Today Old Glory floats over every schoolhouse 
in the city and county while the schools are in session. 

In this connection it may be stated that the first flag raised over 
a schoolhouse in the county outside of the city was in the Capital 
school district, on the old schoolhouse that stood on the Upper Stock- 
ton road at Swiss station, a short distance south of the county hospital, 
W. L. Willis being the teacher, and the school children and trustees 
contributing money for the flag and flagstaif. On the same day, 
but several hours later, a flag was raised on the American river dis- 
trict schoolhouse. Miss Agnes Burns, teacher. Neither district knew 
that the other contemplated such action, and the raising of the first 
two flags in the county was a remarkable coincidence. Both school- 
houses have since been demolished, and more commodious ones built 
on other sites to accommodate the growing needs of the districts. 

Besides the high school, we have now three grammar schools, — 
the Watson, Harkness and Sutter, the Newton Booth school, which 
is mixed, and eight primary schools, — the McKinley, Lincoln, Capital, 
Washington, Jefferson, Marshall, Fremont and Eugene Field pri- 
maries, — within the old city limits. Since the suburbs were annexed 
they have brought into the city school system the Oak Park grammar 
and primary schools, the Highland Park, Franklin, East Sacramento, 
Riverside and Palmetto Heights schools, the latter being the school 
of the Protestant Orphan Asylum on the Lower Stockton road. 
There is_ also a night high school, and a night school with twelve 
teachers. In addition to this, the old Perry Seminary has been fitted 


up as a manual training school, with foui- teachers. The schools also 
liave a sui^ervisor of drawing, a supervisor and assistant supervisor of 
music, a teacher and assistant teacher for the deaf and dumb, and 
four teachers of domestic science and home economics. In addition 
to these there are several kindergarten schools. 

In the spring of 1911 the Capital primary school, on L street, 
between Ninth and Tenth, was burned, the work, it is generally be- 
lieved, of an incendiary. The Lincoln primary school, at Fourth 
and Q streets, has been twice burned within the past ten years, both 
fires being supposedly incendiary. 

There are at present eig'hty school districts in Sacramento county, 
as follows: Arcade, Alabama, Alder Creek, Andrus Island, A mo, 
Brighton, Buckeye, Brown, Brannan, Courtland, Capital, Carroll, 
Center-Joint, Carson Creek-Joint, Colon}', Davis, Dry Creek-Joint, 
Elk Grove, Elk Grove Union High, East Sacramento, Elder 
Creek, Enterprise, Excelsior, Freeport, Florin, Franklin Union, Fair 
Oaks, Gait, Granite, Grand Island, Georgiana, Good Hope, Goldberg, 
Highland, Highland Park, Howard, Hutson, Isleton, Jackson, Junc- 
tion, Kinney, Lisbon, Lee, Lincoln, Laguna, Michigan Bar, Moke- 
lumne, Ney, Natoma-Joint, Onisbo, Oak Grove, Orangevale, Oulton, 
Prairie, Point Pleasant, Pleasant Grove, Pacific, Palmetto Heights, 
Richland, Roberts, Reese, Rio Vista, Rhoads, Riverside, Sylvan, 
Sutter, Stone House, Sacramento City, San Joaquin, San Juan, 
Sherman Island, Union, Victory, Vorden, Wilson, Washington, Walnut 
Grove and Waker. Two new ones have been made b}^ the board of 
supervisors within the past few mouths — Twin Cities district taken 
from' Gait and Arno districts, and one, not yet named, taken from 
Brighton, Washington, Enterprise and Excelsior districts. The num- 
ber of teachers in the city schools is 267, and in the schools oiatside 
of the city ninety-one. 


Wlien Agesilaus, King of Sparta, gave utterance to the precept 
"Teach your boys that which they will practice when they become 
men," he sounded the keynote of practical education and stamped the 
pattern for the commercial training of the present generation. This 
terse and epigrammatic injunction is the motto of one of the oldest and 
most firmly established educational institutions on the Pacific Coast. 
Founded February 28th, 1873, by Edmund Clement Atkinson, one of 
the pioneer business educators of the state, it has for nearly forty 
years inculcated sound business principles into the minds of the young 
men and young women of California, and maintained first rank among 
the institutions of learning of the community. 

For the first twenty years of its existence, the college occupied 
the upper floor of the present city library building on I street, be- 
tween Seventh and Eighth, after which the third floor of the Hale 


block at Ninth aud K streets, where it was for sixteen years one of 
the prominent features of the city's life. In 1909 it was moved to 
the present commodious and well-lighted building at the north-east 
corner of Thirteenth and J streets, where it continues to expound the 
sound principles of business, impressing them upon the receptive 
minds of its students along the strongly characteristic lines laid down 
by its eminent founder, and on completion of the course of instruction 
installs its graduates in responsible positions in the commercial world. 
In fidelity to its announcements it "puts thousands into business." 

The college celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 1898 by 
incorporating imder the laws of California. Since the death of its 
founder, and in fact for a short time previous thereto, it had been 
under the direct control of its president and manager, William E. 
Cogswell, for eighteen years connected with the institution in various 



The inception of railroad building in the county of Sacramento, 
as well as in the whole state, has made very interesting history. The 
building of the Sacramento Valley Eailroad which ran from Sacra- 
mento to Folsom, a distance of twenty- two miles, in 1855-56, (it being 
the first railroad constructed in the state) was the direct cause of the 
construction of the western half of the great transcontinental railroad 
known as the Central Pacific. 

As far back as 1846 the building of a railroad across the plains 
and over the mountains had been agitated in Congress and out of it 
by Asa Whitney, until 1850. He was supported in his effort by Sena- 
tors Benton of Missouri and Breese of Illinois. Februarv 7, 1849, 
Senator Benton introduced a bill in Congress for the building of a 
Pacific railroad, this bill being really the first tangible effort made 
in that direction. The formation of a company of citizens of Sacra- 
mento, Nevada and Placer counties was the first effort made in Cali- 
fornia for the building of an overland railroad. Articles of incor- 
poration of the Sacramento, Auburn and Nevada Eailroad Company 
were filed in the o.'lice of the secretary of state, August 17, 1852. 
They contained the names of twenty-six subscribers of twenty-ei^ht 
shares each, at a A^alue of $100 a share, with the names of the follow- 
ing directors: S. W. Lovell, Placer county; F. O. Dunn, John E. 
Coryell, Charles Marsh, Isaac Williamson and William IT. Lvons of 
Nevada county; John A. Eead, J. B. Haggin and Lloyd Tevis of 
Sacramento countv. A survey was made of a line from Sacramento 
City, through Folsom, Auburn and Green Vallev, to Nevada City. 
The line was sixtv-eiffht miles long, and the estimated cost of con- 
struction was $2,000,000. The survey was continued from Nevada 


City through the Henness Pass. But the enterprise assumed too 
gigantic i^roportions for the means of the incorporators, and they were 
forced, much against their will, to abandon the undertaking. 

In March, 1853, congress passed an act providing for a survey, 
by the topographical engineers of the army, of three routes of a trans- 
continental railway — the northern, southern and middle routes. The 
surveys were made as ordered, and the report submitted to congress 
and published, with elaborate engravings of the scenery along the 
routes, topographical maps and representations of the animals and 
plants discovered. These reports were doubtless valuable, but they 
did not demonstrate the fact that a railway route was practicable over 
the Rocky and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges. The demonstration 
of that fact was to be made later by Theodore D. Judah, who had 
been the chief-engineer of the Sacramento Valley Railroad — the first 
railroad built in California. Mr. Judah became convinced, while en- 
gaged from 1854 to 1856 in building this road, that it was practicable 
to build a road over the Sierra Nevada mountains, the only range 
that had before been deemed impracticable. He made at his own 
expense trial surveys over several of the supposed passes over the 
Sierra Nevadas. While these were only barometrical surveys, they 
were sulKciently accurate to convince him that there was a practicable 
route, and that a road could be built. 

Armed with the data he had thus obtained, Mr. Judah lost no 
time in presenting his views and ideas at all times in order to awaken 
interest and advance the project of a Pacific railroad. In 1856 he 
succeeded, through a concurrent resolution of the California legisla- 
ture, in having a railroad convention called, to meet in San Francisco, 
September 20, 1859. Many prominent men of California composed 
this convention, among them being Hon. J. A. McDougall, Hon. J. B. 
Crocket, Major John Bidwell, Hon. J. B. Axtell, Hon. James T. 
Farley, Sherman Day and others, of California, together with dele- 
gates from Oregon and adjoining territories. The convention sent 
Mr. Judah to Washington, D. C, to endeavor to procure legislation 
favoring the building of a railroad, and he proceeded thither, arriving 
in time to be present at the opening of the Thirty-sixth Congress. He 
lost no time after arriving in Washington, in visiting the various de- 
partments and collecting from each one all the information that was 
likely to be of assistance to him in presenting plainly and clearly to 
congress the importance and feasibility of the enterprise which he 
desired them to take favorable action ujion. While this session was 
unfortunately so fully occupied with political matters that he was 
unable to gain an effective hearing, and therefore made but little 
impression on congress as a body, a great deal of good was effected bv 
him through iiersonal interviews and the presentation of his views and 
aims, backed up by the data gathered, with the different members 
and many prominent men. He had acquired such a thorough knowl- 


edge of his subject that he rarely failed to convince his auditors 
of the entire feasibility of the project he had espoused. In conjunction 
with Hon. John C. Burch, then a member of congress from California, 
he drew up a bill which contained nearly all the provisions of the 
bill finally passed in 1862. It was printed at private expense and a 
copy sent to each member of congress and senate. 

In 1860 Mr. Judah returned to California and immediately set 
about making a more thorough survey of the Sierra Nevadas for a 
pass and the approach to it, than he had hitherto attempted. He was 
accompanied on this work by Dr. D. W. Strong of Dutch Flat, who 
contributed much from his private means toward pajonent of the ex- 
penses incurred in prosecuting the survey, as well as aiding it by his 
intimate knowledge of the mountains. When the Central Pacific 
Railroad Company was incorporated Dr. Strong became one of its 
first directors. 

On completion of these surveys, which were made with a baro- 
meter, Mr. Judah made a trip to San Francisco for the purpose of 
laying his plans before a number of the capitalists of that city and 
trying to induce them to form a company to finance the work and 
carry it to completion. He was chagrined to find his ideas coldly re- 
ceived, and at obtaining no financial support in that city. He returned 
to his hotel one evening, after becoming convinced that it was futile 
to make any further trial to obtain financial aid in San Francisco, 
and remarked to a friend : ' ' The capitalists of San Francisco have 
refused this night to make an investment, for which, in three years, 
they shall have ami)le cause to blame their want of foresight. I shall 
return to Sacramento tomorrow, to interest merchants and others of 
that place in this great work, and this shall be my only other effort 
on this side of the continent. ' ' 

Mr. Judah had previously placed his plans and estimates before 
James Bailey, a Sacramento friend, who was struck by the force of 
his arguments and calculations. By Mr. Bailey he was introduced to 
Governor Stanford, Mark Hopkins, E. B. Crocker and Charles Crock- 
er. He was already acquainted with C. P. Huntington. A meeting 
of the business men of Sacramento was called. Mr. Judah laid his 
plans and statistics before them and steps preliminary to the organ- 
ization of a company were immediately taken. The organization was 
perfected and the articles of incorporation filed with the secretary of 
state June 28, 1861. The name chosen for the company was the 
Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, and the officers elected 
were as follows: Leland Stanford, president; C. P. Huntington, vice- 
president; Mark Hopkins, treasurer; Theodore D. Judah, chief engi- 
neer; Leland Stanford, C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Charles 
Crocker, James Bailey, L. A. Booth, D. W. Strong, of Dutch Flat, and 
Charles Marsh, of Nevada City, directors. The capital stock was 


$8,500,000 and $148,000 was subscribed, just enough to brin;>- tlieiii 
within the limit as set by the laws of California. 

That all but the last two named were citizens of Sacramento 
demonstrates conclusively that to Sacramento and her citizens belongs 
the honor of inaugurating and carrying to successful completion the 
Pacific railroads ; for had not Judah spent his time and talents in col- 
lecting data, making surveys and proving that such an undertaking 
was possible, it is an open question if the Pacific railroads would be 
in existence today. The country from the Mississippi river to the 
Rocky mountains was generally known in those days and appeared on 
the maps as "The Great American Desert." The lofty and inhospit- 
able Rocky Mountain range was on its western border, di'ficult to 
surmount. Beyond them was the valley and table land of Utah and 
Nevada, bleak and uninviting, and still beyond that, the lofty and 
rugged Sierra Nevadas to be surmounted. The prospect was not in- 
viting to the eastern investor. The barren and unpromising country 
to be traversed gave but little prospect of being settled for many a 
j'ear and the prospect of financial profit from the construction of a 
railroad across a scope of such country nearly two thousand miles 
in extent was not a brilliant one, or one calculated to draw the dollars 
from the pockets of capitalists. Had the railroad not been begun at 
this end of the line, it is doubtful if the line would have been built, 
even to this day. To the men then, who threw themselves into the 
breach and periled their fortunes and those of their friends, accrues 
the honor of being foremost in the work of developing — not only the 
Pacific coast, but two-thirds of the width of the continent. Mr. 
Judah 's engineering work in constructing the most difficult parts of 
the road was regarded as the wonder of the age, for he was forced 
to employ methods not before used in his profession. 

His coadjutors in the work, who have all, or nearly all, passed 
away, deserve full credit for their faith in the enterprise, their in- 
domitable energy and their masterly manner of managing and over- 
coming the financial difficulties that they encountered during the years 
that elapsed between the organization of the company and the com- 
pletion of the road, which was often sneeringly alluded to by the San 
Franciscans as "Stanford's Dutch Flat Road." We cannot forget, 
however, that Mr. Judah had spent all his time and money and energy 
for three or four years previous to the organization of the company, 
in collecting data, without which no prudent man would have felt 
justified in investing a dollar in the undertaking that was so generally 
regarded as chimerical and impracticable. 

After the company was organized Mr. Judah was instructed to 
make a thorough instrumental survey of the route across the Sierras, 
which he did. The previous surveys or reconnoissances made had 
covered three routes, one through Eldorado county via Georgetown, 
another via Illinoistown and Dutch Flat, and a third via Nevada 


and Henness Pass. The observations had demonstrated the existence 
of a route across the Sierras bj' which the summit could be reached 
by maximum grades of one hundred and five feet to the mile. The 
instrumental survey, however, developed a route with lighter grades, 
less distance and fewer obstacles than the previous observations had 
shown. The first report of the chief engineer to the officers of the 
company gave the following as topographical features of the Sierras, 
which rendered railroad building and operating over them so for- 
midable : 

1. "The great elevation to be overcome in crossing its summit, 
and the want of uniformity in its western slope. ' ' The average length 
of the western slope of the Sierras is about seventy miles, and on 
this distance the altitude increases seven thousand feet, making it 
necessary to maintain an even gTade on the ascent to avoid creating 
some sections with excessive grades. 

2. "From the impracticability of the river crossings." These 
rivers run through gorges in many places over one thousand feet 
deep, with the banks of varying slopes from perpendicular to forty- 
five degrees. A railroad line, therefore, must avoid crossing these 
canyons. The line, as established by the surveys of 1861, pursued 
its course along an unbroken ridge from the base to the summit of the 
Sierras, the only river crossing in the mountains being that of Little 
Bear, about three miles above Dutch Flat. Another prominent feature 
of the location is the fact that it entirely avoids the second sununit 
of the Sierras. The estimated cost per mile of the road from Sacra- 
mento to the state line was $88,000 per mile. 

October 1, 1861, the board of directors of the Central Pacific Rail- 
road Company adopted a resolution as follows: 

"Resolved, that Mr. T. D. Judah the chief engineer of this com- 
pany, proceed to "Washington on the steamer of the 11th of October 
instant, as the accredited agent of the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany of California for the purpose of procuring appropriations of land 
and United States bonds from the government, to aid in the construc- 
tion of this road." Mr. Judah proceeded to the east on his mission 
and that he accomplished his pur])ose this time is shown by the bill 
that was passed by congress in July, 1862. This bill granted a free 
right of way to the roads of four hundred feet wide over all govern- 
ment lands on their line. The government also agreed to extinguish 
the Indian title to all the land donated to the company either for 
right of way or to the granted land. 

Tlie lands on either side of the road were to be withdrawn from 
settlement, by pre-emption or otherwise, for a distance of fifteen 
miles, until the final location of the road should be' made, and the 
United States surveys had determined the location of the section lines. 
This map of the route was made by Mr. Judah, filed in the office 
of the secretary of the interior, and the lands withdrawn in accordance 


with the terms of the bill. When the bill had passed, Mr. Judah 
telegraphed to his associates in Sacramento: "We have drawn the 
elephant. See if we can harness him up." 

This bill also provided for the issue to the company of United 
States thirty-year six per cent, bonds, to be issued to the company as 
each forty mile section of the road was completed, at the rate of 
$16,000 per mile for the line west of the western base of the Sierra 
Nevadas, and at the rate or $48,000 per mile from the western base 
east to the eastern base of the Sierras, the latter subsidy to be paid 
on the completion of each twenty mile section. 

To secure the government from loss, and insure the pajmient of 
these bonds, they were made a first lien on the road. The state of 
California also donated $10,000 per mile to the road, by an act ap- 
proved April 25, 1863. The engineering difficulties were great, and 
had been considered unsurmountable, but the financial difficulties also 
were great, and undoubtedly required more labor and thought than 
the engineering, though of a different kind. That all these difficulties 
were surmounted, and the originators of the etfort still retained the 
ownership and control of the road, and in addition to the original 
line have built thousands of miles of road in California and Arizona 
and elsewhere, proves the ability of the leaders in this movement. 

These men were mei'chants in a city that could not be classed 
among the large ones of the land, and were consequently not largely 
known to the financial world; they had never been engaged in the 
railroad business, and were supposedly ignorant of the magnitude of 
the undertaking in Avhich they engaged. Aside from the natural dif- 
ficulty of the situation, they encountered the opposition of the moneyed 
men of San Francisco and other places, who gave their enterprise the 
name of the "Dutch Flat Swindle." C. P. Huntington, vice-president 
of the company, was next sent to the east, with full power-of-attorney 
to do any acts he might think for the interest of the company. One 
of the main objects of this trip was to see that the bill which was then 
before congress should not oblige the company to pay interest on 
the bonds received of the government for at least ten years from their 
date of issue. After the passage of the bill, the books were opened 
for stock subscriptions, to the amount of eight and one-half million 
dollars. Of this amount, "six hundred thousand dollars were sub- 
scribed at the first rush, but after that, for a long time, the sub- 
scriptions came in very slowly. 

When Huntington attempted to dispose of the bonds of the com- 
pany in New York, he was informed that they had no mai'ketable value 
until some part of the road was built. Before he could dispose of 
them, therefore, he was obliged to give the personal guarantee of 
himself and his four partners, Hopkins, Stanford and the Crockers, 
for the money, until such time as they could lie exchanged for United 
States bonds. 


After spending the summer of 1861 in making additional surveys 
of the three routes under consideration, Judah had finally decided 
on the Dutch Flat route, ascertaining that the maximum grade on 
that line would be one hundred feet to the mile. He thought the 
line could be kept free from snow by the use of snow plows and that 
eighteen tunnels, aggregating 17,100 feet in length, would be suffi- 
cient. "Lightning expresses" and "limited" trains did not enter 
into his calculations. He outlined a schedule for trains going east 
as follows: 

Sacramento to Barrimore's, thirty-one miles, one hour. Stop at 
Barrimore's, half hour. 

Barrimore's to Summit, eiglity-one miles, four hours. Pour 
stops en route, fifteen minutes eacli, one hour. Stop at Summit, 

Summit to Truckee river, eleven miles, tliree-quarters of an 

Total for one hundred and twenty-three miles, seven and one- 
half hours, including stops aggregating an hour and three-quarters. 

He estimated the cost of construction from Sacramento to the 
state line, one hundred and forty miles, at $12,880,000, an average of 
$88,248 a mile. 

The bill as passed gave the company two years to comjilete the 
first fifty miles, none of their land grant or government bonds being 
available until they liad finished the first forty. This latter provir^iou 
nearly doomed them to failure, as it turned out. The first fifty milos, 
as rejiorted by the engineers were described as a line from "Sacra- 
mento to Grider's (Roseville) eighteen miles; thence California Cen- 
tral Railroad to the Auburn Railroad, opposite Polsom, nine miles; 
thence Auburn Railroad to Auburn, fifteen miles; thence eight miles 
to Clipper Gap." Evidently it was the intention to use the two 
roads named, but that intenion was abandoned later. 

Por the purpose of providing means for commencing the work, 
the seven principal stockholders formed a partnership, each one con- 
tributing $34,000 in gold; the amount thus received, $238,000, was 
thought to be sufficient to build at least to Newcastle. Everything 
being ready to begin they decided to have a celebration and it was 
held at Front and K streets in this city January 8, 1863. The ground 
was very muddy, and hay was scattered over it to make better foot- 
ing. At 12 M. Charles Crocker introduced Governor Stanford, who 
spoke briefly as to his gratification at being chosen to cast the first 
dirt on what was to be to the west what the Erie canal was to the 
eastern and central states, "the tie that bound." He assured those 
assembled that the work would go on without cessation or interrup- 
tion. Rev. J. A. Benton, at the close of Stanford's remarks, offered 
a ]ietition that the Divine blessing might rest on the enterprise, and 
that the road here inaugurated in His name, might go forward to 


speedy completion and prove a highway for the people that would 
niake the wildnerness and the solitary places blossom like a rose. 
Then two wagons decorated with red, white and blue, and filled with 
dirt were driven in front of the speakers' stand and Governor 
Stanford shoveled their contents on the ground, while the "Sacra- 
mento Union Brass band" played the national airs, and closed with 
"Wait for the Wagon." Presiding officers of the legislature and 
others made remarks, Mr. Crocker winding up with the statement 
that even while he was speaking the contractor was hauling piles to 
the American river, for the bridge across it; that the road was going 
through, and that all he had was devoted to the section he had under- 
taken to build. 

The Central Pacific issued a statement that they had ordered eight 
first-class locomotives from Norris & Co., of Philadelphia, two of 
them being of the heaviest class used by the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road on its mountain grades, capable of hauling thirty loaded cars 
or three hundred and sixty tons over the heaviest grades that would 
be on the Central Pacific. Eight passenger coaches were also ordered, 
four combined mail and baggage cars, thirty box cars, thirty platform 
cars, and six hand cars, and that they were on their way round the 
Horn. The freight on these cost it was stated $4,000 each, making 
their cost set up in Sacramento, $32,000 each. 

The shipment of these engines was delayed by an army officer 
who appeared at the locomotive works when they were about ready 
and took possession of them and of all others that were on' hand, 
for use of the army, in the name of the government. Protest was 
made Ijy the company and the authorities at Washington, when they 
learned that the engines seized were for the use of the Central Pacific, 
ordered them released, on the ground that no military necessity was 
more important than the completion of the Pacific Railroad. They 
were partially paid for by a fund of $1,250,000 raised by the directors, 
five of them becoming responsible for the loan by endorsing the com- 
])any's notes. 

None of the government's subsidy aid had as yet been received. 
Subscriptions by individuals for stock amounted to $600,000. Bonds 
had been received from Sacramento county for $300,000 and from 
Placer county for $250,000, railroad bonds being given in exchange 
for them. The city of San Francisco had by a large majority voted 
a $600,000 subsidy, but it was being held up temporarily by officials 
hostile to the road. Engineer Judah reported that the company 
would have to abandon the original plan of using the California 
Central and Sacramento, Placer and Nevada roads, as they were 
not laid with American iron, as specified in the bill, nor could any 
existing roads count in aiding the Central Pacific, under the bill. 
He reported also that the road was being laid on redwood ties, 
68,000 of them being contracted for, and that 6,000 tons of iron bad 


been purchased. He estimated the cost of the first fifty miles at 

In 1862 the company was granted the right of way into the city 
of Sacramento and was also granted the Slough or Sutter lake. The 
contract for building the road from Sacramento to Grider's on the 
California Central Eailroad was let December 22, 1862, to C. Crocker 
& Co., who sublet the contract to different parties. Twenty miles of 
road each year were completed in 1863, 1864 and 1865, thirty miles 
in 1866, forty-six miles in 1867, three hundred and sixty-four miles in 
1868, one hundred and ninety and one-half miles in 1869 ; making six 
hundred and ninety and one-half miles from Sacramento to Promon- 
tory, where the roads met. May 10, 1869. 

The difficulties were many and great. All of the materials except 
the cross ties, including a large proportion of the men employed, were 
brought from the east via Cape Horn. Toward the latter part of the 
great enterprise several thousand Chinamen were put at work. Be- 
sides this, it was war times, and marine insurance was very high ; iron 
and railroad materials were held at tremendous figures and the price 
of the subsidy bonds was very low. All of these conditions combined 
to make the building of the road very costly. 

. The state of California agreed to paj^ the interest on $1,500,000 
of the bonds for thirty years, and in return the company gave to the 
state a very valuable stone quarry. A number of the counties along 
the road bonded themselves in exchange for stock. Sacramento county 
gave her bonds to the amount of $300,000. These bonds were exchanged 
for money and the work was pushed forward. Then there was delay 
in obtaining the subsidy, and the money ran short. When Mr. Hunt- 
ington returned from New York he found the treasury almost destitute 
of coin, and it became evident that there was a necessity for raising 
more funds or stopping the work. "Huntington and Hopkins can, out 
of their own means, pay five hundred men for a year; how many can 
each of you keep on the line," was the characteristic declaration with 
which he met the emergency. Before the meeting adjourned these five 
men had resolved that they would maintain eight hundred men on the 
road during the year out of their own private resources. 

Mr. Judah had sold out his interest in the company about this 
time (1863) and gone east. On the way he was stricken with Panama 
fever, dying from it shortly after his arrival in New York, in 1863, at 
the age of only thirty-seven years. Dr. Strong of Dutch Flat, although 
a sincere and earnest believer in the enterprise, was not able to furnish 
what was considered his share of the expenses necessary to be ad- 
vanced, and retired from the board of directors. Messrs. Bailey, Booth 
and Marsh were compelled, like Judah, to sell out after the enterprise 
was well under way, though it is known that they were all earnest 
workers for its success at the commencement. 

Mr. Judah was succeeded by S. S. Montague as chief engineer of 


the road. The location surveys were made under his directions. The 
road to Colfax, or Lower lUinoistown Gap, was located on the line run 
by Mr. Judah in 1861; from Colfax to Long Ravine the line was 
changed materially; from Long Ravine to Alta the line ran on Mr. 
Judah 's survey and from Alta to the Summit on an entirely new line, 
located by L. M. Clement, engineer in charge of the second division 
from Colfax to the Summit. This final location gave better grade 
line, and one more free from snow in the winter, two very desirable 
objects. The value of these changes is plainly shown by the report 
of George E. Gray, formerly chief engineer of the New York Central 
Railroad. Mr. Gray was requested by Leland Stanford, in a letter 
dated July 10, 1865, to inspect the line of road and surveys then made, 
and report to the board of directors of the company his opinion as 
to the quality of the work and the economical location of that portion 
not then built. Mr. Gray, in his report, gave as his opinion that tlie 
road already constructed would compare favorably with any road in 
the United States. Of that portion of the road not constructed, he 
reported that Mr. Judah's line had been altered materially, saving in 
distance nearly five thousand feet and also reducing the aggregate 
length of the tunnels nearly five thousand feet, a saving in cost of 
construction of at least $400,000. Some very skillful engineering was 
done on this Colfax division. The road bed ran around the promontory 
at Cape Horn, over twelve hundred feet above the bottom of a nearly 
perpendicular canyon, the banks of which were so steep that the 
Chinamen during the work had to be let down in baskets over the 
face of the cliff in order to construct the grade. 

President Lincoln made a decision of great moment to the com- 
pany during the summer of 1863, in regard to the mountain section. 
By the terms of the bill, the company was to receive bonds to the 
amount of $16,000 per mile for its line west of the Sierras, and $48,000 
per mile for the section through the mountains. The trouble was to 
decide where the two sections joined each other. 

The Interior department showed a disposition to place the divid- 
ing line at the end of the first section of fifty miles. The matter being 
brought to the president's attention, he decided that it should be seven 
and eighteen-hundredths miles east of Sacramento, saying that "this 
was a case where Abraham's faith had moved mountains." This 
meant a difference of over a million dollars to the com]iany. The 
tracks reached Grider's, or Roseville, on April 26, 1864, and the 
company commenced the operation of that much of the road. 

Another factor was about to come to the aid of the financiers, 
whose funds were exhausted, but whose courage was not daunted. The 
Union Pacific Company had been unable to raise funds to prosecute 
its construction, operating, as it did, under the same law as the 
Central. It therefore made another appeal to congress, and an act 
granting more liberal terms was passed in April, 1864. By its terms 


the land grant was doubled, the government bonds were made a second 
mortgage instead of the first, and the companies were authorized to 
issue their own first mortgage bonds to the same amount as the gov- 
ernment bonds. Two-thirds of these were made available when evi- 
dence was presented to the secretary of the treasury that the neces- 
sary grading for the road bed had been done. The sections on which 
bonds were to be issued were also reduced from forty to twenty miles. 
These provisions applied equally to the Central Pacific road. The 
right of the road was also confirmed to lay track one hundred and fifty 
miles east of the state boundary. 

These things effected a great change in the financial status of the 
company. Heretofore they had borrowed money in currency in the 
east, and paid it out in gold in the west, at a heavy discount. Their 
first mortgage bonds now sold almost at par and the government 
bonds were available immediately on completing the grading. Their 
credit was further aided by the operation of the road to Roseville, 
which brought in $103,557 from April 26 to December 31, 1864— from 
passengers $63,403; freight $38,667 and from express $1487. It gave 
them a standing at home that they liad heretofore lacked. 

The road progressed slowly at first, but along toward the last, it 
progressed more rapidly, until, on the 10th day of May, 1869, the last 
spike was down, completing the railroad connection between the At- 
lantic and Pacific oceans. A large party gathered at Promontory Point 
to witness the ceremony. Telegraph wires had been connected with 
the large cities of the Union, so that the exact moment of driving the 
last spike could lie made known to all at the same time. At the hour 
designated, Leland Stanford, ])resident of the Central Pacific, and 
other officers, came forward. T. C. Durant, president of the Union 
Pacific, accompanied by General Dodge and others of the same 
company, met them at the end of the rail, where they paused, while 
Rev. Dr. Todd, of Massachusetts, made a short prayer. The last tie, 
made of California laurel, with silver plates bearing suitable inscrip- 
tions, was put in place, and the last connecting rails were laid by 
persons from each company. The last spikes were made, one of gold 
from California, one of silver from Nevada, and one of gold and 
silver, from Arizona. President Stanford then took the hammer of 
solid silver, to the handle of which was attached the telegraph wires, 
by which, at the first tap on the head of the gold spike, at 12 M., the 
news of the event was flashed all over the American continent. 

Then a locomotive of the Central Pacific Railroad Company and 
another of the Union Pacific Railroad Company approached from 
each way, and rubbed their pilots together, while bottles of cham- 
pagne were passed from one to the other. 

During the building of this road the track laying force of the 
Central Pacific laid ten miles and two hundred feet in one day, com- 
pleting their work at seven p. m. The date when this herculean task 


was performed was the 20tli of April, 1869, when only fourteen miles 
of track remained to be laid to connect with the Union Pacific. 

By mutual agreement between the roads, Ogden was made the 
terminus for each ; by this agreement the Union Pacific sold fifty-three 
miles of its road to the Central Pacific, making the length of road 
owned by the Central Pacific proper seven hundred and forty-three 
miles and a half, from Sacramento to Ogden. Aug-ust 22, 1870, the 
Western Pacific, San Joaquin Valley, California and Oregon, and San 
Francisco, Oakland and Alameda Railroads, which had been built in 
the meantime, were all consolidated under the name of the Central 
Pacific Railroad. 

The death of Mrs. Clara W. Prentice, September U, 1912, at the 
age of eighty-eight years, recalled the interesting fact that the first 
inception of the Central Pacific road took place at the home of Edwin 
D. Prentice, her husband, on K street, between Ninth and Tenth. At 
this meeting there were present, C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, T. 
D. Judah, W. H. Stoddard and Mr. Prentice. Mr. Prentice took part 
in the early history of the road, but died in 1862. 


On December 13, 1862, the Western Pacific Railroad Company 
was incorporated for the purpose of constructing a railroad from San 
Jose, through the counties of Alameda and San Joacjuin, to the city 
of Sacramento. Its capital stock was $5,400,000. The road was one 
hundred and thirty-seven and one-half miles in length, and made the 
wliole length of the Central Pacific eight hundred and eighty-one 
miles. This road was not completed until 1870. The franchise is said 
to have passed into the hands of the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany a year before the date of consolidation. The road did not enter 
Sacramento City, as it connected with the Sacramento Valley Railroad 
at Brighton Junction. 

The San Joaquin Valley Railroad is now the property of the 
Southern Pacific and forms a part of the second overland system. 

The California and Oregon Railroad leaves the original Central 
Pacific Railroad at Roseville and runs thence through Redding. It 
was incorporated June 30, 1865, and consolidated with the Central 
Pacific August 22, 1870. 

The California Pacific Railroad Company was for some time a 
very active competitor for the carrying trade of the state, and at 
one time it was thought that its owners intended to construct a second 
line of railroad to connect with the Union Pacific. It bought boats 
and franchises of the California Steam Navigation Company, and for 
some time really controlled the rates of freight between Sacramento 
and San Francisco. The comjiany was incorporated January 10, 1865, 
with a capital stock of $3,500,000, and work was begun in Vallejo in 
1867. The road was finished to Washington, Yolo County, November 
11, 1868, and to Marvsville in November, 1869. In June, 1869, the 


company purchased the Napa Valley Railroad, and the two roads were 
consolidated in December, 1869, with a capital of $12,000,000. 

In 1869 and 1870 the Central Pacific and California Pacific Rail- 
roads were at war with each other. The California Pacific wished to 
come into Sacramento, but the Central Pacific having its track on the 
levee, it was impossible for the California Pacific to cross the river 
and secure depot and switching facilities without crossing the Central 
Pacific track. Various attempts were made by the California Pacific 
to lay the track and form the crossing of the two lines, but they were 
resisted and it looked for a time as if bloodshed would be the result. 
Finally, however, the crossing was accomplished and passengers were 
landed in Sacramento by the California Pacific, January 29, 1870. 
A regular ovation awaited the train. Guns were fired, the fire depart- 
ment turned out, and there was intense enthusiasm on all sides. 

Commissioners were appointed to assess the damage to the Cen- 
tral Pacific and reported in June, 1870, that the damages were as 
follows: for about six acres of land, $40,680; damages for crossing 
track, $70,000; for consequential damages, $250,000, making a total of 
$360,680. The report was thrown out, however, by the court, on sev- 
eral grounds, the principal one being that it was excessive. The war 
between the companies continued until August, 1871, during which 
time freight and passenger rates were very low, greatly curtailing the 
profits of both companies. The roads were consolidated in August 
of that year, since which time, with the exception of competition by 
river, the Central Pacific and the Southern Pacific Company, its suc- 
cessor, have had the monopoly of the carrying trade of Sacramento 
until the coming of the new overland road, the Western Pacific, in 

The California Pacific gave the route to San Francisco. 
The trip was made to Vallejo by rail and thence to San Francisco by 
boat, making- a shorter and popular route which for many years 
monopolized the majority of travel between Sacramento and San Fran- 
cisco, until the building of the route to Benicia and the construction 
of an immense ferry boat to carry the trains across Carquinez Straits 
to Port Costa, whence they continued their journey to San Francisco 
along the shore of San Pablo and San Francisco Bays to Oakland 
Mole. The new road was opened December 28, 1879, and the Vallejo 
line as a route to San Francisco was abandoned, although passengers 
going that way are still transported across the bay to meet trains 
on the Benicia route. 


This was the first railroad constructed in California, being organ- 
ized Ausinst 4, 1852, when ten per cent of the stock was paid in, 
amounting to $5,000. The company reorganized November 9, 1854. 
and made immediate preparation for building the road. The first 


shovelful of dirt was thrown in February, 1855, the first tie came in 
May, and the first vessel load of material and rolling stock arrived 
from Boston in June. The first work done on a railroad car in Cali- 
fornia was done on this road, July 4, 1855. The first rail was laid 
August 9, 1855, and the first train was placed on the track August 14. 
The road had some little trouble with its finances, but its progress 
»vas not materially delayed. 

On November 10, 1855, an excursion train was run to Patterson's, 
ten miles from Sacramento, the fare being one dollar for the round 
trip. By January 1, 1856, the road was completed to Alder creek, and 
on February 22 was finished to Folsom, the length of the road being 
twenty-two and a half miles. Its cost was $1,568,500. The capital 
stock was $800,000, of which $792,000 was issued. The road was a 
ver}^ profitable one from the time of its completion, its effect being 
to move the terminus of the freight and stage lines running to the 
northern mines from Sacramento to Folsom and building up quite a 
town there. At one time twenty-one stage lines ran from Folsom to 
other places; all leaving shortly after the arrival of the train from 

The Central Pacific Company purchased the Sacramento Valley 
road in August, 1865, the purchase being made by George F. Bragg 
(on behalf of himself and others) of the entire stock held by L. L. 
Robinson and Pioche and Bayerque. The price paid for this stock was 
$800,000. Soon after coming into possession Bragg transferred the 
stock to the owners of the Central Pacific. The latter company had 
been forced to do this in order to secure the whole of the Washoe 
trade, which at this time was very great, amounting to several million 
dollars per annum. The short line of the Sacramento Valley road 
alone, declared an annual profit of nearly half a million dollars the 
year previous to its purchase, most of which came from the freight 
going to Washoe and other mining districts. 

In the spring of 1857 a company was formed in Marysville to build 
a railroad from that city to the terminus of the Sacramento Valley 
Railroad at Folsom. Col. C. L. Wilson, who was one of the con- 
tractors for the Sacramento Valley road, was sent east to procure 
funds for building the road. He effected this and the construction 
commenced immediately. The road, however, was never finished to 
Marysville by the original company. By 1861 the track had been laid 
as far as Lincoln. The original name, the California Central Railroad, 
was subsequently changed to the California and Oregon Division of 
the Southern Pacific. Shortly after the completion of the Central 
Pacific Railroad to Roseville, that company purchased the California 
Central Railroad; that portion of the road between Roseville and 
Polsom was abandoned and the bridge across the American river at 
Polsom was condemned and sold in 1868. 

During 1862 the Sacramento, Placer and Nevada Railroad was 


built from Folsom to a point near Newcastle. The road had been 
organized in 1859 to build an extension of the Sacramento Valley 
Railroad from Folsom via Auburn to Grass Valley and Nevada City. 
The public-spirited citizens of Auburn furnished funds which enabled 
it to be constructed from Folsom to Wildwood Station, a distance of 
about eleven miles, and it stopped there. The Robinson Brothers, who 
had built the Sacramento Valley Railroad, and were largely interested 
in it, were the promoters of this road, which cost for the eleven miles 
$278,000. It proved a losing venture, and was sold under foreclosure 
in the spring of 1864; Robinson Brothers purchased some of the stock, 
intending to use it as part of their road. When the purchasers under 
foreclosure attempted to take up the rails and ties, they were bitterly 
fought by the Central Pacific and the Auburn people who had con- 
tributed to build it. The courts were appealed to and resort was also 
made to force. On account of the violence engendered, the militia was 
called out, but the Robinsons were successful, and the material was 
removed and relaid on the road from Folsom to Latrobe. About a 
hundred workmen who removed the rails, including Robinson, were 
arrested for contempt of court, which was a poor satisfaction for the 
Auburn people who subscribed toward building the road. 

The Placerville and Sacramento Valley Railroad, commencing at 
Folsom, was constructed as far as Latrobe in 1864 and 1865, and hung 
fire there for several years, finally being carried on to Shingle Springs. 
In 1887-88 the work was taken up again and the road completed to 
Placerville, under the name of the Shingle Springs and Placerville 
Railroad. The road as far as Latrobe was laid with the ties and rails 
taken up from the Auburn road. It was through a rich country, where 
the principal industry in former days was mining and stock-raising, 
but at the present day the capability of the foothills for producing fine 
fruit and grapes has been proved, and El Dorado county is fast be- 
coming the home of the orchardist and vineyardist. 

The Amador branch, running from Gait in this county, to lone in 
Amador county, a distance of twenty-seven miles, was built by the 
Central Pacific Company in 1876, in order to gain access to 'some 
mines of lignite coal near lone. 

The Freeport road originated in a plan to divert the northern and 
eastern trade from Sacramento by building wharves, etc., at Freeport 
and a railroad from there to some point on the Sacramento Valley 
road. The road bed was graded for a distance of nine miles from 
Freeport, and the track laid. It was intended as part of the Sacra- 
mento Valley road, and was purchased with it by the Central Pacific 
and the track taken up. 

In the ensuing quarter of a century a number of roads were in- 
corporated, some part of whose lines would touch the county of Sacra- 
mento, but none of them proceeded to construction. 


In 1909 and 1910 the Southern Pacific Company constructed the 
Sacramento Southern Railroad, running down the Sacramento river, 
with the intention of tapi)ing tlie rich fruit orchards and other lands 
between the city of Sacramento and Isletou and the country lying back 
of them, and developing a country rich in freight possibilities, and 
also opening a short route to San Francisco. The work of con- 
struction is still going on, trains being run daily as far as Wal- 
nut Grove. The road will also develop the river section of Yolo 
county. It was incorporated July 7, 1903, and will run down the river 
to Antioch, to connect with the San Pablo railroad, which was con- 
solidated with the Northern and afterwards taken over by the 
Southern Pacific. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad Company of California was incor- 
l)orated in San Francisco, December 2, 1865, with a capital of 
$50,000,000. The Southern Pacific Branch Company was incorporated 
in Sacramento December 23, 1870, with a capital of $20,000,000, and 
was consolidated with the Southern Pacific Railroad Company of Cali- 
fornia Aug-ust 19, 1873. 

The Northern Railway Company was incorporated in Sacramento 
July 19, 1871. On May 15, 1888, it acquired by consolidation the Win- 
ters and Ukiah, the Woodland, Capay and Clear Lake, the AVest Side 
and Mendocino, the Vaca Valley and Clear Lake, the San Joaquin and 
Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento and Placerville, the Shingle Springs 
and Placerville, the Amador Branch and the Berkeley Branch rail- 
roads. The stock was increased to $26,175,000. April 12, 1898, it 
was consolidated with the Southern Pacific Railroad Company of 

The San Pablo and Tulare Railroad Company was incorporated 
in Sacramento July 19, 1871, and was consolidated with the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company of California May 4, 1888. 

The Southern Pacific Company of Kentucky was incorporated in 
that state March 7, 1884. It immediately took over on a lease for 
ninety-nine years all the roads mentioned, as an operating company, as 
well as systems in other parts of the state. 

On January 1, 1903, the Southern Pacific Company instituted a 
system of pensions for its superannuated employes who had been in 
its service continuously for twenty-five years or more. The eni]iloves 
had previously had a system of insurance among themselves, to which 
many belonged, and the various brotherhoods of employes also have a 
life insurance feature in their orders. Under the pension svstem of 
the company it has paid to the employes retired on account of age, up 
to June 30, 1912, the sum of $1,049,250, and on that date there were 
four hiuidred and ninety-one pensioners on the list. 


Many old residents who look on the railroad shops of the Southern 


Pacific Company today can recall the memory of a far different aspect 
which the site presented in 1860 and the earlier years of the city's 
history. As far back as the early '70s, the Central Pacific Railroad 
Company had made overtures to the city to the effect that if the city 
would deed the site of Sutter's lake to it, the company would fill it in 
as a site for a depot, shops, and for other uses. With prophetic vision 
the founders of the first great overland railroad saw that its growth 
would be rapid and sure, and that before long it would need a large 
space for its shops, depot and yards. Sacramento was the birthplace 
of the road. Its principal offices were here. What more logical place 
could be found for the center of its activities on this coast? San 
Francisco had spurned its opportunity and had fought in every way 
in its power the sturdy group of men who had given their energies and 
their fortunes to build the way across the cratinent. Why should they 
place their shops and spend their money in a hostile city? And be- 
sides, with the shops a hundred miles inland, the distance to haul dis- 
abled cars and engines for repairs would be just that much less. There 
were other good reasons besides, so the shops arose in this city. 

But in the early days, Sutter slough, or China slough, as it be- 
came later known, when Chinatown was located on its banks, covered 
a much greater area than it did at the close of the last century. 
Practically, it extended from the levee of the American river to I 
street, and from Sixth street to the American river, at its old mouth. 
It was not an ornamental place, and when the project of issuing fifty 
year bonds for the purpose of filling it iip was broached, the citizens 
who looked at its area and figured on filling in a depression that was 
forty feet deep in places felt the cold shivers travel along their spines. 
Then the railroad company stepped to the front with the proposition 
to fill it, if the site was deeded to it. The offer was accepted tenta- 
tively, and the company began its work, but it was not fully completed 
until 1908, a contract having been definitely made between the city and 
the Southern Pacific in 1904, by which the city reserved a certain site 
on the north side of I street for a park. 

The first beginning was in 1863, when a building, 16x2-!- feet, was 
erected by the Central Pacific Railroad Company at the foot of I 
street for the storage of tools and of sections of locomotives and cars 
which had been sent around the Horn for the use of the infant rail- 
road. The locomotives were set up just outside of this shop. In the 
same year a rough building, 20x150 feet, was constructed at Sixth and 
II streets and was used as a shop for overhauling cars that needed 
repairs. Another shop was erected soon after, on the curve lending to 
I street, and was used for overhauling the locomotives. It was 20x60 
feet, and at one end of it was a single forge that constituted the entire 
blacksn^ithing department of the company. In 1864. the car shop prov- 
ing too narrow for convenience, another one, 34x130 feet, was erected 
at Sixth and E streets, and just west of it a larger shop was erected 


wliicli would hold three locomotives for repairs, and the blacksmithing 
facilities were also increased. Soon the first boiler shop of the com- 
pany, 40x50 feet, was erected, but this in turn became too small, and 
was turned over to the foreman of the lumberyard as a dry-house for 
seasoning timber. 

Heretofore, all the rolling stock had been brought from the east, 
but as the road grew the company concluded to build its own cars, and 
in 1866 the first car construction shop was erected, 68x250 feet, and 
business increased so rapidly that for many months it turned out a 
dozen cars a day. Still the work expanded, immense amounts of lum- 
ber being used, and the fine woodwork for the cars demanded atten- 
tion. So in 1868, the planing mill, cabinet shop, the engine room and 
the blacksmith shop were erected, also the roundhouse, with a capacity 
of twenty-nine engines, was constructed. In the same year the larger 
machine shop, 160x200 feet, was begun, and subsequently 315 feet were 
added. In an L, the offices of the motive-power and machinery depart- 
ment were located. In the same year the car shop was extended 230 
feet, and a new blacksmith shop was constructed. As scrap iron ac- 
cumulated, the experiment of setting up a set of rolls in the black- 
smith shop was tried, and later, in 1881, the present rolling mill was 
erected. The paint shop, having five L's, was built in 1872, but soon 
proved too small, so in 1888 an addition to hold eight coaches was 
built. The transfer table was also constructed in 1872, and in 1873 the 
present car shop No. 5 was erected. In 1889 the present boiler shop 
was constructed. Other buildings followed, of substantial brick and 
iron, under the supervision of the master car builder, Benjamin Welch, 
and the veterans of the shops call the plant "the city built by Uncle 
Ben." From a small beginning the plant has increased imtil it is 
the finest equipped railroad shop plant west of Chicago. Up to 1896 
there had been expended for labor alone in the shops over $31,000,000, 
this estimate being a very conservative one, while in the same time 
over $50,000,000 was expended for material, and in the same time 7131 
cars had been built in the shops, besides seventy-three engines. 

As stated, the plant covers more than twenty acres, and is being 
enlarged every year. It gives employment to from 2500 to 3000 men, 
in busy seasons often exceeding the latter number. At present the 
principal shops are: the machine shop, car repair shop, blacksmith 
shop, boiler shop, spring shop, brass foundry, carpenter shop, round- 
house, copper shop, locomotive shop, hammer shop, bolt shop, rolling 
mill, upholstery shop and car machine shop, pianino- mill, cabinet shop, 
car shop No. 5, paint shop, wheel foundry, general foundry, pipe shop, 
shear shop, pattern shop, and a nuirber of smaller shops. These are 
all equinne-l with the finest machiuerv, much of it of the latest pattern. 
One who is interested in n^achinerv could spend several davs profitablv 
in inspecting the wonders to be seen there. In each of the shops the 


method of carrying on the work of construction is interesting to those 
not familiar with it. 


Sacramento is connected with other cities of the valle;y at present 
by three electric roads — the Northern Electric, the Central California 
Traction and the Sacramento and Woodland electric roads, and the 
Vallejo and Northern, and Sacramento and Sierra are in course of 
construction, with one, the Sacramento and Eastern, to run to Folsom 
by way of Fair Oaks, and another, the Oakland, Antioch and Eastern, 
to run to San Francisco, incorporated and will probably be under way 
in a year or two. The West Side railroad is also incorporated, as 
well as one to run to Folsom on the south side of the American River. 

Of these the Northern Electric Railway is the oldest, having been 
conceived by the late Henry A. Butters, who was impressed with the 
need of transportation facilities between Chico and Oroville. He 
associated with himself Messrs. Louis Sloss, N. D. Rideout, J. Downey 
Harvey and E. R. Lilienthal, and the Northern Electric Company 
was formed, with a capitalization of $3,000,000 wliich was later in- 
creased to $6,000,000. The initial action was the acquisition of the 
street railroads of Chico, and the road from Chico to Oroville was 
comi^leted and the first train run over it April 25, 1906. The advisa- 
bility of extending the road to Marysville being apparent, W. P. Ham- 
mond and E. J. de Sabla joined in the undertaking, Mr. Rideout 
retiring. On January 31, 1907, the road to Marysville was completed, 
and the line was completed and the first train to Sacramento was 
run on August 1st of that year. On December 2, 1907, the Northern 
Electric Railway Company was organized, with an authorized bond 
issue of $25,000,000, taking over the original company. 

The Sacramento Terminal Company was formed in 1908, for the 
purpose of building a belt line in this city from Eighteenth and C 
streets to the water front, and was immediately leased by the North- 
ern Electric. Later the Northern Electric entered into an arrange- 
ment with the Vallejo Northern for full exchange of traffic, and the 
joint construction of a bridge over the Sacramento river at M street, 
the counties of Yolo and Sacramento bearing a proportion of the 
cost. Later tlie Sacramento and Woodland Railroad Company joined 
with them, and that road being finished, the first train was run over 
it July 4, 1912. The Vallejo Northern is rapidly pushing its construc- 
tion along and exjiects to have the road in ojieration by the beginning 
of 1913. 

The Central California Traction is operating from Sacramento to 
Stockton, and is also working under a traffic agreement with the Santa 
Fe railroad, which will probably absorb it in the course of time, thus 
adding another transcontinental line to those running through this 
citv and as it is announced that the Great Northern has a traffic agree- 


meut with the Northern Electric, there is a strong probabiHty that in 
a few years Sacramento will have four transcontinental lines carrying 
produce to the east. 



At tlie door of Sacramento flows a magnificent river of the same 
name, and which, in fact, gave its name to the city in its early his- 
tory. Its influence on both city and county has been a most important 
factor in tlieir development. For the city it was, prior to the con- 
struction of the railroad lines, the sole medium of transportation that 
provided the interior with supplies for the settler and miner, and as 
an outlet for conveying the products of the interior to the bay city 
and the east and foreign countries. Even when the railroads came, 
they served as an outlet for only a small portion of the territory 
drained by and contiguous to the river, and millions of bushels of 
grain, hay and other products continued to be transported by the 
river route, and even today an immense amount of traffic and pro- 
ducts are carried on the steamers and barges, as well as by sailing 
vessels. The amount of fruit carried to this city and the bay city 
has for many years been enormous. 

Any section of a country which has a waterway connecting it with 
tidewater is fortunate indeed, and no section could be more fortunate 
in that respect than the Sacramento valley. The Sacramento river 
flows through the whole extent of the vallej^, from Shasta county on 
the north, to Solano county on the south, a distance of about three 
hundred miles. The twelve counties embraced in this area have a 
combined acreage of 11,456,528 acres, and an aggregate population of 
about a quarter of a million, the area of the valley being seventeen 
thousand, eight hundred and fifteen square miles. The distance to 
Red Bluff, the head of navigation, is two hundred and one miles from 
Sacramento, and to the mouth of the river, near Collinsville, is al)out 
sixty-five miles. The debris from hydraulic mining has filled the 
river — which in the early days afforded plenty of water for ocean 
going steamers and vessels to come to this city — so that navigation 
became difficult for vessels drawing over about four feet of water, 
during the late summer and fall, but the government, by the use of 
a snagl>oat and the erection of wing dams, has deepened the channel 
so that even the large steamers put on by the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany during the past year or two very rarely have trouble, and 
there is a prospect that in the near future, the channel will be deep- 
ened by the government and state to nine feet, as far as this city. 

Undoubtedly the Russians were the first to navigate the river, as 
they had posts at Fort Ross and Bodega, and were engaged in trade 
in tallow, hides, furs, etc., and were in this region prior to 1840, trading 


in the interior up to the time they sold out to Captain Sutter. At 
that time, also, there was in this section an agency of the Hudson 
Bay Company. In 1841 the Russians sold out to Sutter, including 
a small schooner of forty tons burden. The first record we have of 
its appearance up the river was in August of that year, although 
it had probably made voyages on the river prior to that. After the 
purchase, by the terms of which Sutter was to furnish a certain 
amount of grain each year to the Russian settlements, this schooner, 
manned by Sutter's Indians, made regular trips. She was taken down 
to San Francisco in 1848, to carry thither the news of the discovery 
of gold, and continued to be the largest schooner on the river until 
the trade to the mines began. At that time the voyage from New 
Helvetia, as this city was then called, to San Francisco and back 
took from two to four weeks. 

In the spring of 1848 the rush for gold set in, and the San Fran- 
cisco Star of May 20th sarcastically alluded to it as follows: "Fleet 
of launches left this place on Sunday and Monday last, bound 'up the 
Sacramento river,' closely stowed with human beings led by the love 
of filthy lucre to the perennial-yielding gold mines of the north, where 
'a man can find upward of two ounces a day' and 'two thousand men 
can find their hands full'^of hard work." May 27th, the Star said: 
"Launches have plied without cessation between this place and New 
Helvetia, during this time (from the discovery of gold). The Sacra- 
mento, a first-class craft, left here Thursday last, thronged with pas- 
sengers for the gold mines — a motley assemblage, composed of law- 
yers, merchants, grocers, carpenters, cartmen and cooks, all possessed 
with the desire of becoming suddenly rich." At the same time it 
stated that over three hundred men were engaged in washing out 
gold, and parties from all over the country were constantly arriving. 
On account of the departure of her principal citizens for the gold 
mines, San Francisco soon assumed a desolate appearance. A quar- 
ter of a million in gold was taken to that citv in the first eight weeks,- 
and during the second eight weeks, $600,000 worth. By September 
six thousand persons were at the diggings, and the editor of the Star 
exclaimed: "An export at last, and it is gold." 

In April, 1849, the schooner Providence, one hundred tons, Hinck- 
ley, master, came up the river, and the Eliodora, purchased by Sam 
Brannan and loaded with goods, started up the river. The Joven 
Guipuzcoana, a Peruvian vessel, and other large sailing vessels of 
first class dimensions followed. At that time there were about a 
dozen stores and tenements here. On the success of the Joven Guip- 
uzcoana were founded the plans of the first steam navie'ation com- 
panies, and the McKim and the Senator soon followed. In May the 
crowning success with sailing vessels came with the trip of the bark 
Whiton, Gelston, master, in seventy-two hours from San Francisco. 
She was of two hundred forty-one tons burden, and came with her 


royal yards crossed, without any detention, although she drew nine 
and one-half feet of water. 

The first steamboat that plowed the waters of either the bay or 
river was one that arrived in San E^rancisco, October 14, 1847, owned 
by Captain Leidesdorff and packed on a Russian bark from Sitka. 
Leidesdorff had for seven years carried on trade with the Russians, 
and hearing that they had a small steamboat, he sent up and pur- 
chased it for his hide and tallow commerce on the small streams run- 
ning into the bay. It did not exceed forty tons burden, was put 
together under the lee of Yerba Buena island, and was named the 
Little Sitka. She was cranky, and the weight of a person on her 
guards would throw one wheel out of order. Her second trip for 
business was to Sacramento, where she remained for a month, her 
proprietor insisting in answer to the jibes launched at him, that he 
would soon make the smoke fly on the bay, and hand the name of his 
first steamboat "down to dexterity" as he pronounced it. She was 
swamped by a norther in San Francisco bay in February, 1848, was 
raised and the engine taken out, and was transformed into a sailing 
vessel. A steamer brought around the Horn and put together at 
Benicia, made a trip to this city August 17, 1849, and another one 
from Philadelphia began on August 25th, to ply on the river, accom- 
modating about thirty passengers and steaming "about seven knots 
an hour." 

About the first boat advertising for regular runs on the river 
appears to have been the Sacramento, in September, 1849, commanded 
by Captain Van Pelt, and carrjdng one hundred passengers, besides 
freight. She was built opposite the city, where Washington now 
stands, and Van Pelt made regular trips down to "New York of the 
Pacific," where passengers and freight had to be transferred. About 
the same time a little steam dredge, brought out by the Yerba com- 
pany, was set up on a scow, and started on a trip up the Feather 
river, carrying a number of bricks, at one dollar apiece, for freight, 
and lumber at $150 per thousand. Two months after her arrival she 
was sold for $40,000 at auction. The next boat was the Mint, also 
a small one, and really the first boat to make successful regular trips 
with i^assengers and freight to and from San Francisco, beginning 
in October, 1849. 

A little steamer named the Washington was the first to ascend 
the river as far as Vernon, at the month of the Feather river, and 
she afterwards made regular tri]-)s to that point. In 1850 the Aetna, 
another small steamer, ascended the American as far as Norristown, 
the first time a steamer had ever reached that point. Mav 8, 1850, 
the Jack Hays reached Redding, at the headwaters of the Sacra- 
mento river, within forty-five miles of the Trinity Diggings. The 
little steamboat Linde was among the first to take a place between 
here and Yuba Citv, in the fall of 1849. 


The steamer New AVorld was built iu New York in the fall of 1849 
and spring of 1850, purposely for a trip to California. She was 320 
feet long, and of 530 tons burden. William H. Brown was the pro- 
prietor, and as he became financially embarrassed, he was forced to 
take the sheriff into silent partnership. The latter placed deputies 
on board to remain during the launching, and to make things sure, 
went on board himself, being unknown to Ed Wakeman, the captain. 
The vessel was held in the port of New York, the launching being 
ostensibly for the purpose of getting the boat into the water only, 
but steam was raised previous to the launching. When the sheriff 
asked what it meant, he was informed that it was "to wear the rust 
off the bearings and see that the engine worked well." But after 
steaming around the harbor for awhile, the captain put to sea, against 
the protests of the sheriff. As the captain and crew were more 
numerous than the sheriff and his deputies, they put the latter on 
shore in rowboats, and came to California around Cape Horn, making 
a fine voyage, and arriving in San Francisco July 11, 1850. The 
New World and the Senator made alternate trips to Sacramento for 
a long time. Afterwards, the New World was employed in the coast- 
ing and ocean trade and later was overhauled and put into service 
at San Francisco as a magnificent ferryboat, and used as such for 
many years. The Senator was an ocean steamer and arrived in Sac- 
ramento November 6, 1849, with a load of passengers and freight. 
She was 755 tons measurement, and drew nine and a half feet of 
water. The steamer Miner brought passengers and freight in De- 
cember, and afterwards continued her trips to Mecklenlierg, now 
Marys\'ille, on the Feather river. 

In 1850 there were twenty-eight steamers in operation on the 
Sacramento and Feather rivers, and in the same year twenty-three 
barks, nineteen brigs and twenty-one lirigantines arrived in Sacra- 

The California Steam Navigation Company was organized in 
March, 1854, with a capital stock of $2,500,000, and began operations 
on the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, with a large number of 
steamboats. In 1850 the company launched the Chrysopolis, 1625 tons 
measurement, and the largest steamer ever run on the river until the 
Seminole and Navajo were placed on the route in 1911. 

In 1867 the steamers operating on the river and its tributaries 
were as follows: eleven steamers to San Francisco; three steamers 
to Knight's Landing; two steamers to Red Bluff; one steamer to 
Chico; one steamer to Colusa; one steamer to Princeton; one steamer 
to Cache Creek, and three steamers to Marysville. In 1867 one hun- 
dred and three steamers arrived in Sacramento. 

In 1869, when the Central Pacific railroad was completed, that 
company bought out the California Steam Navigation Company, and 
for years the Southern Pacific Company has been operating the line 


of steamers. The mail boats leaving for San Francisco in the morn- 
ing are the Apache and Modoc. During the year 1911 two magnifi- 
cent floating palaces, the Navajo and the Seminole, were put on, 
leaving this city in the evening. 

The Sacramento Wood Company was organized May 1, 1869, with 
the late Captain Thomas Dwyer as president, and the late Captain 
J. H. Eoberts as secretary. The company put on the steamer San 
Joaquin No. 1, and several barges, and engaged in general freight 
business between San Francisco and Butte City, one hundred and 
eighteen miles above Sacramento. During the '70s the company added 
three steamers to its fleet — the Varuna, San Joaquin No. l!, and San 
Joaquin No. 3, and extended its route to Mcintosh's Landing, one 
hundred and sixty miles above this city. It also operated seven 
barges and had several traction engines of the Roberts-Doane pat- 
tern, running from the foothills on both sides of the river, carrying 
grain from these distant points to the river landings for shipment on 
the comjDany's barges to tidewater. Each engine drew a train of from 
fifteen to twenty wagons over the county roads, the capacity of each 
wagon being about six tons. 

The Sacramento Transportation Company was organized in 1882, 
succeeding the Sacramento Wood Company, and under the same man- 
agement. It is now operating seven steamers and twenty-three barges 
in the grain-carrying trade between points on the Upper Sacramento 
river and Port Costa and San Francisco, and also in freighting at the 
various landings along the river as far as Red Bluff. In tlie low 
water season the company's steamers and barges are only alile to 
ascend as far as Chieo Landing, one hundred and forty-eight miles 
above Sacramento. 

In 1874 the firm of Miller and Eaton placed two steamers and 
several barges on the Upper Sacramento in the grain-carrying busi- 
ness. In the same year Messrs. D. E. Knight, N. D. Rideout and 
W. T. Ellis, prominent Marysville citizens, established a weekly 
freighting service between Marysville and San Francisco. They had 
two steamers and several barges in service, and continued in the 
business till 1889. 

In 1875 the California Transportation Company was organized, 
with Capt. A. Nelson as president and Capt. N. Anderson as secre- 
tary. The two captains, as far back as 1856, had schooners on the 
river, and in 1866 began to operate the steamer Reform. On its 
organization the California Transportation Company put several 
steamers in service between Clarksburg and San Francisco and also 
on the lower tributaries, engaging heavily in the transportation of 
fruits, vegetables and perishable products generally, which the river 
lands below the city produce so bountifully. They also, in October, 
1907, established a freight and passenger service between Sacramento 
and San Francisco. The Chin-Du-Wan and S. M. Whipple were also 


steamers in tlie river service in the '70s, and the calliope of the former 
woke the echoes along the river for a number of years. 

In 1901 the Farmers' Transportation Company was organized and 
one steamer was put on the run between Colusa and San Francisco. 
The Lauritzen brothers' Weitchpec; the Oriole and Sea Gull, L. M. 
Brainard & Son, owners; the Sentinel, H. W. Crosbj^, owner; the 
Gretta A. and Albatross, Liuggi Bros., owners ; the San Jose, Stand- 
ard Oil Company, owner; the Neponset, No. 2, a trading boat, Ryan 
& Cleary, owners, and a number of schooners, are operating on the 
river, in addition to the boats of the organizations mentioned. 

An immense amount of produce of all kinds is transported on 
the river. Indeed, the statement has been made that the Sacramento 
river carries as great an annual tonnage as the Mississippi. It is 
an inspiring sight to see a steamer towing barges loaded with eight 
hundred tons of wheat each, when the stage of the river will permit 
loading to that amount, and gives the beholder a practical illustration 
of the bounteous production of the valley uplands. 

But the tale of the river is not all one of prosperity. Steamboat 
explosions and other accidents were fretjuent in the early days, and 
some of them were very disastrous. The machinery was often defect- 
ive in those days. During the first few years subsequent to the dis- 
covery of gold and the introduction of steam vessels into the state, 
it was estimated that on San Francisco bay and its tributaries alone, 
there were two or three explosions a week. Indeed, they became so 
common that the newspapers ceased to give details unless they were 
peculiarly disastrous. 

The first explosion of which there is any account was that of the 
steamer Fawn, which occurred August 18, 1850, and the Sagamore 
suffered similarly in the following October, the Major Tompkins fol- 
lowing, January' 23, 1851. During the early part of 1853, the Jack 
Hays was overhauled and repaired expressly for the traffic between 
Sacramento and Marysville, in opposition to the Governor Dana, 
and was renamed R. K. Page. On her first trip up the river, March 
23rd, she came alongside of her opponent and the crew and passengers 
began cheering, each one hurrahing for his boat. They began racing, 
and the engineer of the Page tossed in a barrel of oil. As they were 
passing Nicolaus her boiler exploded, being driven forward. Daniel 
Moore, the former captain of the boat, Thomas Kirbey and Lieut. 
Harry Moore were standing on the hurricane deck, and were never 
seen afterward. 

The Jennie Lind, while on a trip to Alviso, on San Francisco bay. 
suffered a terrible explosion April 11, 1853. Between forty and fifty 
of her passengers, most of whom were at dinner at the time, were 
killed or badly scalded. 

On October 18, 1853, the boiler of the American Eagle exploded, 
on the San Joaquin river, at a point known as the Three Sloughs. 



twenty-five miles below Stockton, rending the vessel to pieces, killing 
one of the crew and three passengers. There were fifty-three pas- 
sengers on board, and Hardiston was the captain. On the afternoon 
of the same day the steamer Stockton, while passing New York land- 
ing, burst its boiler, killing one person and scalding eight more. One 
of the latter, Capt. J. B. Sharp, died the next day. 

The Sanger's boiler exploded on January 8, 1854, on San Fran- 
cisco bay, killing three and scalding severely five more, and wrecking 
the vessel. On the 10th of the same month a boiler of the Helen 
Hensley exploded at San Francisco, just as she was going to leave 
for Benicia, and killed two men. One passenger was thrown upon a 
bed, and, with it, clear over upon the wharf. He picked himself up 
and coolly remarked that he guessed he would not go to Benicia that 
day. The Secretary, Capt. E. W. Travis, exploded April 15, 1854, 
when between the islands in San Francisco bay known as the "Broth- 
ers and Sisters." She was racing with the Nevada, and the engineer 
was seen to lay an oar across the lever of the safety valve, and that 
was bending up just before the explosion took place. Of sixty per- 
sons on board, sixteen were killed and thirty-one wounded. The 
Nevada picked up the survivors. 

The Pearl, of the Combination Line, burst a boiler January 27, 
1855, just below the mouth of the American river, on her way from 
Marysville, and while racing the Enterprise of the Citizens' Line. 
There were ninety-three persons on board, and fifty-six were killed, 
including the captain, E. T. Davis. Most of the passengers were on 
the front part of the boat, as she approached the landing. James 
Eobinson would have been drowned had not a large • bloodhound 
jumped into the water and saved him. Of four ladies on board, none 
were injured, but the vessel was a total wreck. The legislature, which 
was in session, adjourned in consequence of the terrible event. 

On February 5, 1856, the Belle, running between San Francisco 
and Marysville, exploded her boiler, when about nine miles above this 
city. The captain, Charles H. Houston, was killed, as well as between 
twenty and thirty others. The steamer G-eneral Eedington, which 
was coming down the river, picked up the survivors, and the vessel 
sunk almost immediately. 

On August 25, 1861, the boiler of the J. A. McClelland, Capt. C 
Mills commanding, exploded when about six miles by water and two 
by land from Knight's Landing. There were about thirty persons on 
board, and fifteen were killed outright, several fatally injured and 
all the rest but one were more or less injured. The whole forward 
portion of the deck was torn away, and a large piece of the boiler 
was rolled up like a piece of paper and thrown across the river, a 
distance of two hundred or three hundred yards. Sheldon S. Bald- 
win, the pilot, was blown into the air with the pilothouse and several 
companions. He averred that he must have gone up at least two 


Irandred feet, and came strais'lit down into the place where the l)oiler 
had lieen, "not much hurt." The hnll, which sank immediately after- 
wards, was raised, the vessel rebuilt, christened the Rainbow, ran for 
a time as a strong opposition boat, and was finally bought off by the 
Steam Navigation Company. 

The Washoe exploded a boiler September 5, 1864, thirty-five 
miles below this city, and ten miles above Rio Vista, with about one 
hundred seventy-five people on board, killing about half of them and 
severely injuring more than half of the remainder. Capt. Albert 
Foster, with the steamer Antelope, picked up the survivors and 
hastened toward Sacramento, but ran aground on a bar opposite R 
street and was delayed there for some hours. Captain Foster tolled 
the bell to notify the citizens of the disaster, and the levee was crowded 
with anxious people, the fire bells having been tolled in response to 
his notice. 

The Yosemite, Capt. Poole, suffered an explosion of a boiler 
on the first revolution of her wheels, as she left the wharf at Rio 
Vista October 12, 18fi5, with about one hundred fifty people on board. 
The cause of the explosion was defective iron, all the best iron having 
been ke]it in the east during the war for military purposes. About 
one hundred lives were lost, thirty-two of them being Chinamen. 
The bulkheads were too strong to permit the steam to expand into 
the hull, so it iiushed upward, making a great vacancy, into which 
the iieoi^le fell. Ca])tain Fourat, who recently retired from the river, 
pensioned by the Southern Pacific Company, was the pilot on that 
occasion, and the steamer Chrysojiolis, upward bound, brought the 
dead and wounded to this city. 

The Julia exploded in San Francisco bay, nearly opposite Al- 
catraz, in September, 1866, while rounding it on her return trip to 
Stockton. Thirteen were killed, among them the engineer, Mr. Long. 
Captain Fourat, being near with a boat, picked up some of the dead. 
There have been a number of minor accidents, but conditions have 
so improved in these days that serious ones seldom happen. 

A river tragedy which occurred more than fifty years ago, bring- 
ing death to thirty, the evidence of which the waters of the Sacra- 
mento river have covered for years, was brought to mind again when 
the buckets of the dredger Vulcan, working at the Monument ranch 
eight miles up the river brought u]i the boxing of the shaft of the 
steamboat Belle which was blown to ])ieces at that spot in the late 
'50s by an explosion of the boilers. 

Coated with quartz, rusted in i)laces but still in fair sha]ie con- 
sidering its long immersion, the boxing is one of the few relics which 
have ever been discovered from the remains of the Belle. 

The steamer Belle, Capt. Charles H. Houston in command, left 
tliis city Fel)ruary 5, 1856, for Red Bluff with sixty souls aboard. 
When opposite the jiresent Monument ranch the boilers exploded with- 


out auy warning. The Belle was shattered from stem to stern and all 
but forty feet of the rear end of the boat sank immediately. The pas- 
sengers, men, women and children, were blown into the water, many 
frightfully mangled. Thirty-two were saved out of the total sail- 
ing list. 

There was some lively opposition in the river traffic in the early 
days, it proving so profitable to the owners of vessels and steamers. 
The steam propeller McKim, of 326 tons, came to Sacramento in Sep- 
tember, 1849. On her arrival the citizens turned out as for a holiday, 
and joined in an ovation to the first "big" steamer that had arrived 
here. One of her trips, under Captain Maey, brought the owners 
$16,000. The Senator, of 755 tons, arrived in this city on November 
6 of the same year. The fare at that time was only $30; berths $5, 
and meals for cabin passengers, $1.50. When trade opened in the 
winter, lively opposition began, one set of agents on the wharf ex- 
tolling the merits of the McKim above all the other boats, and 
another saying that the McKim was a "scow" and a "junk," and 
that the Senator and New World were the only boats for speed and 
safety. The competition benefited travelers by reducing the fare, and 
many other steamers coming on the river, in 1851 the fare had been 
reduced to one dollar. 

On September 18, 1851, the steamer Comanche was launched 
on the l^olo side of the river. In 1855 the Defender came up and found 
no place for her to land; she finally moored to the hulk Dimon. A 
few minutes afterwards the steamer Pike, also tied to the Damon, 
swung out into the river, and the Defender took her place. It was 
found that the gangway had been boarded up, but the deckhands soon 
o])ened a way with their axes, and the passengers and freight were 
discliarged. When the time for the departure of the Defender ap- 
])roaelied, a band began to discourse music, to entice passengers on 
board. A few minutes afterward a small steamer in the stream 
began to sound her shrill whistle, drowning the music of the band, 
stoii]3ing when it stojiped and beginning again when it began to play. 
The ])eo)ile on shore cursed the steamer, but soon a man and two boys 
armed with Chinese gongs essayed to rival the band and the steamer. 
The noise became so strenuous that Judge Morrison was obliged to 
adjourn his court. Such scenes were not uncommon in the early days 
of competition. 


Although a bridge over the Sacramento river is spoken of prior 
to 1857, there is no record extant that we have found indicating when 
or by whom it was built, or whether or not there was more than one. 

By an act approved by the California legislature, however, April 
3, 1857, the Sacramento and Yolo Bridge Company was incorporated, 
consisting- of Johnson Price, V. E. Geiger and George Years, to erect 


a toll bridge across the Sacramento river from Broad street, in Sac- 
ramento county, to Ann street, in Washington, Yolo county. The 
drawbridge was not to be less than sixty feet wide for the passage 
of vessels, and the bridge must be completed within two years. At 
12 M., September 18, 1857, the first pile for the bridge was driven. 
The bridge was eight hundred feet long, was built on five piers, sup- 
ported by six hundred piles, at least twelve inches in diameter and 
driven thirty feet to the solid river bed. It was of Leonard's patent, 
four spans of one hundred thirty-five feet each, the draw when opened 
having two spaces of seventy-five feet each. It was completed and 
opened for traffic June 27, 1858, and cost $60,000. 

The California Pacific Company began the construction of a new 
bridge on the Howe truss i^attern, October 2, 1869, in order to allow 
its cars to cross the river and enter Sacramento. While the bridge 
was being built the steamer Belle ran as a ferry boat. The draw to 
this bridge was two hundred feet long, leaving an opening on each 
side seventy feet clear. The bridge was completed January 15, 1870, 
and on that day William Rowan, chief engineer, ran across on the 
engine Sacramento. This bridge was rebuilt by the Central Pacific 
railway in 1878, the draw being swung into place on December 5th 
of that year, and the bridge opened for traffic the next day. These 
bridges were of one story, the trains and wagon tracks occupying the 
same level, and flagmen gaiarding each end in order to promote the 
safety of those traveling in wagons. The railroad company had pur- 
chased the bridge of the Sacramento and Yolo Bridge Company in 
June, 1878. 

In 1893 the Southern Pacific Company and the counties of Yolo 
and Sacramento built a bridge jointly at the foot of H street. This 
bridge differed from the others in having two stories, the lower one 
on the street level, for the railroad trains, and the upper one for 
foot passengers and wagon traffic, elevated above the railroad tracks 
and with an inclined plane as an approach on the Sacramento side, 
running from Second street to the top of the bridge, and a similar 
approach on the Yolo side. A third approach ran from the top of 
the bridge, joining the Sacramento approach at that point and run- 
ning down to the Pioneer mill, thus enabling teams to get to the mill 
without crossing the network of tracks in the railroad company's 
yard. When the Pioneer mill went out of business this approach was 
taken down. This bridge stood until 1912, but as it had outlived its 
usefulness, a new bridge of steel was constructed by the Southern 
Pacific Company. The bridge until lately in use was to have been 
of steel, and the counties contributed to its cost with that understand- 
ing. The fact of its being constructed of wood was the cause of a 
Ions' controversy and litigation between the counties and the companv. 
One-hnlf of the $30,000 which the county had agreed to pay was paid 
at first, but the second half was refused, on the ground stated. The 


supreme court, however, held that as the county had used the bridge, 
it must pay for it, and the case was finally settled by payment in full. 

This bridge was completed in December, 1895, the total cost being 
$261,000, to which Sacramento covmty contributed, as stated, $30,000, 
and Yolo county $10,000. 

The new steel bridge constructed near the site of the one built 
in 18G9 is said to be one of the finest pieces of construction of its kind. 
Its cost is $786,000, which includes $161,671 for overhead construction 
of a highway for communication between Sacramento and Yolo coun- 
ties, and the structure and approach thereto. The width of the draw, 
when opened, is one hundred seventy feet, and the total weight of 
the bridge is 3389 tons. 

During the year 1910 the Northern Electric and Vallejo Northern 
electric roads combined to build a bridge across the' river. There was 
much discussion in relation to the site, as the river transportation 
companies claimed that if it were placed too close to the existing 
bridge there would be great danger of wreck to the boats plying on 
the river when it was at flood height. The board of supervisors de- 
bated the question at considerable length, but the war department, 
which controls the river, finally granted permission to the companies 
to build the bridge at the foot of M street, instead of P street, as 
desired by the transportation companies. The estimated cost of the 
bridge, which is of steel construction, is $380,000, but will probably 
amount to $400,000. The draw is one hundred seventy feet in width. 
Of the cost, it was agreed that Sacramento county should pay $118,- 
668, and Yolo county $33,333.33. Under a later agreement the Sac- 
ramento and Woodland road pays a proportion and the Antioch road 
will also probably do so, lessening the expense to the county. 


By Judge W. A. Anderson 


There could be nothing more instructive and interesting than the 
origin and development of the judicial system and the aids thereto 
by the bar of Sacramento City. In fact the history of the bench and 
bar of this' great state had its inception in Sacramento, where the 
great legal minds were located in the early history of the state. 

The southern part of the state was governed chiefly by the old 
system of Mexico ; but in Sacramento the common law was at once 
established, and common sense was at all times interwoven into the 
decrees and .iudgments, in the start somewhat crude in their con- 
struction, but very soon developed into a splendid system with the 


aid of the bright genius of the early members of the bar. In this 
sketch it will be our endeavor to give a brief reference to many of 
those brilliant men who have long since crossed the Dark Eiver, and 
who in their time labored in the local field for the betterment of the 
law and the administration of justice. 

Under Mexican rule the government of California was conducted 
under the laws of March 20th and May 23rd, 1837, and those laws 
were observed on the acquisition of the country by the United States, 
until the organization of the sta'te government. They provided for 
the selection of alcaldes, whose duties were to care for good order 
and public tranquility, to see that police regulations, laws and decrees 
were enforced, to provide for the apprehension of criminals, and in 
some cases to impose fines and imprisonment upon malefactors. There 
were also justices of the peace, who served as municipal and judicial 
officers. There was in the territory a superior tribunal, consisting 
of four judges and an attorney-general, which had the general review 
of cases tried before inferior courts. There were also courts of 
"First Instance," in which cases both criminal and civil were orig- 
inally brought. 

The first legislature, by an act passed March 16, 1850, divided 
the state into nine judicial districts and constituted the counties of 
Sacramento and Eldorado the sixth judicial district. Afterwards the 
counties of Sacramento and Y^olo composed that district, and it so 
existed until the taking elTeet of the constitution of 1879, which abol- 
ished that court. 

The same legislature, by an act ]iassed April 13, 1850, created 
a county court in each county, and by an act ap]iroved on the 11th day 
of that month, the court of sessions was created, to be composed of 
the county judge and two justices of the peace, who were to serve as 
associate justices. The latter were chosen by the justices of the 
peace of the county. That court had jurisdiction in cases of misde- 
meanor, and also exercised functions now performed by the board of 
supervisors, such as the supervision of claims against the county, 
and management of roads, etc. Subsequently the court of sessions 
was abolished and its jurisdiction vested in the county court. Its 
legislative and supervisorial powers were transferred to the board of 
supervisors. The present state constitution abolished all of these 
courts and provided for the organization of a superior court in the 
county, with two departments and two judges, with civil and criminal 

In the latter part of August, 1849, General B. Eiley, acting mili- 
tary governor of California, appointed James S. Thomas judge of 
the court of first instance, with criminal jurisdiction. On the 2nd of 
September, 1849, Thomas entered upon the duties of his office. A 
suit was instituted for the recovery of inoney. A summons was made 
returnable the same day at four o'clock, at which time judgment was 


entered and execution ordered. This gives some idea of the rapidity 
with which business, even of a judicial character, was transacted at 
that early period of Sacramento's history. On the 3rd of September, 
Judge Thomas appointed J. P. Rogers clerk of his court. The latter 
gentleman served in that capacity until tlie 19th of November follow- 
ing, and resigned, whereupon James R. Lawrence was appointed. He 
(jontinued until the 27th of December, at which time Presley Dunlap 
was appointed to the position. 

Judge Shannon opened his court for criminal Inisiness in Sep- 
tember, 1849. R. A. Wilson was appointed clerk, and S. C. Hastings, 
afterwards chief justice of the supreme court of the state and subse- 
quently attorney-general, also the founder of Hastings Law College, 
acted as prosecuting attorney. D. B. Hanner, who had been elected 
slieriff b.v the people in their primary capacity, attended both civil 
and criminal courts. The first case before Judge Shannon was a 
prosecution against a party for stealing a cow from Samuel Norris. 
During the trial defendant's counsel objected to the proceedings 
because they were not in conformity with the constitutional pro\'ision 
guaranteeing to every party accused of high crime, that before he 
could be put upon trial he must have been indicted by a grand jury. 
The court held that inasmuch as the defendant had not raised the 
question in the beginning of the case, he was deemed as waiving his 
right, and that the trial must proceed. The defendant was found 
guilty and fined two Irandred dollars and costs, which amounted to 
five hundred fifteen dollars; rather costly beef! 

About December 1, 1849, R. A. Wilson succeeded to the bench, 
vice Shannon, deceased. On January 11, 1850, he appointed A. J. 
MeCall clerk of his court for Sacramento, and on January 26th he 
appointed Stephen J. Field clerk of his court, to reside at Marysville. 
Mr. Field was afterwards supreme justice of the state of California, 
and associate justice of the supreme court of the United States. 
During the time Sacramento was flooded that winter, Wilson held his 
court at Marysville. The two courts alluded to did the judicial busi- 
ness of tlie district, both civil and criminal, until the organization of 
the judiciary under the state constitution. May 30, 1850. 

The first district judges were elected by the legislature March 
30, 1850, and James S. Thomas was elected judge of the sixth judicial 
district. He resigned November 9th following. Tod Robinson was 
api^ointed by the governor to succeed Judge Thomas January 2, 1851, 
and assumed office upon the eighth day of the same month. Ferris 
Forman succeeded Robinson by appointment on Aug:ust 13, 1851; and 
in September of the same year, Lewis Aldrich assumed the office. 
He resigned November 19, 1852, and A. C. Monson was appointed 
by Governor Bigler on November 26, 1852. Judge Monson took office 
on the first of December of that year. Monson had been elected at 
the general election on November 2, 1852. He resigned August 17, 


1857, and Governor Johnson, on the 3rd of September, 1857, appointed 
Charles T. Botts to succeed him. At the general election held Sep- 
tember 1, 1858, John H. McKune was elected, and was re-elected 
October 21, 1863. On October 20, 1869, Lewis Ramage was elected, 
and on October 20, 1875, Samuel C. Denson was elected. Judge Den- 
son served until the new constitution, abolishing the office, took effect. 

Judge Thomas, after his resignation, returned to the east, and 
died at St. Louis, in 1857 or '58. Robinson, who was a prominent 
member of the bar and belonged to a family of distinguished lawj-ers, 
died in San Mateo county, October 27, 1870. Forman was afterwards 
secretary of state. Judge Aldrich died at San Francisco, May 18, 
1885. Judge Monson moved east, and died there. Judge Botts was 
a brother of John Minor Botts. He had been a member of the first 
constitutional convention of the state and was afterwards state printer. 
He died in San Francisco, October 4, 1884. . Judge Ramage removed 
to Kansas City, and died there, February 14, 1879. Judge Denson 
was afterwards elected superior judge of Sacramento county, resigned 
that office, and is now engaged in the active practice of the law in 
San Francisco. 

As has been stated, the court of sessions was composed of the 
county judge and two associates. The latter were elected by a con- 
vention of the justices of the peace, held on the first Monday of 
October of each year, except the first convention, which was held 
May 20, 1850. C.C. Sackett and Charles H. Swift were then elected 
associates. The associates held office for two years. On November 
27, 1850, the county treasurer resigned, and Swift was appointed to 
fill the vacancy. James Brown was elected associate in his stead, and 
assumed the duties of his office February 7, 1851. On August 14th 
following, D. D. Bullock succeeded Brown. The last meeting of the 
court of sessions was held July 6, 1862. The following is a list of 
the subsequent judges of the court from Octoliei', 1851, to October, 
1862 : 

1851— E. J. Willis, judge; George Wilson and James R. Gates, 

1852-53 — E. J. Willis, judge; he resigned Novembei- 18th, and 
John Heard was appointed. James R. Gates and J. T. Day were 

1853-54 — John Heard, judge; H. Lockwood and B. D. Fry, asso- 

1855-56— John Heard, judge; S. N. Baker and C. C. Jenks, asso- 

1856-57 — Same. 

1858-59 — Robert Robinson, judge; James (*oggins and W. B. 
Whitesides, associates. 

1859-60— Robert Robinson, judge; James Coggins and Hodgkins, 


1860-61— Robert C. Clark, judge. 

1861-62 — Robert C. Clark, judge; James Coggins and George 
Cone, associates. 

After the abolishment of the court of sessions Judge ('lark 
continued county judge, was suecessiveh' elected to that ofifice and 
occupied it until the abolishment of the county court by the operation 
of the new constitution. The county court also exercised the func- 
tions of a probate court. 

Judge Willis left Sacramento and returned to the east in earl\' 
days. Wilson died in one of the northern counties of this state a 
number of years ago. Judges Day and Heard are dead. Judge Jenks 
removed to Oakland and held public office there. Judge Coggins died 
a number of years ago. Judge Cone was afterwards a member of the 
state legislature from this county, and is now dead. Judge Clark has 
been a senator and an assembljanan, and after the abolishment of the 
county court was elected, with Judge Denson, a judge of the superior 
court and held office until the time of his death. 

At the first election held under the new constitution, September 
3, 1879, Samuel C. Denson and Robert W. Clark were elected judges 
of the superior court of the county of Sacramento. Judge Denson 
resigned December 16, 1882, and on the 18th day of the same mouth. 
Governor Perkins appointed Thomas B. McFarland to fill the vacancy. 
The latter was elected by the people to succeed himself at the general 
election held November 4, 1884; and at the general election held 
November 2, 1886, Judge McFarland was elected one of the justices 
of the state supreme court. He resigned the office of superior judge, 
and Governor Stoneman, on December 31, 1886, appointed John W. 
Armstrong to the office. At the general election held November 6, 
1888, Armstrong was elected to succeed himself, and has been dead 
for some years. 

Judge Clark died January 27, 1883, and Governor Stoneman aj)- 
pointed John W. Armstrong to succeed him. At the general election 
held November 4, 1884, W. C. Van Fleet was elected for the full term. 
In 1890 A. P. Catlin and W. C. Van Fleet became judges of the 
superior court. Then came Catlin and Matt F. Johnson, Judge Van 
Fleet having become a member of the supreme court. In 1895 a third 
court was created by the legislature, and Governor James H. Rudd 
appointed Add C. Hinkson as the judge thereof. Judge Hinkson died 
in this city in July, 1911. At the next election, J. W. Hughes and 
E. C. Hart, with Judge Matt F. Johnson, were elected. Judge John- 
son died during his term, and Governor Budd appointed Peter J. 
Shields in his place. The bench then consisted of Hughes, Hart and 
Shields. Judge Hart became a member of the appellate court, third 
district, and Governor Pardee appointed C. N. Post to the vacancy 
thus created. At the succeeding election Judges Post, Shields and 
Hughes were elected, and are now on the bench. 


Courts in the early days were very crude affairs in their manner 
of adjudicating the rights of litigants. Justice's courts are proverbial 
at times for their quaint way of administering justice. It is before 
one of these august tribunals that we recall a case that occurred at 
Mormon Island in this county in 1851, in which A. P. Catlin perpe- 
ti-ated a great trick upon S. W. Sanderson, a young attorney of 
Coloma, Eldorado county. It seemed that Sanderson's clients were 
working an old river bed, and constructing a dam for that purpose. 
Catlin desired to stop this work, and conceived the idea of hoodwink- 
ing the old justice of the peace to grant an injunction to stop the work. 
Acting upon the thought, he gravely proceeded to secure an injunction 
and had it served and enforced. Sanderson was sent for, and came 
before the justice armed with books and authorities and tried to con- 
vince him that he had no jurisdiction of such eases, and appealed to 
Catlin not to impose on the court. Catlin looked wise and approvingly 
of the court's procedure, which made the old justice obdurate, and he 
stuck to his injunction. Sanderson left for the county seat in a tow- 
ering rage to secure proper relief, but before he could secure the same 
the object Catlin had in view had been accomplished by the justice's 

It may not be generally known, that in the early history of Cali- 
fornia other crimes than murder were, by statute, made punishable 
by death, but such is the fact. On the 14th day of April, 1852, George 
Tanner was tried in the court of sessions of Yuba county for the 
crime of grand larceny, in having stolen flour, potatoes, etc., of the 
value of $400. The verdict of the jury was "guilty of grand larceny, 
punishable with death." The defendant appealed to the supreme 
court, which affirmed the judgment, and the prisoner was executed 
July 13, 1852. Chief Justice Murray delivered the opinion of the 
court and evidently did not concur with the principles of law, for 
after setting forth the statute, he used the following language: "It 
is not our purpose to discuss the policy of this law, although we regret 
that our legislature has considered it necessary to thus retrograde, 
and in the face of the wisdom and experience of the present day, 
resort to a punishment for a less crime than murder, which is alike 
disgusting and abhorrent to the common sense of every enlightened 
people. ' ' 

In connection with the reference to Paschal H. Coggins, the fol- 
lowing novel case is quoted : A remarkable case of mistaken identity 
was recently related by attorney Paschal H. Coggins before the 
Medical Juris]irudence Society in Philadelphia, as having come under 
his personal observation. Two men — John A. Mason, of Boston, and 
John A. Mason, of Illinois — left their respective homes and went to 
California in search of health and wealth. They were both wagon- 
makers. One left a wife and two sons in Boston, and the other a wife 
and two daughters in Illinois. The Boston wife heard nothing of her 


husband after three years' absence, and twenty years hiter lieard of 
the death of John A. Mason, a wagon-maker. She brought suit for 
his property, his photograph was identified by twenty witnesses, but 
at the last moment the Illinois wife turned up and proved tliat the 
man was her husband, and the later developments showed tliat the 
Boston pioneer died alone and friendless. — N. Y. Graphic. 

Upon this the Themis comments as follows: "The Coggins re- 
ferred to was a resident of this city, and at one time a law partner 
of Creed Haymond. He was also a justice of the peace here, married 
a daughter of one of our pioneer citizens, and afterward removed to 
Philadel])hia, where he has since resided. He is a son of Paschal 
Coggins, at one time one of the editors of the Sacramento Union, 
and who represented this county two terras in the assembly. Coggins 
Sr., ran for congress against H. P. Page in 1872, on the Independent 
ticket. The case referred to was that of Supervisor John A. Mason, 
of this city. It was certainly one of the most remarkable cases that 
ever came up in court, but the statement in the Graphic is not 
strictly correct. The case was tried before the late Judge Clark. In 
the contest Haymond and Coggins appeared for the lady contestant, 
and the late George Cadwalader and W. A. Anderson for the will. It 
was developed that there were two John A. Masons; that they fol- 
lowed the same trade — carriage making; and that they came to Cali- 
fornia about the same time; one, however, by steamer, and the other 
overland. By a strange coincidence the Mr. Coggins referred to was 
a passenger on the same steamer with the Mason who came by sea, 
and he was referred to in the printed passenger list as an "infant." 
It further developed that the two Masons worked at their trades in 
the same block in Sacramento cit.v — Third street between I and J. 
After the death of Supervisor Mason, his sons, grown men, applied 
for letters on his estate; their issuance was contested by a lady and two 
grown daughters, who claimed to be the wife and offspring of Mason. 
There is no doubt that the contest was in good faith and that the lady 
believed that the deceased was her husband. The testimony, however, 
developed that there must have been two John A. Masons, and that 
the husband of the lady contestant had, like many other of the Cali- 
fornia argonauts, disappeared long years ago. It was strange that 
the photographs of Supervisor Mason were identified by his mother 
and other relatives in Massachusetts, and that the same jjictures 
were identified by prominent citizens of Illinois as being the other 
Mason. Judge Clark held against the contestants, but said that there 
was no doubt of the good faith of their contest." 


Gen. H. W. Halleck; A. C. Peachy; Billings; Hum- 
phrey Griffith; E. B. Crocker; William S. Long; John Hereford; 
Al. Hereford; E. J. C. Kewen; John H. Hardy; Hal Clayton; B. F. 


Ankeny; James H. Ralston; F. S. Mumforcl; Col. E. D. Baker; Henry 
Meredith; Judge Silas W. Sanderson; Col. J. C. Zabriskie; P. W. S. 
Rayle; John R. McConnell; Daniel J. Thomas; Judge A. C. Monson; 
Gregory Yale; John C. Burch; Judge Charles T. Botts; D. R. 
Sample; Theron Reed; Judge Lewis Aldrich; George H. Cartter; 
Tod Robinson; Robert Robinson; J. B. Harmon; R. H. Stanley; 
William H. Weeks; Thomas Sunderland; Milton S. Latham; Frank 
McConnell; Edward Sanders ; Judge W. C. Wallace; Judge W. T. Wal- 
lace; Morris M. Estee; Judge Robert F. Morrison; Murray Morrison; 
Col. L. Sanders; George W. Bowie; William I. Ferguson (killed in a 
duel by George Pen Johnston) ; J. Neely Johnson (once Governor) ; 
William Neely Johnson; John G. Hyer; Ferris Forman; Horace 
Smith; Philip C. Edwards (a pioueer of 1836) ; Thomas C. Edwards; 
Henry Hare Hartley; George E. Moore; D. W. Welty; Harris C. 
Harrison; James E. Smith; Judge Lewis Ramage; Joseph S. Wallis; 
F. H. Moore; Henry K. Snow; Henry C. McCreery; Judge Robert 
C. Clark; Judge John Heard; M. C. Tilden; Henry Edgerton'j W. B. C. 
Brown ; James C. Goods ; Presley Dunlap ; James W. Coffroth ; George 
Cadwalader; J. G. Severance; George A. Blanchard; J. C. Tubbs; 
Ed. F. Taylor; Joseph AV. Winans; Samuel Cross; Judge H. 0. 
Beatty; G.'w. Spaulding; S. L. Rogers; N. Greene Curtis; W. T. 
Hinkson; W. P. Harlow; W. B. G. Keller; Judge Matt F. Johnson; 
Judge A. P. Catlin; Judge John H. McKune; James L. English; 
Charles A. Waring; Peter J. Hopper; Judge C. G. W. French; 
Thomas Conger; Thomas W. Gilmer; Peter Hanmm: I. S. Brown; 
W. R. Cantwell; Thomas J. Clunie; Henry Stan-; Judge Add C. 
Hinkson; George G. Davis; A. C. Freeman; Henry C. Ross; Jay R. 
Brown; Judge Thomas B. McFarland; Albert M. Johnson; Edward 
Dwyer; Alvin J. Bruner; Creed Ha>anond; A. L. Hart; L. S. Taylor; 
F. D. Ryan; Jud C. Brusie; J. P. Counts; James B. Devine; Tsaao 
Joseph; W. S. Mesick; Ed. M. Martin; Henry L. Buckley. 


W. A. Anderson (ex-police judge) ; Eugene Aram; J. W. Adams; 
Frank F. Atkinson; C. W. Baker; Charles M. Beckwith; J. J. Bauer; 
C. H. S. Bidwell; Charles 0. Busick; Charles A. Bliss; Hugh B. 
Bradford; J. W. S. Butler (Butler & Swisler) ; J. Frank Brown; Jolin 
Q. Brown; W. J. Carragher; Thomas B. Christianson ; J. D. Cornell; 
R. M. Clarken; Charles H. Crocker; H. C. Cline; S. W. Cross; J. S. 
Daly; A. A. DeLigne (DeLigne & Jones) ; H. S. Derby; W. H. Devlin; 
R. t. Devlin; Alfred Dalton, Jr.; S. W. Downey (Downey & Pullen) ; 
P. S. Driver; B. F. Driver; C. H. Dunn; C. A. Elliott; W. F. George, 
L. J. Hinsdale (George & Hinsdale); W. A. Gett; Green & Smith; 
Charles B. Harris, John C. March (Harris & March) ; A. L. Hart, Jr.; 
S. H. Hart; Joseph E. Pipher, J. V. Hart (Hart & Pipher) ; L. T. Hat- 
field; Victor L. Hatfield; C. C. Holl, S. S. Holl (Holl & Holl) ; O. G. 


Hopkins; S. Luke Howe; W. S. Howe; W. B. Howard; Hume & Art; 
J. R. Hughes, Hugh B. Bradford (Hughes & Bradford) ; J. M. Innum; 
John B. Insh; H. E. Johnstone; J. ('harles Jones; P. H. Jolmson 
(Johnson & Lemmon) ; John W. Johnston; Grove L. Johnson; C. T. 
Jones; S. H. Jones; R. T. McKisick, W. E. Kleinsorge (Kleinsorge & 
McKisick) ; W. A. Latta; T. B. Leeper; A. H. McCurdy; Meredith & 
Landis; C. F. Metteer; W. T. Phipps; W. B. Pittman; R. Platnauer; 
J. F. Pullen; J. 0. Prewett ; W. F. Renf ro ; A. B. Re^Tiolds ; A. M. 
Seymour; Shelly, Hoag & Leeper; A. L. Shinn; C. Q. Shinn; C. 
Simon; E. A. Sloss; Albert D. Smith; E. G. Soule; H. G. Soule; H. H. 
Sydenham; C. E. Swezy; A. R. Tabor; C. W. Thomas, Jr.; J. C. 
Thomas; M. S. Wahrhaftig; B. G. White; Clinton L. White, Artlinr E. 
Miller, C. E. McLaughlin (White, Miller & McLaughlin) ; Arcliihald 
Yell (Seymour & Yell); Martin I. Welch; Z. F. Wharton. 



By Judge TV. A. Anderson 

If we should eliminate from our history tlie lawyer and what he 
lias done, we would rob it of the greater part of its glory. Remove 
from our society today the lawyer, with the work tliat he does, and 
you will leave that society as dry and shiftless as the sands that 
sweep over Sahara. The lawyer is needed in the legislature, in con- 
gress ; every business man needs him ; in fact he is a necessary adjunct 
to every department of Iranian life. Sacramento City had its great 
men in the past; great law>-ers, great public men, great politicians. 
It makes very little difference whether a man's fame runs around the 
earth, or only goes to the limits of his residence. The world soon 
forgets even the most conspicuous fame. How many "immortals" 
have been totally lost to the memory of man. Think of the great men 
of the past of ancient Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Egypt, Judea, Greece, 
Carthage, Rome, who were great in their day, and whose names have 
not been written or spoken for two thousand years. It is the rare 
and lucky man who arises from the flood of oblivion. The man who 
seeks immortality strives against awful odds, but that is an instinct 
in human nature which prom]its one to rebel against oblivion. In 
the few references made in this review, it has been my endeavor to 
rescue from oblivion some of the great geniuses who founded this 

While Newton Booth never engaged in the active practice of the 
law, he was a member of the bar. He became governor of the state, 
and United States senator. Milton S. Latham was governor and 
United States senator. J. Neely Johnson was governor; T. B. Mc- 
Farland was judge of the supreme court. Robert F. Morrison was 


chief justice of the supreme court; H. 0. Beatty was judge of the 
supreme court of Nevada. E. B. Crocker was supreme court justice, 
and the founder of the Crocker Art Gallery, which was donated by 
his widow to the city and is now one of the chief public attractions. 
C. G. W. French was chief justice of the supreme court of Arizona. 
Hiram W. Johnson removed his practice to San Francisco, and is now 
governor of this state. Creed Haymond was code commissioner and 
framed our present codes; also was state senator and afterward chief 
counsel for the Southern Pacific Company, and died in San Francisco 
many j^ears ago. He was one of the brilliant minds of the state. 
W. H. Beatty is now chief justice of the supreme court of California. 
W. C. Van Fleet is United States district judge at San Francisco. 
Robert T. Devlin until recently was United States district attorney 
and was at one time state senator from Sacramento. Cornelius Cole 
was congressman and United States senator. C*ol. E. D. Baker was 
United States senator from Oregon and was killed at Ball's Bluff 
as brigadier-general during the Rebellion. 

H. W. Halleck was during the Civil war the commander-in-chief 
of the Union armies under President Lincoln. 

Col. George W. Bowie, the law partner of A. P. Catlin, was, 
during the Civil war, a brigadier-general of volunteers and served on 
the border of Texas, Mexico and Arizona. 

E. J. C. Kewen was one of the pioneer attorneys and an orator 
of distinction. He was a southern man by birth, and had all the fire 
and vim of that clime. Colonel Kewen was an intimate friend of 
William Walker, who attempted to form a republic at Nicaragua and 
was Walker's financial agent. He finally located at Los Angeles, 
and died there, November 25, 1879. 

J. C. Zabriskie was the first city attorney of this city. He arrived 
in Sacramento in 1849 and later on was alcalde. In 1861 he removed 
to San Francisco, where he died, July 10, 1883. 

John T. Carey was district attorney of Sacramento county, and 
was appointed United States district attorney by President Cleveland. 
He is now practicing law in San Francisco. 

E. H. Heacock is now a resident of San Francisco, and has been 
for many years master in chancery of the United States courts. 

S. W. Sanderson was judge of the supreme court and resigned 
to accejit the position of cliief counsel for the Central Pacific Railway 

Thomas J. Clunie was state senator and member of congress. He 
removed to San Francisco and continued the practice of law until 
the time of his death. 

John K. Alexander was district attorney, and removed to Mon- 
terey and was for many years superior judge of that county. 

James C. Goods was district attorney for two terms, and was 
considered one of the best criminal lawyers in the state. 


Judge Henry Hare Hartley was oue of the leading lawyers of 
the .state, and a man of tlie most polished manners. 

George A. Blanchard, district attorney, afterwards superior judge 
of Colusa county, died on the threshold of a useful life; he was one 
of the bright minds of the profession, and a scholar and a courteous 

Frank D. Ryan, a native son and twice district attorney, also 
one of the lioard of commissioners of jniblic works, also assemblyman, 
was one of Sacramento's finest products. No man held a higher ])lace 
in the estimation of the public. H seemed like the cruelty of Fate 
to take him from earth at such an early time in his life, as he had 
but reached his prime when he died, in 1908. 

S. Solon Holl, who died in July, 1913, was considered the dean 
of the Sacramento bar. His life was full of great incidents. 

Grove L. Johnson, assembhnnan, senator and member of congress, 
is among the active practitioners at the bar of the state, and has lost 
nothing of his vigor and persistence, and is as ready for a forensic 
encounter as he was wont to be in his younger days. No man has a 
higher standing at the bar than Hon. Grove L. Johnson. Mr. Johnson 
can be considered the Nestor of the bar. 

Clinton L. White can also be recorded as one of the old leaders 
at the bar. Once our mayor, and a good one at that, he prides him- 
self upon his devotion to the practice of the honorable profession. 
His firm. White, Miller & McLanghlin, stands foremost among the 
liractitioners in this state. 

Gen. A. L. Hart, at one time attorney-general of the state, was 
considered one of the best nisi pritis lawyers on the coast. His un- 
timely death was a shock to the profession. No man held a higher 
place in the hearts of the members of the bar and the public. 

Judge Add C. Hinkson, who for many years was city superin- 
tendent of schools, and superior judge, in 1912 answered the final roll 
call and crossed over the Dark River. 

Tod Robinson, H. 0. Beatty and J. B. Haggin were law i)artner8 
in 1853, in this city. This partnership lasted about three years. 
Judge Beatty went to Nevada and was elected chief justice of the 
state. J. B. Haggin, one of the owners of the Haggin grant, resided 
in New York. Tod Robinson located at San Francisco. 

George Cadwalader. a ]Honeer and in early days a mercliant, 
in 1855 entered the law office of Col. Philip L. Edwards as a student of 
law. Mr. Cadwalader had a splendid practice and never sought any 
political office, although he took active part in party politics on some 
occasions. He also wrote some elegant verses. He removed to San 
Francisco in 1884, and lived but about one year thereafter. The 
supreme court reports contain the name of George Cadwalader in a 
multitude of actions. Robert T. Devlin and Clinton L. White were 
students under Mr. Cadwalader. During his student career, Clinton 


L. White wrote one of the ablest briefs in the matter of the estate 
of Tliurston, involving some of the most intricate questions of law. 
The line of argument in the brief was adopted by the supreme court. 
The writer, W. A. Anderson, was an associate of George Cadwalader 
in the practice of the law for over thirteen years. 

A. C. Freeman long enjoyed a national reputation as an author 
of law books. His advent into the practice of law was as deputy 
district attorney under James C. Goods. His first book was "A 
Treatise on Judgments;" later, a work on "Executions." He was 
the editor of the Bancroft- Whitney publications and editor of "Amer- 
ican Decisions." The career of A. C. Freeman was a great success. 
He located in San Francisco, and a few years ago crossed the "Great 
Divide," full of honors. 

J. N. Young practiced law in this city for many years and then 
located in San Francisco, where he is now engaged in active jjractice. 

Paschal H. Coggins commenced his career as an attorney at law 
in this city, served one term as township justice, and then located in 
Philadelphia, where he is now engaged in the practice of his profes- 

D. A. Hamburger practiced in Sacramento for a few years after 
his admission to the bar and then located in Los Angeles, where he 
has abandoned the practice of the law and engaged in mercantile 

Frank Powers was admitted to the bar from the city of Sacra- 
mento, but established his law practice later at San Francisco. He 
was a member of the assembly from that city. 

Charles T. Jones is still an active practitioner in this city. Twice 
district attorney and once assemblyman, he has held an honored 
position in this community. He has been on one side or the other 
in most of the important criminal cases for many years and is looked 
upon as one of the ablest criminal lawyers in the state. 

Dan E. Alexander removed to San Francisco, where he is now 
engaged in the practice of his profession. Charles H. Oatman is also 
a practitioner in San Francisco. Elwood Bruner, ex-assemblyman and 
ex-district attorney, is now located at Nome, Alaska, as is also his 
brother, J. Allison Bruner. 

W. B. Harlow practiced only a short time after his admission to 
the bar, then went to Arizona and later to New York, where he died 
a few years ago. 

Judson C. Brusie was assembl>niian and secretary to the Califor- 
nia railroad conmiission. He died a few years ago at Los Angeles. 
He devoted his time chiefly to politics and dramatic writing. 

Peter H. Burnett was a lawj^er, but never practiced in this city; 
only acted as land agent for John A. Sutter. He was the first gov- 
ernor of California. In 1857 he was appointed by Governor J. Neely 


Jolinson a judge of the supreme court. He died in San Francisco, 
May 17, 1895, at the age of eighty-seven years. 

Judge S. C. Denson is now a resident of San Francisco. For 
many years, in addition to his judicial career, he enjoyed a splendid 
practice in this city. At various times a member of the firm of Beatty 
& Denson, then Beatty, Denson & Beatty, and Beatty, Denson & Oat- 
man, he always enjoyed a very lucrative business. It was during his 
term as judge that the famous cases of Troy Dye and Edward Ander- 
son for the murder of Aaron Tullis were tried and the two men con- 
victed and hanged. Hon. Creed Ha^miond defended these men. When 
Judge Denson removed to San Francisco, he formed a co-partnership 
with Judge J. J. De Haven, which continvied until Judge De Haven 
was appointed United States district judge. 

Albert M. Johnson. — Nature is not lavisli with her choice gifts 
of genius and talent, and rarely do we find these great attributes 
combined. In Alliert M. Johnson both genius and talent were united 
in one body, in one mind. His was an irrepressible genius, brighter 
than the sword of the conqueror. His thoughts and ideas bore the 
rays of immortality, which cast a living, lasting halo around his very 
being. With him, genius was not a shadow — it was a substance, it 
was light; it was matter that never dies. In all his legal existence 
he seemed like a Theseus led by the golden thread of Ariadne. His 
logic was like the touch of Ithuriel's spear, his reason like the swell 
of the ocean. A master of language, which fiowed from his lips like 
a splendid stream, again in torrents as moved by inspiration, at the 
har and on the rostrum his flow of language was the most fluent and 
logical. Its effect was magical, and carried inspiration with every 
word and thought expressed. There is no armor against Fate. Albert 
M. Johnson was never obsequious to wealth or power. The later years 
of his life were devoted, in addition to his profession, to the solution 
of social problems and to the betterment of the condition of the masses. 
A truly great attorney, in his comparatively brief career he tasted 
fortune more than did any other law^^er. He died in Oakland, in 1907, 
at the age of forty-six years. 

Judge A. P. Catlin was a pioneer lawyer, and had many parts 
in the formation of the government for this state. In 1850 he and 
John Currey (afterwards superior judge), formed a co-partnership in 
the practice of the law. At that time the leaders of the bar were 
Murray Johnson, E. J. C. Kewen, Col. J. C. Zabriskie, Joseph W. 
Winans, L. Neely Johnson, John B. Weller, M. S. Latham, John H. 
McKune, and Col. Philip L. Edwards. This partnership lasted only 
a short time, and Mr. Catlin then returned to his former home at 
Mormon island in this county, and engaged in mining. It was he who 
was the author of the name "Natoma" for Natoma township in this 
county. In 185.3-54 he was a member of the senate which met at 
Benicia, and it was due to his efforts that Sacramento secured the 


location of the State Capitol and was made the permanent seat of 
state government. Judge Catlin was an eye witness to the great 
tragedy of the Squatter riots on August 14, 1850, at which City 
Assessor Woodland was killed, Mayor Biglow fatally wounded and 
many others killed. Judge Catlin took part in every great political 
battle of this state. In 1857 he was a member of the assembly and 
a participant in the great Broderick-Gwin senatorial contest. In 
March, 1872, he was appointed one of the state board of equalization. 
During all the years he was engaged in active practice. In 1890 he 
was elected judge of the superior court of the cotinty of Sacramento, 
and served a full six-year term. He was a man of sound judgment 
and untiring industry, one of the safest counsellors and faithful to 
his clients; very slow to anger, but a lion when aroused. While he 
seemed morose in his disposition, there was at times a vein of gen- 
uine humor in his composition. No man had a greater knowledge of 
the incidents of history of this state, and his "scrap books," if they 
are still in existence, would be a revelation to the future historian. 

John C. Catlin and Harry Catlin, the sons of Judge Catlin, were 
admitted to tlie bar and are now residents of San Francisco, engaged 
in the practice of the law. 

J. W. Winans (firm Winans & Hyer) was for many years a 
prominent attorney in this city. He was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention. Mr. Winans devoted much time to literature, and 
was an elegant writer. For many years he was a regent of the state 
university. In 1861 he took up his practice in San Francisco and 
continued until his death, March 3, 1887. 

W. B. C. Brown, after having served as county clerk and state 
controller, became a member of the bar and continued in the practice 
of the law until his death, April 12, 1882. 

W. S. Church was city attorney for one term, then went to San 
Francisco. He is the author of "Church on Habeas Corpus," and 
some other law works. 

James B. Devine, a bright young lawyer, was called to his final 
rest, just at the time the people began to recognize his abilities. 

Judge J. W. Armstrong came to Sacramento from Amador 
county in 1868. He was formerly the law partner of the late United 
States Senator James T. Farley, of Amador county. He established 
the law firm of Armstrong & Hinkson. Judge Armstrong was ap- 
pointed judge of the superior coui-t of Sacramento county by Governor 
Stoneman. At the succeeding election he was chosen for a full term 
on the bench. Judge Armstrong was a man of great force of char- 
acter, and soniewliat aggressive in his disposition, yet broad-minded, 
tender-hearted aiid generous. He died March 21, 1896. 

Judge Lewis Ramage was district jiidge of the old sixth judicial 
district. It was during his term that the famous Tip McLaughlin case 
was tried, McLaughlin being charged with the murder of Charles 


Limdholm. At the first trial the jury disagreed, and "Tip" was 
tried a second time, at which trial he was convicted of murder. By 
some unaccountal)le oversight no order was made by the court to take 
the defendant into custody, he being- at liberty under bonds. "Tip" 
walked out of the court and never was captured. Judge Ramage 
was a very kind-hearted man, and had a great reverence for the 
decisions of the court of his native state, Missouri. It was often 
remarked by attorneys, that if counsel could produce a decision from 
Missouri, or something from "Smith's Leading Cases," his case would 
be safe. Judge Ramage, after his term as district judge was com- 
]ileted, returned to St. Louis, where he died a number of years ago. 

John B. Weller, a pioneer lawyer, was governor and United States 
senator. Governor Weller was a very eloquent orator and a man of 
pleasing and polished manner. 

Judge Robert C. Clark was state senator and afterwards county 
and superior judge for twenty-four years, up to the time of his death, 
January 27, 1883. Judge Clark was a model judge, and everybody 
was his friend. No man held a higher place in the hearts of the 
peo])le than Judge Clark. The pleasing incidents and anecdotes dur- 
ing his career on the bench would fill a large volume. 

D. Lee Donelly was corporation counsel under Mayor Hassett, 
and at one time law partner of A. M. Se^^nour. He died about 1911 
after a lingering sickness. 

John Currey was one of the earliest pioneer lawyers of this cit}^ 
At one time the law partner of A. P. Catlin, Judge Currey performed 
a prominent part in the history of this state. He was for many years 
judge of the supreme court, and chief justice of that court. Judge 
Currey was born in 1814, and died in 1912, at ninety-eight years of 
age. He always was a man of great intellectual powers, and even in 
his last years retained his remarkable memory and wrote some able 
articles for the law journals upon great legal topics. 

Judge E. W. McKinstry was in the law practice in this city in 
1850. He was one of the first representatives in the legislature from 
Sacramento county. In 1858 he went to Napa and was elected district 
judge for Napa and adjoining counties. He then removed to San 
Francisco and was elected county judge. Later he was chosen district 
judge for the twelfth judicial district of San Francisco. Afterwards 
he was elected justice of the supreme court of California. He resigned 
from the supreme bench to become professor of municipal law in 
the Hastings Law College. Judge McKinstry died at San Jose. 
November 1, 1901. 

Cornelius Cole was district attorney for Sacramento county, after- 
wards congressman, and in 1865-66 was elected by the legislature 
to the United States senate. At the close of his senatorial term he 
located at Los Angeles, where he now resides, hale and hearty, though 
advanced in vears. 


Morris M. Estee was a member of the legislature from Sacra- 
mento in the session of 1863-64, and in 1864 was elected district attor- 
ney of Sacramento county. At the expiration of his term of office 
he located in San Francisco in the pursuit of his profession and was 
retained in many very important cases. Mr. Estee was a leading 
member of the last constitutional convention which framed the present 
state constitution. Mr. Estee was at all times a dignified and sincere 
man. Under the annexation of tlie Hawaiian Islands, creating a 
United States district judge for that jurisdiction, in 1900 he was 
appointed to the office, which he held until his death, October 27, 1903. 

Judge T. B. McFarland, prioi to locating at Sacramento, was dis- 
trict judge of the fourteenth judicial district, comprising Nevada and 
Placer counties. At the expiration of his term as judge he came to 
Sacramento and formed a copartnership with Judge A. P. Catlin, 
under the firm name of Catlin and McFarland. He was registrar of 
the United States land office, and in 1882 was appointed by Governor 
Perkins superior judge of this county. Prior to that he was also a 
member of the last cou.stitutional convention. In 1884 Judge Mc- 
Farland was elected superior judge for Sacramento county; in 1886 
was elected justice of the supreme court, re-elected in 1898, and re- 
mained on the supreme bench until the time of his death, a few years 
ago. Judge McFarland was a man of fine literary attainments and 
of most fascinating social qualities. To know him was ever after to 
be his friend. 


Look in upon the state burial plot in the City Cemetery and 
amid the lofty marble and granite shafts that mark the last resting 
places of distinguished men, there will be found a poor little slab with 
the inscription: 

Henry E]dgerton 

November 4, 1887 

The name of that brilliant orator, profound lawyer, classic scholar, 
is now only a memory for the few. During life he thrilled audiences, 
electrified senators, judges and conventions by the splendor of his 
rhetoric, philosophy and the vividness of his imagery. As an eagle, 
then he swooped, — then he soared, — the sculptor and painter in words, 
— the ideal of logical realism. 


"The two-edged tongue of mighty Zeno, who. 
Say what we would, could argue it untrue," 
he liad the prose of Xenophon and the poetry and philosophy of Plato. 
His font of oratorical genius never ran low. He fused reason, music, 
passion, imagination, into electric and magnetic power which held his 
auditors as if chained bv enchantment. 


When Edgertou became aroused in debate and the occasion called 
for it, he was a perfect master of invective, sarcasm and irony. 
"Fierce as the midnight, moonlit 
Nubian desert with all its lions up." 

Yet he was possessed of the gentle impulses of a woman, court- 
eous, chivalrous and with wit as sparkling as ice and as brilliant as 
the sunshine. Henry Edgerton had the egotism of most men of 
genius, and believed it was a great folly to be wise all alone. His 
utter contempt for wealth was proverbial. Yet with all his great 
genius and ability, with all his generous impulses and good will for 
his fellow men, he learned, with Prentice, "that men are deserters 
in adversity, when all is dark and even our very shadows refuse to 
follow us." While his eloquence charmed the soul, he felt that Ambi- 
tion was a gilded cheat, — that Fate was capricious. 
"Ah, pensive Scholar, what is fame! 
A fitful tongue of leaping flame, 

A giddy whirlwind's fickle giist 
That lifts a pinch of mortal dust." 

With all his great genius and wonderful powers of oratory, Edger- 
ton, like that other almost forgotten orator and statesman, James W. 
Cotfroth, could never attain the goal of his ambition, — a seat in the 
halls of congress. 

The great Napoleon's star of destiny began to decline from the 
day he divorced the Empress Josephine, and finally set with the sun 
at Waterloo. Thus with Henry Edgerton, when the marital relations 
ceased between himself and the brilliant Frances Edgerton, his star 
of destiny waned and finally cast its pale light upon his almost for- 
gotten grave. 

Withal the public career of Henry Edgerton forms a potent part 
of the history of this state. He came to California from Vermont in 
1853, a young man, and located at Napa, where he was for a number 
of years, up to 1860, the district attorney of that county. The famous 
case of Ned McGowan, implicated in the murder of James King of 
William, editor of the San Francisco Bulletw, during the time of the 
vigilance committee, was transferred to Napa coimty, and prosecuted 
liy Henry Edgerton. In 1860 he was elected state senator for Napa, 
Solano and Yolo counties, and during the sessions occurred the mem- 
orable deliate with Harry I. Thornton, which placed Edgerton as the 
leader in oratory in this state. It was by such prompt, eloquent and 
patriotic actions of Edgerton and several other prominent men that 
a terrible chapter in California's history was averted, and this state 
retained in the array of Union states during the Rebellion. 

From this time Henry Edgertou held his place as the greatest 
orator on this coast. He was a man of sjilendid ]ihysique, with a 
bright, classic countenance, and one who at all times inspired admira- 
tion. In the earlier davs of his career he was noted for the old 


school style of bis costume. For many years be wore a blue broad- 
clotb dress coat, with doulile row of brass buttons, and a buff vest, 
making a marked contrast with other men's dress. But he prided 
himself on these and would wear none other until the later years of 
his life. In 1861 Edgerton and McKibben ran for congress on the 
Union Democratic ticket, but were defeated by Timothy Guy Phelps 
and A. A. Sargent. For a number of years Edgerton was one of the 
trustees of the state library. In 1878-79 he was elected a member 
at large of the constitutional convention, and the debates disclose 
many gems of his power of oratory. One of Edgerton 's most beauti- 
ful oratorical efforts occurred in 1879, upon the grand reception given 
to Gen. U. S. Grant, who ^dsited this city upon his journey around the 
world. In 1880 he was the only Republican presidential elector elected, 
and he was selected as messenger to proceed to Washington to cast 
the vote for president. At the presidential election in 1884 he was 
again elected a presidential elector. 

In 1882 Henry Edgerton and W. W. Morrow were Republican 
candidates for congressman-at-large, but they were defeated by Charles 
Sumner and J. R. Glasscock. During the congressional convention 
of the second district at Benicia in 1884, Edgerton was evidently 
deeply wounded at not receiving the nomination for congress. His 
speech on that occasion was one of the most powerful efforts of his 
life, and his picture of the ingratitude of his party was realized by 
all the delegates present. It was at this convention that Hon. Joseph 
McKenna received, on the thirtieth ballot, the nomination which gave 
him his start upon the car of political fortune. Edgerton never recov- 
ered from this defeat, and he felt that the party was ungrateful in 
not recognizing him. 

The oration delivered by Edgerton July 4, 1882, is a masterpiece 
of patriotic oratory and is a model for young Americans. Such 
oratory is not like that which is called oratory today, and which is 
a mere empty flow of words. It is like the violet wreath compared 
with the bunch of straw. 

On the occasion of the nomination of Newton Booth for governor 
in 1871, Henry Edgerton made one of his brilliant, characteristic ad- 
dresses in placing Newton Booth in nomination. In 1873, during an 
exciting anti-railroad contest, he was elected state senator for Sacra- 
mento county. During the camijaign he made some of the most elo- 
quent as well as invective speeches. On one occasion, while referring 
to one of his detractors, he used this unique and most forcible lan- 
guage: "He lies by day, he lies by night; he lies for the very lust 
of lying." 

In nearly every Republican campaig-n from 1868 until date of his 
death Edgerton took part, and his eloquence was heard in every 
important city on the coast. In no place in public or private did he 
know how to be dull. 


It is known that Henry Edgerton was methodical in his nature, 
and kept a complete set of scrap books and records, but after his death 
no one was able to discover where they were placed. It would be a 
,<>reat addition to the oratorical history of the world if these records 
could be found, and placed in the hands of some competent compiler 
for ]ireservatiou to the literature of the world. Throughout life he 
kept up his classical studies, and was a devotee of the drama and of 
all kinds of art. As a conversationalist he was without a suiDerior. 
A volume might be written of anecdotes of Edgerton. On one oc- 
casion, during the session of 1861, while he was the lion of the day, 
the legislature was compelled to move to San Francisco on account 
of the flood. At that time the sensational drama, "The Octoroon," 
was being played and drew large houses. Edgerton, with a number 
of the other senators, attended the play and showed his warm, im- 
l)ulsive and chivalrous character, during the famous scene where Zoe, 
the Octoroon, is put upon the slave block for sale. Dora Sunnysides 
had such a warm affection that she desired to purchase Zoe to set 
her free. The bidding began, when McCloskey, the villain of the play, 
and Dora were bidding against each other. She reached her limit 
when she bid $20,000. McCloskey, in his sneering manner, bid $25,000, 
and looked upon Dora with a victorious smile. At this point the au- 
dience was in a state of terrible excitement, when all at once some 
one in the audience arose, threw his hat high in the air, and said : 
"Damn the law! I bid $30,000." That was Henry Edgerton, and it 
is needless to say that the entire audience was in uproarious ap- 
plause for the last bidder. 

When we think of the eventful life of Henry Edgerton, we are 
constrained to the truth that it is best that Heaven from all creatures 
hides the Book of Fate. 

Edgerton was a devotee of poetry and art as well as a student 
of the classics. In fact his very utterances were poetry. The follow- 
ing lines, quaint in their character and an echo of his sentimental 
moods, are attributed to him : 

"The old days. Do you ever think of them 
When sitting silent as the shadows meet? 
When lying 1)road awake at dead of night. 
To hear the rain that drops into the eaves ; 
Do you remember how sweet was yoTir sleep. 
In the old days? 

"The old days, when you wanted to grow big, 
Before you knew the sorrows it would bring; 
When looking at the blue hills far away 
And thinkino- of the world that lav bevond? 


Do yoii lemember liow you yearned for it, 
In the days of old? 

"The old days, they are furrowed o'er with graves, 
The sweet-faced mother, tirst and dearest friend. 
The old home faces you used to know, 
Your playmates and your sweethearts, where are they? 
Do you remember how you loved and lost, 
In the days of old! 

"The old days! How they brim the eyes with tears 
And fill the heart with longing and regret! 
Oh, there are tragedies in every life; 
And there are songs as sweet as ever sung; 
And there are memories that never die. 
In the old days." 


Tribute by Major W. J. Anderson, at the time of his death, July 12, 

When Cato, the younger, sat with his drawn sword meditating 
upon Plato's "Immortality of the Soul," he exclaimed: "Plato, thou 
reasonest well. Why this longing for immortality?" 

Each day, every hour, each minute, we are admonished of the un- 
certainty of all earthly things. 

"Eternity — thou pleasing, dreadful thought — 
Through what vagaries of untried being, through wiiat new scenes and 
changes must we pass?" 

"The glories of birth and state are sliadows, not substantial 
things. There is no armor against fate." 

Death lays his icy hand on. the high and low alike. The highest 
and lowest, richest and poorest, must yield to the inexorable laws of 
Nature and of Fate. We are today but reminded of the end of all 
that is mortal of man, and in paying this tribute to tlie memory of 
our dei)arted brother, bring ourselves within the reflections of Cato 
upon the immortality of the soul, and the ]jroofs of nature and na- 
ture's laws that the soul of N. Greene Curtis has its enduring im- 
mortality amid the Elysian fields, where he has gone to meet former 
colleagues and adversaries of mant" forensic battles : George R. 
Moore, H. H. Hartley, Phil Edwards, James ^Y. Coffroth, J. C. 
Goods, Creed Havmond, Henrv Edgerton. George Cadwalader. R. 
C. Clark. H. 0. Beatty, J. W. Winans, John G. Hyer, Milton S. 
Latham, Col. L. Sanders, Tod Robinson, E. B. Crocker, Himiphrey 
GriCiiths, J. W. Armstrong, W. I. Ferguson, Presley Dunlap, George 
A. Blnnchard, and others. 


N. Greene Curtis was born in Raleig-b, N. C, February 5, 1826. 
In May, 1850, he came with the tide of gold-seekers to California from 
Tennessee, to which state he moved in his early youth. By birth 
and education he was fitted even in those youthful days to take his 
place among the moving spirits of the country. Soon after his ar- 
rival in Sacramento he was appointed deputy postmaster under Jona- 
than Tittle, the presidential appointee. A short time after he as- 
sumed his office his principal went east, leaving Curtis in full charge. 
AVhile Tittle was absent, Richard Eads came out with a notification 
from Washington that he had been appointed to the office. Curtis 
declined to recog-nize Eads until he presented a commission and filed 
a bond. He thus retained possession of the office for some months, it 
taking about that time to procure the necessary credentials. 

As a recognition of Curtis' ability, Eads retained him as the chief 
officer until he was elected recorder in 1853. This office Judge Curtis 
administered for three years with marked ability, establishing a record 
which has become a precedent. In 1861, when the spirit of secession 
was rife and at a time when Cahfornia was in the balance, being 
largely populated by southern men, Judge Curtis, though of southern 
blood, was firmest in counseling for the Union. At a great mass 
meeting held in the old pavilion at Sixth and M streets, he made 
one of the grandest, most patriotic speeches against secession and 
for the Union, one and indivisible. He became a member of the Union 
Party and that year, with Charles Crocker, Amos Adams and Dr. 
Joseph Powell, was elected as a member of the assembly. Charles 
Crocker, one of the great Central Pacific railroad quartet, crossed 
the Dark River several years ago. Amos Adams recently died in 
San Jose. Dr. Powell survived the term only a few years. During 
the same session Judge R. C. Clark and E. II. Heacock served as 
senators from this county. In 1861 Judge Curtis became a member 
of the state senate with E. H. Heacock as his colleague. In 1869 
Curtis and A. Comte served as our senators. In 1877 Judge Curtis 
was again returned to the senate, having defeated Felix Tracy. His 
colleague was Creed Haymond. He was a leader in his party and 
counselled upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of the Demo- 
cratic party of this state as well as the nation. He was at all times 
modest, unassuming, unostentatious, yet possessing the rarest quali- 
ties of conversational powers. As an orator he was magnetic, and 
by his earnestness and force of character never failed to impress his 
hearers with his own ideas and convictions. Herein laid his great 
power and influence over jurors. The devoted friendship of Curtis 
was jiroverbial. I have often heard my father say that it was a com- 
mon, every-day sight to see Judge McKime and Greene Curtis frying 
their bacon and boiling their coffee in front of their cabin, which was 
situated at what is now the corner of Fifth and K streets. The cabin 
was Iniilt among scrub oaks and bushes, and ser^■ed as the law o^'fice 


of Judge McKune, Curtis uot being a praL-titioner at that time. 
Curtis was endowed with the qualities of true friendship, 
"Which is a Gordiau knot that angel hands had tied. 
By heavenly skill its texture wrought, who shall its folds divide? 
Death's all-triumphant sword may strive its links to sever, 
But the union of its twisted cord in Heaven shall last forever." 
Curtis belonged to the "old school" of chivalrous attorneys. 
While there has been advancement in all matters of science and art, 
there remains a charm around the courteous chivalry of the lawyer 
of two generations ago. It seems that a grasping selfishness has 
im]ilanted itself among modern members of the bar. That old-time 
honor of the profession, when the greed for gold formed no part in 
the lawyer's strife for honor and fame, has in a measure departed. 
The lawyers of twenty-five years ago held honor above gold or price. 
Today gold seems to be the moving power and glory, and honor but 
an incident. Those were the days that the lawyer's part was to work 
hard, live well and die poor. But honor was always the objective 

Judge Curtis was counsel in the famous Laura D. Fair case for 
the murder of A. P. Crittenden, and finally acquitted her. He was 
counsel for many defendants in murder cases in this state. Many 
years ago the writer was present at Santa Cruz during an important 
murder trial, where the defendant was represented by N. Greene 
Curtis. We think that the management of this case was the mas- 
terpiece of his life, and far surpasses his efforts in the famous Laura 
D. Fair trial. The defendant was a young man with a beautiful ^\'ife 
and child. The evidence against the defendant was of the most dam- 
aging character, and it seemed that a conviction was inevitable. The 
sentiment of the community was set against the defendant. But 
Curtis had a way of snatching victory from defeat, and the result of 
the trial disclosed the fact that he did so in this case. For weeks 
before the trial he made research into the pedigree of each juror 
summoned, until he had each man's history at his memory's com 
mand. Then came the day of the trial and the defense marked out 
was an alibi. The courtroom was each day crowded with ladies and 
gentlemen. Curtis seemed to be inspired. He opened the case with 
a degree of magnetism seldom witnessed. He ])aid a grand tribute 
to the people, to the beautiful sea crest and beach, and to every- 
thing pertaining to the community. He painted the crime as black 
as Erebus, and was unsparing of anyone who would perpetrate such 
an outrage and cowardly assassination. Then came his inspired ar- 
gument to the jury. He touched the weak place in the composition 
of every juror, and art)und and around he went, addressing each 
jui'or separately. But he foimd that every time he came to a cer- 
tain old puritanical fellow there was a break in his magnetic chain. 
He tried again and again to cast the electric charm over the old 


liard-sliell, for lie felt certain of the other jurors. Just at this 
juncture a little tot got dowu from his mother's lap, and, being at- 
tracted by Curtis' actions in speaking to the jury, ran up to him, 
clasped one little arm al)out his knee, and with the other held up a 
piece of candy some person had given him, for him to take. Curtis 
stopped short, looked for an instant at tlie child, then at the audi- 
ence, then at the jury, but never spoke a word. The effect was elec- 
tric. There was not a dry eye in the courtroom ; the women gave out 
uncontrollable sobs. That silent eloquence was grand — indescribablv 
grand. Then he drew his own picture, and asked the jurors if they 
were fathers, and could find it in their hearts to make that child an 
orphan. With all this the old hard-shell remained obdurate, and 
as unmoved as the hills. At length Curtis roused himself for one 
more effort and with tears and emotion actually knelt down and 
prayed long and fervently at the feet of the obdurate juror, when all 
at once tears came trickling down his cheeks, and he, too, was en- 
tangled in the electric chain. After the case was over, and the 
young man acquitted, Curtis said to the writer: "Do you know that 
it was a hard struggle to capture that puritanical old ass? Why, 
I was actually comi)elled to pray, and ordinarily it would have been 
ridiculous." And, said the Judge: "When I got him I thought of 
an event in the life of the elder Booth, who had no equal in his per- 
sonation of Richard III. Well, Mr. Booth was to play his favorite 
character at Manchester, England, which was a great place for manu- 
facturing buttons. On the opening night the house was crowded, 
and Booth just let himself loose, but not a sig-n of applause fol- 
lowed his efforts. The audience was as silent as a tomb. He tried 
again and again, still no emotion or recognition. Driven to despair, 
he made a most superhuman effort, and at this time caught the 
entire audience at once. The applause was loud and continued. After 
the tumult. Booth, in his eccentric way, stepped to the footlights 
and said: 'What do you think of that, you damned button-makers?' 
Then he left the stage and would not finish the play. Now," contin- 
ued Curtis, "I felt like Booth in that act, and wanted to say, out 
loud, after my fervent ]irayer: 'What do you think of that, you d — d 
old hard-shell.' " 


Only a few now remain who can recall the memories of that 
eminent man whose magnetic powers stirred the hearts of the people, 
whose magic eloquence so often resounded at the bar, in the forum, 
and from the public platform. While the lips of James W. Coffroth 
have been silenced and his body in the silent chambers of the dead for 
thirty-six years, there are many "oldtimers" whose memories re- 
vert to the past, and recall that he was one of the leading spirits of 
this state and one who aided in making its early history. No lawyer 


ever exercised greater influence over a jury. His splendid stature, 
clear and musical voice, and magnetic expression never failed to 
enter the heart of those whom he addressed. His was a most lov- 
able nature, generous and courteous to all, yet a lion when aroused. 
His style of eloquence was different from that of the contemporane- 
ous lawyers, and he easily stood the peer of any, although there 
were orators and statesmen: Col. E. D. Baker, Henry Edgerton, 
W. Li. L. Barnes, N. Greene Curtis, Jo Hamilton, Creed Haymond, 
W. W. Pendergast, James Groods, and a number of other eloquent 
orators and attorneys with whom he was confronted in litigation. 
(And, by the way, how rarely do we hear any of those illustrious 
names mentioned in this generation.) 

"Jim" Coffroth, as he was called, was extremely popular when 
lie came to Sacramento, as the senator from "Old Tuolumne," then 
one of the leading counties in the state. He was paraded around 
the city in a carriage drawn by six white horses, and with ban- 
ners, "Hail Tuolumne's Favorite Son." The American party was 
then in power in California. He could have been the candidate for 
governor, which was equivalent to an election that year, but gener- 
ously gave way to J. Neely Johnson, who was elected. For many 
years thereafter "Jim" Coffroth was known as "Tuolumne's Favor- 
ite Son." 

Every young attorney, including myself, reverenced "Jim" 
Coffroth for his generous treatment and assistance. Coffroth was 
very fond of humorous episodes, and was a natural wit, as well as 
a jiractical joker, usually shying his wit and satire against other 
members of the profession. On one occasion he perpetrated a cruel 
joke on Hon. James T. Farley, who had been chosen speaker of the 
assembly. At the close of the session it was the ciistom for the 
speaker to deliver a farewell address. Farley asked Coffroth to 
give him some pointers for the address. Coffroth assented, and the 
next day handed a copy of an address delivered by a former speaker. 
Farley took it in good faith, never dreaming of any dece]5tion, and 
delivered it verbatim. Next day the Sacramento Union contained a 
very sarcastic reference to the similarity of the closing address with 
that of the former speaker of the house. For a long time, Farley, 
who was later elected United States senator, had an ax in store for 
Coffroth for the imposition. 

As I have already said, Mr. Coffroth was a very kind friend 
of mine, and he had occasion to disclose that friendship in tlie trial 
of the first important criminal case that I was retained to defend. 
Just about this time a SATidicate of cattle dealers resolved to make 
vigorous prosecutions in all cases of cattle stealing. It seems that 
the dealers had lost quite a number of cattle from their droves, 
which were slaughtered and sold by small Imtchers in the several 
counties adjoining Sacramento, and including Sacramento cmmty. 


For this purpose Hou. N. Greene Courtis was retained as special 
counsel for the prosecutions. The first person to be apprehended 
and charged with this offense was Henr)^ Lapley, a well-to-do butcher 
of Folsom. Lapley was well known and bore a good reputation, 
and the accusation was a surprise to his friends. Anyway the offi- 
cers discovered the hide of a bovine in his slaughter-house which 
bore the brand of an old Irish woman by the name of Mary Benin, 
whom I had known from my early infancy, she being our nearest 
neighbor when I was a very small boy. The circumstances were 
very strong against the defendant. Upon his arrest Lapley sent 
for me to defend him. I told him it was a dangerous case and that 
I was only a young practitioner, and older and more experienced 
counsel should be retained. Having been his counsel in other mat- 
ters, Lapley insisted that he could trust and depend upon me. Well, 
the case was called for trial, and when Hon. Robert Clark, then 
judge, saw that I was alone in the case, and he being personally 
friendly to Henry Lapley, called me to the bench and whispered to 
me that it was somewhat risky for me to undertake such a case. 
Just then, "Jim" Coffroth came into the courtroom, and, noting 
the situation, called me aside and told me to go right along and he 
would find means to prompt me in the details. This he also com- 
municated to Judge Clark. Coffrotli had a double motive in this 
support, one to aid me, as a young attorney, the other to get the best 
of N. Greene Curtis, who was a rival in the criminal practice. 
"Now," says Coffroth to me, "you make all manner of objections 
to Curtis' questions to witnesses, no matter whether there is any 
merit or not, and at each objection arise and argue some points of 
your defense — do this until you get all your salient points before 
the jury." I followed instructions, and although Judge Curtis in- 
sisted upon his olijections, Judge Clark permitted my line of action. 
Then Mr. Coffroth again prompted me to manage by some in- 
direct question to arouse the ire of the prosecuting witness, whom 
I have said was a quaint old Irish woman. This, in order to get her 
to say something to divert the attention of the jury from the main 
facts and create some humor. In this I succeeded admirably and 
she answered the very first question I asked her, "It's the loikes 
of a spal]ieen like yez, to ask me name, when I nursed ye as a baby, 
gwan wid ye." Her cross-examination was a repetition of sharp 
retorts, which edified the jury and served our purpose to the letter. 
The trial was finally closed, and still Mr. Coffroth sat beside me. 
The district attorney made the opening argument, leaving Judge 
Curtis to flay me alive in the closing argument. xVfter the district 
attorney concluded, Mr. Coffroth whispered to me, "Now submit 
your case; rememl)er, you made your argument on objections during 
the trial." At this I announced that I had no ar-;unient to make 
and submitted the case. 


Judge Curtis arose to address tlie jury, but was stopped by 
Judge Clark, who remarked, "There is nothing to reply to. Judge 
Curtis; Mr. Anderson has submitted the case without formal argu 
ment." Judge Curtis was furious, and turned to Coffroth, sajdng, 
"Jim CoflProth, this is one of your sharp tricks." The jury, in 
about five minutes, returned a verdict of not guilty, and I, through 
the kindly offices of James AV. Coffroth, secured my first grent vic- 
tory in the criminal practice. 

The life of James W. Coffroth was full of such noble and gen- 
erous acts towards young attorneys. He was a most accomplished 
and skilled criminal lawyer, and defended more murder cases on 
the coast to a successful termination, than any other attorney in 
the state. He was also of a poetic nature and often in his leisure 
liours would let his poetic fancy take shape. 

About a year prior to the death of James AV. Coifroth, he was 
retained by the wealthy relatives of a man accused of stage rob- 
bery at Ukiah, Mendocino county. The retainer was $1000, and an 
additional five hundred on acquittal. After a protracted trial he 
succeeded in obtaining a verdict of not guilty. Upon the discharge 
of the defendant, CoiTroth was paid the remainder of his fee and that 
same evening started for home in a buggy, accompanied by a driver. 
AVhen they had proceeded a few miles, and at a lonely point, they 
were halted by a highwayman, who demanded their money. "Jim" 
did not like the idea of giving up his fee, and said t9 the rol)ber, 
"AVhy, my man, all the inoney I have is what I received from clear- 
ing one of your kind." AVith that the robber took down his mask 
and said, "Hello, Jim. is that you? It is dark and I did not know 
you. H — 1, I don't want your money, I was waiting for another 
party." It was the same man he had just acquitted, and he told 
"Jim" to drive on quick as he expected the other party soon. 

The life of James AV. Coffroth was one of eventful incidents, 
which, recounted, would make a volume. He had an ambition to sit 
in the halls of congress ; but, like another great man and orator, 
Henry Edgerton, Pate was against him, and with all his ability and 
popularity he could never reach the goal. 


"Kings have their dynasties, but not the mind; 
Cffisars leave other Caesars to succeed; 
But wisdom dying, leaves no heir behind." 
Men, nations, emj^ires, pass like shadows of night that vanish 
with the dawn, scarce missed as through all ages the world goes rolling 
on. It was, indeed a wise man who admonished us to work as if 
we were to live forever, and to live as if we were to die tomorrow. 
Seneca said: "The sliortness of life is the coiiii)laint of botli fools 
and philosophers." 


Judge John H. McKuue was one of the potent factors in con- 
structing the hiws and ethics of the Golden State — a part of the 
history of this state, and without whom the chronicles of California 
would be incomplete. Yes, we can pay respect in memory to him to 
whom we can show no other gratitude. Judge McKune was a phil- 
osopher, and a firm believer in the immortality of the soul. He 
believed that no man was ever truly great unless he had rendered 
some service to his fellowman — something more than individual 
selfishness. AVhile life may be little less than an inconstant dream, 
it devolves on the true man to do some good on earth. His life 
was- one of constant labor and activity — ever doing something for 
his fellowmen. The world soon forgets the honor and fame of her 
truly great men. There are no Plutarchs, Homers or Virgils in 
these days, to record their deeds and sing their praise. Thus the 
memory of myriads of great men has been lost. A lawyer may 
liave a brilliant career, may be heralded for his eloquence and his 
learning; may have acquired great wealth (although the attributes 
of a great lawyer is one who works hard, lives well, and dies poor), 
hut when he passes to the dark unknown, there is an end of him — 
he lias done nothing to make his fame remembered beyond a few days. 

"What is Fame? A fancied life in others' breath, 
A thing beyond us, e'en before our death." 
Judge McKune belonged to the old school of chivalrous attor- 
neys ; a race rapidly becoming extinct. The days of chivalrous law- 
yers, those who placed honor above all price, who bent their ener- 
gies for the honor and glory of the profession, instead of the o'er- 
leaping struggle for the demon gold, are but a memory. 
'Twas Anacreon who said: 

"The light of gold can ne'er illume 
The gloomy midnight of the tomb." 

(A little digression from my thesis will not be out of place to 
rap the modern lawyers.) 

The honored profession of the law is so rapidly merging into 
a plain, selfish commercialism, a matter of business, and the great 
majority of the profession seek only the glittering sheen of gold. 
Thus the dignity and independence of the learned and honorable 
lawyer is sunk in the business and commercialism of the wealthy 
litigants, and it is only on rare occasions that the truly great lawyer 
leaps o'er the golden chasm and stands for the nobility of the pro- 
fession. The wealthy seek only such lawyers as will serve them — 
the question of honor or honesty is not considered. "My attorney 
irmst serve me — it is a matter of business; no sentiment of right 
enters this contract," says the powerful corporation. The honor- 
able code of legal ethics is abjured, and the able lawyers are drawn 


into the vortex of the vast coninierical and corporation interests of 
the nation, whether right or wrong — there is no sentiment allowed. 

May the time be again at hand when the old-time chivalry of 
the bar shall be restored, and the examples of such men as John H. 
McKune emulated. Then we would have more independent lawyers 
— more independent and learned judges. Let all attorneys bear in 
mind that the rich can only decay on the shrine of gold. Judge 
McKune was not an orator, but was endowed with a clear, logical 
mind, and could impress his auditors by his force and earnestness. 
No detail of the facts or the law was too minute for his study and 
analysis. In addition to his mental superiority, he was possessed 
of a great physical courage — always cool, deliberate, and calculating 
amid the greatest danger. Personal fear was not an ingTedient of 
Judge McKune 's com]iosition. Though of slight stature, he feared 
no man. 

In 1852, on account of his positive and independent nature, he 
incurred the enmity and hatred of certain elements of this com- 
munity, and one man, George Wilson by name, stabbed Judge Mc- 
Kune through the lungs with the blade of a sword cane. At the time 
the wound was deemed fatal and while the judge could have slain 
his assailant he spared him on account of his wife and family. Many 
instances of his personal courage could be recounted, and of events 
of the early and troublous times in the early '50s, and even later. 

When Judge McKune first came to Sacramento in 1850 he 
erected a little cabin on the southwest corner of Fifth and K streets, 
which constituted his office and residence, and where he boiled his 
coffee and fried his bacon in a primitive manner outside, there being 
no room in the interior for his culinary offices. For a number of 
mouths he and N. Greene Curtis, another noted man, occupied this 
one-room castle jointly for an office and residence. 

At the permanent organization of the city of Sacramento in 
1850, Judge McKune was elected the first city and county attorney. 
It was during some of his vigorous prosecutions that he incurred 
the bitter enmities and animosities that often engendered personal 
encounters, the great majorities, however, were always mth him. He 
was always the friend of the early settler and opposed the whole- 
sale encroachments of fraudulent Mexican land grants, which cursed 
the country. His firm attitude in this matter prompted the presi- 
dent of the United States, Franklin Pierce, in 1854, to appoint him 
United States land commissioner, to investigate all the Mexican 
land claims. During his incumbency as land commissioner he made 
some valuable suggestions to the Washington authorities which were 
never heeded and which resulted in some fraudulent land grants 
being imposed upon the early settlers and pre-emption claimants. 

About 1855 Judge McKune formed a copartnership in the prac- 
tice of law witli F. B. Crocker, later of Central Pacific railroad fame. 


in connection with Cliarles Crocker, Leland Stanford, Mark Hop- 
kins and C. P. Ilnntington. In 1857 Judge McKune was a member 
of the state legiskiture, with Hon. A. P. Catlin and Hon. R. C. 
Clark in the senate. 

He was, in 1858, elected district judge for the sixth judicial 
district, comprising Sacramento and Yolo counties, which office he held 
until December, 1869. During the latter part of his judicial term he 
incurred the enmity of the management of the Central Pacific Rail- 
road Company, who defeated him for renomination. Grovernor New- 
ton Booth in 1871 appointed Judge McKune one of the code com- 
missioners, to revise and codify the laws of this state. The other 
members of the commission were Hon. Creed Haymond and Hon. 
John C. Burch. The work of the commissioners bears the mark of 
Judge McKune 's legal ability and genius, and will remain a monu- 
ment to his superior legal attainments. 

Judge McKune was not only learned in what lawyers call "black- 
letter law," but his literary tastes were of the highest order. He 
admired Rabelais for his splendid philosophy, and Rousseau for 
the reason that the critics were always against him and the masses 
with him. Macaulay's grand style and masterly force and eloquence 
held a high place in his mind. Goethe, the great Grerman poet, was 
one of his favorites, as was also Dante, the famous Florentine poet. 
He was an extensive reader and student, even x;p to his last days on 
earth. Several years before his death he commenced a history of 
Sacramento from the earliest days. After writing about twenty chap- 
ters they were iniblished in "Themis," a literary journal edited by 
the late Win J. Davis and myself. The suspension of "Themis," in 
1895, ended the continuation of the history of Sacramento. In fact, 
the impress of his mind and genius can be found in all the early his- 
tory- of the county and state — judicially, as a lawyer, and as a citizen. 

Judge McKune belonged to that class of men who believed that 
a kind heart, charitable brain, honesty, simplicity and truth are the 
essentials of genuine culture. Among his intimate friends he did not 
hesitate to discuss the approach of Nature's final call, and was firm 
in his belief that the present life is not the end — that all nature, 
all the traditions and history of the human race disclosed that there 
is something beyond this life whicli only the dissolution of the earthly 
frame would solve. 

Only a few men of the type of Jolm II. McKune now remain. 


It is an attribute of refined nature to talk about those persons 
and events that have given us pleasure, and the personal recollections 
of Newton Booth are a source of such pleasure. There is an instinct 
which prompts human nature to rebel against oblivion. Unless mem- 
ory is invoked through the press the world soon forgets the most 


spacious and conspicuous fame. In the person of Newton Booth 
were combined most remarkable qualities. There was dignity in ev- 
erything he said and wrote. He was a scholar, writer, orator, phil- 
osopher, statesman and withal a most successful merchant. His 
orations, lectures and addresses will at all times have a place with 
the best and most polished of the nation. He was possessed of the 
attribute that endeared him to his fellow men. When such men pass 
away we are prone to hear and learn all we can about them. 

In addition to Newton Booth's brilliant public career, I now 
recall many incidents of his social life and the distinguished per- 
sons entertained by him at his commodious rooms over the store of 
"Booth & Co.," on Front street, in this city. That classic pre- 
cinct has been the scene of many great social events wherein states- 
men, orators, actors, artists and authors have been his guests. 

For more than a tliird of a century no great statesman, orator 
or actor visited this city who did not become the welcome guest and 
was entertained by that knightly and courteous gentleman. The most 
brilliant epoch was, however, during his administration as governor 
of this state. Brilliant receptions were the order, and all who en- 
tered his sjilendid home, poor and rich alike, stood upon a level, 
brains and numly worth being the only tickets of admission. 

Long before the completion of the Central Pacific railroad, when 
that greatest of .iournalists, Horace Greely, made his stagecoach trip 
across the continent and was landed by Hank Monk at the depot of 
the Sacramento Valley railroad at Folsom, upon his arrival at this 
city he became the guest of Newton Booth. 

That great orator and divine, Thomas Starr King, famous for 
his clarion notes at the outset of the Civil War, in behalf of the 
Union, was often the guest of Newton Booth. 

Newton Booth was a native of Indiana, and when the great war 
governor of that state, Oliver P. Morton, ^'isited California, he made 
his home his residence, where he met some of the most distinguished 
men of the state. 

Gen. W. T. Sherman, ujion his tour over the country was the guest 
of Newton Booth, and was accompanied by him to witness a noted 
play at the Metropolitan theater, where upon their entrance a grand 
ovation was given them l)y the large audience. 

General Grant, upon his tour around the world, when he arrived 
at Sacramento, spent a few hours with our distinguished fellow- 

President Hayes and President Harrison, upon their visits, re- 
si)ectively partook of his hosjiitality. When Lord Russell, chief jus- 
tice of the Queen's Bench of England, came to this state, he did not 
depart without paying his respects to this prince of entertainers. 

Newton Booth was an enthusiastic devotee of the drama. Every 
distinguished actor or actress received his cordial hospitality. Edwin 


Booth, before he became famous, as well as afterward, was a personal 
friend of Newton Booth. About the last time Edwin Booth appeared 
in this city, a ])riyate dinner was tendered him by Newton Booth, 
and at the board there were seated the host. Creed Raymond, Henry 
Edgerton, Samuel Seabough, Paul Morrill, Edwin Booth, the guest 
of honor, and nivself. Some one of the party suggested that Edwin 
Booth read the Lord's Prayer. I shall remember the emotion as long 
as life lasts. Never did I hear the Lord's Prayer read before, and 
never after, as it was then read. It was almost a divine inspiration. 

John McCuUough was his frequent giiest. During the engage- 
ment of John McCullough and Alice Kingsbury at the old Metro- 
politan theater, they were entertained at his home. 

When Katherine Rogers, a noted actress, held the boards in this 
eit}', she received a royal welcome at the governor's home. 

Old Joe Proctor, Walter Leman and Mrs. Judali were also the 
recipients of his hospitality. 

Governor Booth's administration was noted for its many elab- 
orate and brilliant receptions. The Old Bohemian Cluli, which also 
included the Sacramento Dramatic Association, of which the governor 
was a member, was specially favored with a number of splendid re- 
ceptions and entertainments. At these fetes the members of the 
club, which was composed of many brilliant and scholarly men and 
women, would reciprocate, giving original productions of the brain 
in literature, art, nnisic and the drama. On one occasion the club 
resolved to procure the famous Russian drama, "The Serf," and 
Governor Booth was assigned the title role. Albert Hart, the noble- 
hearted, generous, witty Albert Hart, was the manager. A rehearsal 
was called, and while the "star" had his lines dead letter perfect, 
he did not have the slightest conception of the art of acting, and 
after a few attempts led Albert Hart to exclaim: "Ye gods, could 
anything be worse!" "Well," said Hart, "you are a great orator. 
bi;t I'm d — d if ever I saw such poor acting." This was his first 
and last attempt at the histrionic art. While Newton Booth was 
sedate and dignified in his manner, he was a superb conversationalist, 
and social and democratic to his fellowmen. There was a vein 
of unctuous humor in him, also sparkling and incisive wit — a wit 
that did not leave any scars. 

xVs an illustration of his dry humor, while he was United States 
Senator he visited his native state, Indiana, and was entertained by 
the distinguished men of that state. During one of these e^•ents some 
of his hosts, in a humorous way. alluded to the great productions 
of California, particularly the large strawberries, and remarked that 
as Senator Booth was a truthful man, any information coming 
from him could be relied upon. "Now," said one of his hosts, "Sen- 
ator, how about your big strawberries?" "Well," said the Senator, 
"since you have paid me such a pretty compliment for veracity, I 


will say that we do raise some verj- large strawberries, and tbey 
come at about ten cents a pound, but they are somewbat less if you 
bu5' a wbole one." 

It was my good fortune to be a close and intimate friend of Gov- 
ernor Bootb and often was bis guest for a social as well as literary 
converse. His library was his borne within which was an atmosphere 
of the classics, a treasure-bouse of literature. Many evenings I spent 
listening to him converse on deep sul),iects, as well as spurts of wit and 
humor — interspersed with an occasional mint julep, compounded as a 
"nectar fit for the gods." It was a custom of the tirm of "Bootb & 
Co." each Christmas to load up wagons with groceries and distribute 
the same to poor families. His partner, "Cy" Wheeler — grand, large- 
souled old "Cy" — attended to the proper distribution, and never al- 
lowed any publicity regarding who were the donors. 

Newton Bootb was always the foe of tyranny of great corpora- 
tions and the unjust interference of aggregated wealth in public af- 
fairs. On one occasion his former friend, also a brilliant orator, John 
A. Felton, charged him with being an "alarmist." This accusation 
brought forth a caustic reply filled with powerful invective and irony, 
which remains a masterpiece in its line. To show that Booth was 
more of a projibet than an alarmist, I quote from one of his speeches : 

"Would you behold the saddest spectacle of the age? See it in 
the strong man seeking in vain for a place to earn bis daily bread 
by daily toil. 

' ' Would you disco\-er the danger that threatens social order ? Find 
it in the boys of our cities growing up in voluntary or enforced idle- 
ness, to graduate into prisoners or outlaws. 

"Whoever will look open-eyed into the future will see that the 
'labor question'; the question of directing the rising generation into 
the channels of useful emplo^Tiient; the question of the equitable dis- 
tribution of the burdens and reward of labor, so that the drones shall 
not live ujion the workers, and honest industry may be certain of its 
reward; the question of making labor able — not only honorable but 
honored, is the social problem more important than political questions 
to which our age shall address itself. It must be intelligently solved, 
or, like the blind Samson, it will bring the temple down upon our 
heads. ' ' 

Newton Booth was at all times patriotic, and took an active part 
in politics. He was one of the first to raise his voice and devote his 
abilities for the Union against rebellion. In later years he often took 
an active part in the local primaries. I remember on one occasion 
many years ago, he beaded a primary ticket in the first ward, com- 
posed of such men as T. B. McFarland, John H. McKuue. E. B. Moll, 
George W. Cbesley, W. A. Anderson, Jacob Bauer, C. K. Dougherty. 

The first ward was then the leading ward in the city, and Frank 
Rlioads bad only developed into a ward leader. Frank did not like 


the personnel of the above ticket, and made up one of his own, com- 
posed mostly of Confidence Engine Company No. 1 firemen. During 
the progress of the election it became evident that the "boys' " ticket 
was defeated, and Rhoads, just before the closing of the polls, ordered 
a sham fight for the purpose of getting me out of the way, I having 
been detailed to guard the ballot-box. Anyway, the fight began, and 
before I could realize the purport, I was seized and thrown bodily out 
of the window, sash and all. While this was going on, of course the 
work of adding a few handfuls of tickets to the hoys changed the 
result. When I got back into the room, full of fight and vengeance, no 
one seemed to be in any fighting mood and merely laughed at me, say- 
ing that there was no fight, and that I only fell out of the window. 
Of course there was nothing further to do but grin and bear it. Booth 
and Ehoads used often to laugh over the episode and the result. Per- 
haps the saddest part is the fact that I am the only one left of that 
historic crowd to tell the story. 


By the late Winfield J. Davis 

There are few men whose lives are crowned with the honor and 
respect which is universally accorded to William Alexander Anderson, 
but through more than half a century's connection with central Cali- 
fornia's history his has been an unblemished character. With him 
success in life has been reached by sterling qualities of mind and a 
heart true to every manly principle. He has never deviated from what 
his judgment indicated to be right and honorable between his fellow- 
men and himself. He has never swerved from the path of duty, and 
he has every reason to enjoy the consciousness of having gained for 
himself by his honorable, straightforward career the conlidence and 
respect of the entire communit)^ in which he lives. He has attained 
a foremost position at the bar, and as a writer and dramatic critic is 
also well known. The public career of but few other men of Sacra- 
mento has extended over a longer period, and none have been more 
faultless in honor, fearless in conduct and stainless in reputation. 

Judge Anderson is a native of Wisconsin, his birth having oc- 
curred at Mineral Point, in that state, February 25, 1846. He was a 
son of Hartford and Susan Anderson, who became pioneer residents 
of California, settling in this state at the period of its early mining 
development. His paternal grandfather was a resident of Edinburgh, 
Scotland, in early life, and his wife was born in the north of Ireland. 
Having emigrated to America, he established his home in Pennsyl- 
vania, where occurred the birth of his son Hartford. The mothei- of 
our subject, Mrs. Susan (Atkins) Anderson, was a native of Kentucky. 
For some time the parents of the Judge resided in Wisconsin, where 
the father worked at the trade of carriage and wagon making. The 
business opportunities of the west, however, attracted him, and hoping 


that he might readily obtain a fortune in the mining districts of Cali- 
fornia, he made his way across the plains, accompanied by his family. 
They traveled over the stretches of hot sand, through the mountain 
passes, till the days had lengihened into weeks, and the weeks into 
months. At length they safely reached their destination. Mrs. Ander- 
son, however, did not long survive her arrival on the Pacific coast, her 
death occurring during the cholera epidemic of 1852. Hartford Ander- 
son, well known as one of the pioneer residents of Sacramento, con- 
tinued to make his home in the capital city until his demise, which 
occurred in October, 1896. He took an active and interested part in 
the early development of this portion of the state, and his sympathy 
and support were always given to the measures and monuments which 
contributed to the latter-day progress and improvement. 

Judge Anderson was only three years old at the time of his 
parents' removal to the west. He began his education in the public 
schools, and supplemented his early mental training by study in Santa 
Clara college, thus completing his literary course. His i^rofessional 
training was received in the Benicia Law College. His earlier studies, 
however, were directed in such a manner as to prepare him for the 
profession of civil engineering, but at a later date he determined to 
pursue the study of the law, and entered the institution mentioned, 
completing there a thorough law course, after which he was graduated 
with the class of 1865. 

Throughout his entire business career Judge Anderson has de 
voted his attention to the law, having been admitted to the bar of Cali- 
fornia by the supreme court of the state in 1866, and to the United 
States circuit court in 1880. Admitted to the bar, he at once entered 
upon practice, and from the beginning has been unusualh" prosperous 
in every respect. The success he has attained has been due to his own 
efforts and merits. The possession of advantages is no guarantee 
whatever of professional advancement, which comes not of itself, nor 
can it be secured without integrity, ability and industry. These qual- 
ities he possesses to an eminent degree, and he is faithful to every in- 
terest committed to his charge. Throughout his whole life, whatever 
his hand has found to do, whether in his profession or in his official 
duties, or in any other sphere, he does with all his might and with a 
deep sense of conscientious obligation. As a law>'er, he is sound, 
clear-minded and well trained. He is at home in all departments of 
the law, from the minutiae in practice to the greater topics involving 
the consideration of the ethics and the ]ihilosophy of jurisprudence and 
the higher concerns of ])ublic policy. His success, however, affords 
the best evidence of his capabilities in this line. He is a strong advo- 
cate with the jury, and concise in his appeals before the court. Much 
of the success which has attended him in his professional career is 
undoubtedly due to the fact that in no instance will he permit himself 
to go into court with a case unless he has absolute confidence in the 


justice of his client's cause. Basing his efforts ou this principle, from 
which there are far too many lapses in professional ranks, it naturally 
follows that he seldom loses a case in whose support he is enlisted. 

Judge Anderson was first chosen to public office before he had 
attained his majority, being elected county auditor in 1866. His next 
public service was that of assistant adjutant-general in the Fourth 
Brigade of the California National Guard, from 1868 to 1879. In the 
meantime he was elected city attorney in 1875, and was continued in 
that ol'iice until 1886. In 1893 legislative honors were conferred upon 
him, he being chosen to represent the eighteenth district of California 
in the assembly, where he gave careful consideration to every question 
that came up for settlement, and espoused with ardor or opposed with 
equal earnestness the course which he believed would prove of benefit 
to the commonwealth or check its best interests. His service in the 
house won him the commendation of his constituents and the respect 
of his political opponents. In 1898 he was chosen police judge of 
Sacramento, and his decisions were characterized by the strictest im- 
partiality and equity. He was serving an unexpired term as city 
justice when the new charter went into effect. 

Judge Anderson has always given his political allegiance to the 
Republican party, and having made a close and earnest study of the 
issues and questions of the day, he has become more strongly con- 
firmed in his opinion that the party platform contains the best ele- 
ments of good government. His campaign work has been effective 
and far-reaching, for he has visited various portions of California, 
advocating the doctrines of Republicanism, and expounding the basic 
elements on which the political organization rests. He was one of 
the first champions of Major McKinley in California, and became a 
member of the executive committee during that campaign. He has 
been a delegate to nearly every Republican county and state conven- 
tion for nearly thirty years, and his opinions carry weight in the 
counsels of his party. In 1898 he was a delegate to the National 
Republican League convention, held in Omaha. 

Judge Anderson has been twice married, and by the first union 
had one son, Osmer "W. Anderson, who was born August 22, 1871, and 
who was for two years a volunteer soldier in the Philippines. On the 
8th of September. 1880, Judge Anderson married Miss Mary Cadwell. 
Their 's is an attractive home, the center of many an entertaining 
social fimction, and hospitality which is both gracious and generous 
is the pervading atmosphere of the household. In his fraternal rela- 
tions Judge Anderson is an Odd Fellow. He was reared in the 
Episcopal faith, but is a man of broad and liberal ^dews in religious 
matters, and is a communicant of no church organization at the 
present time. 

A man of scholarly attainments and literary tastes, possessing 
broad general, as well as classical, information, he finds considerable 


enjoyment in giving his time to literary pursuits, and has been a fre- 
quent contributor to the daily papers. He was one of the founders 
of a literary journal called "Themis," which was noted for historical 
merit and for its clear-cut and literary editorials. He is the author 
of some dramatic works, and is well known as a dramatic critic and 
lover of the drama. He has studied from the art standpoint many of 
the most celebrated dramas of the world, and has had a personal 
accjuaiutance with most of the great dramatists of a generation ago, 
including Edwin Booth, John McCuUough, Lawrence Barrett and a 
number of the actors and actresses. His writings are fluent and enter- 
taining, eloquent and versatile, and for a third of a century he has 
been known to the public as a lecturer whose addresses have created 
widespread interest. His influence upon literary and aesthetic culture 
of the state has been most potent, and at the same time he has given 
a practical support to the measures intended to advance the material 
interests of Sacramento. As a man and a citizen he is honored and 
respected in every class of society. While undoubtedly he is not with- 
out that honorable ambition which is so powerful and useful as an 
incentive to activity in public affairs, he regards the pursuits of pri- 
vate life as being in themselves abundantly worthy of his best efforts. 
His is a character that subordinates personal ambition to public good 
and seeks rather the benefit of others than the aggrandizement of self. 
His is a conspicuously successful career. Endowed by nature with 
high intellectual qualities, to which are added the discipline and em- 
bellishments of culture, his is a most attractive personality. Well 
versed in the learning of his profession, with a deep knowledge of 
human nature and of the springs of human conduct, with great 
shrewdness and sagacity, and extraordinary tact, he is in the courts 
an advocate of great power and influence, and both judges and juries 
hear him with deep interest. 



The history of Masonry in the state of California is so inextric- 
ably interwoven with the history of Masonry in Sacramento, that we 
may be pardoned if we give a somewhat extended mention of its in- 
ception. The first meeting of lodges that resulted in the formation 
of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons 
of the State of California took place in the city of Sacramento. For 
the early history of Masonry in the state we are indebted to the deep 
and tireless research of old records by Edwin A. Sherman, 33°, Vener- 
able Grand Secretary of the Masonic Veteran Association of the 
Pacific Coast, as set forth in his "Fifty Years of Masonry in Cali- 
fornia. ' ' 

Even with the first explorers of the wilds west of the Rocky 


mountains, came Masons as trappers, hunters and traders. Few, if 
any, such parties did not embrace within their ranks at least one or 
more Masons, fearless, energetic men, who carried in their bosoms the 
doctrines and secret ceremonies of the Mystic Tie, men of moral 
courage as well as physical, of stern integrity and fidelity to their 
Masonic obligations. Many a tale could be told of the devotion of 
these daring spirits to their distressed or imperiled brethren, and also 
to their comrades not bound to them by the ties of Masonry. 

The first Masonic missionary, for he might well be classed as a 
missionary, who came to California, and returned to Missouri to bring 
from the Grand Lodge of that state the first charter for a Masonic 
lodge, was Peter Lassen. Long before the discovery of gold, he came 
here, brave, hardy and determined, and was untiring in his resolve 
to foimd a Masonic lodge here, while the country was still under the 
Mexican rule. Lassen was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, August 7, 
1800, and there learned his trade of blacksmith. At twenty-nine years 
of age he crossed the ocean to Boston, and a few years after removed 
to Missouri. In 1839, with a party of others, he came to Oregon, and 
after spending the winter there, sailed in an English ship to Fort 
Bodega, then occupied by the Russians. The Mexican comandante 
sent a party of soldiers to prevent their landing, but the Russian 
governor ordered the Mexican soldiers to leave or be shot down, and 
they retired. Lassen and his comrades were stranded and unable to 
get away, and ajjpealed to the American consul at Monterey, stating 
that they had been denied passports and were without funds, that they 
wanted to proceed to the settlements or to obtain a pass to return to 
their own country. The appeal wound up with the characteristic state- 
ment : ' ' Should we receive no relief, we will take up our arms and 
travel, consider ourselves in an enemy's country and defend ourselves 
with our guns." 

After remaining at Bodega fifteen days, however, they managed 
to reach Yerba Buena and later Lassen went to San Jose, bought some 
land in 1841 at Santa Cruz and set up a sawmill. In 184.3 John Bid- 
well, Lassen and James Burheim pursued a party bound for Oregon as 
far as Red Bluff and recovered some stolen animals. Bidwell made 
a map of the valley and named the streams, and on his return Lassen 
applied to Governor Micheltorena for a grant of land, based on Bid- 
well's ma]). He received it and selected Deer creek, in Tehama county, 
proceeding there the next spring and making the first settlement noi'th 
of Cordua at Marysville. He laid out a town which he named Benton 
City, where he proposed to start a Masonic lodge. He laid out the 
Lassen road for immigTants and named Lassen Peak. This was before 
the discovery of gold, and in 1847 he went back to Missouri to get a 
charter for a lodge, several other Masons having joined him at Benton 
City. He obtained a charter for Western Star Lodge No. 98, May 10, 
1848, naming Saschel Woods, master; L. E. Stewart, senior warden, 


and Lasseu, junior warden. He returned with the charter and an im- 
migrant train of twelve wagons, being joined at Pitt river by a party 
of Oregoniaus who had heard of the discovery of gold, of which he had 
not heard until they joined him. He did not learn that a Masonic 
lodge had been instituted at Oregon City, September 11, 1848, under 
authority of the grand lodge of Missouri, or that Joseph Hull, the 
master, and several other Masons of that lodge were with the Oregon 
train. Neither party learned till long afterwards that any of the 
others were Masons, or that Lassen had a charter for a lodge. He 
afterwards went to Plumas county, and in 1853 met his death at the 
hands of the Piute Indians. His body was recovered by citizens and 
buried at Honey lake on his ranch, and a stone monument erected to 
his memory, while the county of Lassen was named after him. 

November 9, 1848, Samuel York Atlee, William Van Voorhies and 
Bedney F. McDonald received a charter for California Lodge No. 13, 
from the District of Columbia, and located it at San Francisco. Con- 
necticut Lodge No. 75 was granted a charter by the grand lodge of 
Connecticut, January 31, 1849. Pacific Lodge, U. D., was granted a 
traveling charter by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, June 5, 1849, and 
located at Benicia, subsequently becoming Benicia Lodge. The same 
Grand Lodge also granted a dispensation to Davy Crockett Lodge at 
San Francisco. Illinois granted a dispensation to a traveling lodge 
which located at Marysville, and Wisconsin granted one to Lafayette 
Lodge at Nevada City. The records of Western Star Lodge were de- 
stroyed by fire, so that, although it was the oldest lodge in the state, 
the records of California Lodge No. 13 are the oldest extant. 

Connecticut Lodge No. 75, the first one in Sacramento, is now 
known as Tehama Lodge No. 3, F. and A. M. Its inception, as re- 
lated by R. H. McDonald and Past Grand Master John A. Tutt, the 
only Mason living who assisted in the organization of the grand lodge 
of California, we find some interesting data. In 1849 Dr. McDonald 
opened an office on K street near Sixth, and a friend of his, who was 
going to the mines, came to his office and said: "Doctor, when I was 
coming across the plains and along the Humboldt valley in Nevada, I 
saw piled up on the sand by the side of the road, a lot of books, and 
on a card fastened on a stick, this notice : ' Help yourself. ' There were 
a good many fine Ijooks in the heap, and among them this large red 
morocco-covered Bible with gilt edges. As I could not pack more than 
one book along with me, I took this Bible, and brought it through. As 
I am going to the mines, and cannot take it with me, and as you are a 
kind of religious cuss, I'll give it to you." Dr. McDonald accepted it. 

Shortly after, in September, 1849, several written notices were 
found posted up around the horse market, on the trees, calling a 
meeting of all Master Masons in good standing, to meet in the upper 
part of a building on the north side of K street. When the meeting 
convened, the little garret was packed with brethren who were nearly 


all strangers to one another. The meeting was called to order by John 

A. Tutt, and someone made a motion that Dr. R. II. McDonald take 
the chair. Dr. McDonald was surprised, as he did not know a single 
person present, but he approached the box that was used as a chair, 
and was confronted by a tall stranger, who also stepped forward to 
take it. It was an amusing scene, as they stood looking each other in 
the face. "Are you Dr. R. H. McDonald, and have you a monopoly of 
the name of McDonald," asked R. li. "I am Dr. R. H. McDaniel," 
was the reply, "but am known as Dr. McDonald through a mistake in 
calling my name." Mutual explanations followed, and as the stranger 
proved to be the one nominated, he took the chair and opened the 
meeting. When it became necessary to ascertain who were Masons, 
it was discovered that there was no Bible present, and it could not be 
dispensed with. "Wait a minute, and I will get one," said Dr. Mc- 
Donald. He went out and brought in the pioneer Bible which his 
friend had given him. An association was then and there formed for 
the relief of the sick and distressed brethren who were constantly 

Soon afterwards the discovery was made that there was in ex- 
istence a charter for a Masonic Lodge in the hands of one of the 
brethren, issued to Connecticut Lodge No. 75. Upon this the associa- 
tion was dissolved, and on January 8, 1850, it organized under the 
name of Connecticut Lodge No. 75, and Dr. R. H. McDonald presented 
liis Bible to the lodge. Today it belongs to Tehama Lodge No. 3, 
the successor of Connecticut Lodge. The lodge secured the upper part 
of the Red House, on the southeast corner of Fifth and J streets, which 
was the building best suited to its purposes, at that time, but as the 
owner shortly afterwards rented the lower story for immoral pur- 
poses, the lodge removed with its furniture to the attic over the old 
market house on M street near Second. Previous to this, however, 
the Grand Lodge of California was organized in the building first 
occupied, on April 19, 1850. Tehama Lodge No. 3 was chartered by 
the Grand Loclge of California. The Bible used in organizing the 
Grand Lodge of California was the same one Dr. McDonald pre- 
sented to Connecticut Lodge. 

The deputy grand master of New Jersey issued a dispensation 
March 1, 1849, to open a lodge in the territory of California, which 
seems to have been a sort of roving commission, with power for the 
master and brethren to appoint his successors in office until the next 
annual meeting of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey. It seemed to 
exist continuously and to assume the functions and pri^aleges of an 
independent chartered lodge. The dispensation from the Grand Lodge 
of New Jersey authorized Thomas Youngs, Moses W. Personett, John 

B. Clark and others to open the lodge, and named Youngs as master. 
He conveyed authority to John E. Crockett and certified that fact on 
the back of the dispensation. Crockett, so authorized, opened New 


Jersey Lodge in this city December 4, 1849, and it was in active and 
successful oi^eration by April 17, 1850, and chose its representatives 
to the convention of that date. The delegates, however, could take no 
part in the organization of the Grand Lodge, not being an independent 
chartered lodge, but only a temporary creation of the Deputy Grand 
Master of New Jersey. Immediately after the organization of the 
Grand Lodg-e of California, this lodge applied and received a charter 
as Berryman Lodge No. 3, which was changed shortly afterwards to 
Jennings Lodge No. 4. 

There are very few who are aware that there were two Grand 
Lodges of California instituted for the government of the order, but 
such was the fact. The records of the first Grand Lodge were un- 
doubtedly destroyed. There was no opportimity to examine the 
records of Connecticut Lodge and Western Star Lodge, which were 
destroyed by fire, nor of New Jersey Lodge, U. D., which is extinct, 
nor of Benicia Lodge, U. D., of Benicia, which presented no records 
to the convention. California Lodge No. 13, of San Francisco, was a 
regularly chartered lodge, but it was not notified of the action con- 
templated for the organization of a Grand Lodge, and as the Masonic 
law and custom provides that there must be present representatives 
from three regularly chartered lodges, the organization of the first 
Grand Lodge was irregular and illegal. 

California Lodge No. 13, being notified of the action organizing 
a Grand Lodge at Sacramento, appointed a committee to investigate, 
and finding the state of affairs, notified the Sacramento brethren of 
the irregularity of their action, suggesting that the matter be begun 
over again. The brethren at Sacramento, finding their error, aban- 
doned voluntarily their Grand Lodge, the officers of which are un- 
known, and joined with California Lodge for the formation of a legally 
constituted Grand Lodge. Notices were sent oiit to the regular lodges 
of A. Y. Masons of the state, for a convention to be held at Sacra- 
mento April 17, 1850, for the formation of a Grand Lodge. 

The convention met on the 17th in this city, and Most Worshipful 
Charles Gilman of San Francisco, Past Grand Master of Maryland, 
was called to the chair, and Benjamin D. Hyam of Benicia, after- 
wards Grand Master of California, was chosen secretary. Representa- 
tives of the following lodges presented their credentials to W. N. 
Doughty and John A. Tutt of Sacramento and John H. Gihon of San 
Francisco, the Committee on Credentials: California Lodge No. 13, 
San Francisco ; Connecticut Lodge No. 75, Sacramento ; Western Star 
Lodge No. 98, Benton City; New Jersey Lodge, U. D., Sacramento; 
Benicia Lodge, U. D., Benicia. The committee reported the first three 
as regularly chartered, and New Jersey Lodge as regularly under dis- 
pensation, but that Benicia Lodge had presented neither a charter nor 
a dispensation. The three chartered lodges were pronounced by the 
convention entitled to form a Grand Lodge. The constitution of the 


Grand Lodge was adopted on April 19th, and the following Grand 
Officers elected: Jonathan D. Stevenson, R. W. grand master; John 
A. Tutt, R. W. deputy grand master; Caleb Fenner, R. W. senior 
grand warden; Saschel Woods, R. W. junior grand warden; John H. 
Gilion, R. W. grand secretary. 

New Jersey Lodge was granted a charter, and at the first annual 
meeting of the Grand Lodge in this city, May 7, 1850, Benicia Lodge 
received its charter. A dispensation had been granted to Sutter Lodge 
in Sacramento, and it was granted a charter. The lodges belonging to 
the Grand Lodge were given numbers as follows: California Lodge, 
No. 1; Western Star Lodge, No. 2; Tehama Lodge, No. 3; Berryman 
Lodge (Sacramento), No. 4; Benicia Lodge, No. 5; Sutter Lodge 
(Sacramento), No. 6. The name of Berryman Lodge was changed to 
Jennings Lodge No. 4. By this formation of the Grand Lodge, Sacra- 
mento secured in the election the deputy grand master, junior grand 
warden, and eight of the appointive officers, to which she was en 
titled, being the great distributing point for Masonic charity. 

The semi-annual meeting of the Grand Lodge was held at Sacra- 
mento in November, 1850, during the last days of the cholera epidemic, 
and in its proceedings it developed that those attending taxed them- 
selves voluntarily for charity, $17,010.70, an average of $205 each ; and 
assumed a debt of $14,425.44, an average of $174, making a contribu- 
tion of $379 for every Master Mason in Sacramento contributing to 
the Masonic Hospital inside of ten months, besides answering other 
demands for charity of all descriptions. Those were the days when 
Masons' hearts and purses were opened wide at the call of distress. 
Fortunately for Sacramento, she has never since been so strenuously 
called on for relief, although even now her board of relief, composed 
of the masters of the lodges, is called upon to contribute large sums 
yearly. Never, j^erhaijs, in the history of the world has there been an 
exhibition of such great sacrifice, such unselfish charity, and such de- 
voted service to the cause of humanity as the records of the early 
days of Sacramento show to have been carried out by the Masonic 
pioneers of the city and state, in conjunction with the offspring of 
Masonry — the Order of Odd Fellows — during the terrible seasons of 
disease and e]iidemic in 1849-50. 

In 1864 the initial steps were taken for the erection of a Masonic 
Temple. The first meeting of the Masonic Hall Association was held 
July 1, 1864. The board of directors chosen from the five lodges were 
A. T. Nelson, Leonard Goss, W. F. Knox, H. T. Holmes, Richai-d 
Dale, S. D. Smith, Thomas Ross, P. S. Lawson and John W. Rock, 
all of whom have since passed away. The association incorpor- 
ated on September 17, 1864, with a capital of $30,000, divided into 
twelve thousand shares of twenty-five dollars each. November 1, 1864, 
they bought of R. D. Ferguson the old "Horse Market" at the south- 
west corner of Sixth and K streets, on the trees of which, in 1849, 


the notices for the first meeting of Masons in Sacramento had been 
posted. June 24, 1865, the cornerstone of the building was laid by 
Grand Master William Caldwell Belcher. An excursion to Clipper 
Gap, where an oration was delivered by A. A. Sargent, netted $18,000, 
and the hall, which was added to and remodeled in 1875, at a cost of 
many thousands, is one of the finest and most valuable Masonic prop- 
erties in the state. A few years ago the directors of the association 
purchased a site at Twelfth and J streets, on which it is proposed to 
erect a new Masonic Temple, the plans of which have been accepted, 
at a cost of $450,000. In the present temple the five lodges of Sacra- 
mento meet, as well as the Chapter, E. A. M., the Council, Com- 
mandery and the Scottish Eite bodies, as well as four Eastern Star 
chapters. The Scottish Eite bodies are planning at present to erect a 
building for that Masonic branch. 

The early history of Tehama Lodge No. 3, which was first char- 
tered as Connecticut Lodge No. 75, and recharterecl by the Grand 
Lodge under its present name January 8, 1850, has been delineated in 
this article. The charter was granted to Caleb Fenner, W. M. ; James 
W. Goodrich, S. W., and Elizur Hubbell, J. W. John A. Tutt, one 
of its charter members, was afterwards grand master. Two of Cali- 
fornia's early governors, John Bigler and J. Neely Johnson, were 
among its members on the first roll sent to the Grand Lodge in Novem- 
ber, 1850; also Gen. A. M. Winn. After the lodge removed from the 
Eed House it located in the hall over the market house at Second and 
M streets, moving thence to the upper story of Stanford's building on 
K street, and going, in 1854, to the third story of Bennett's building 
on J street, between Front and Second. Since the erection of the Tem- 
ple, it holds its meetings there. It is a prosperous lodge, its present 
membership being two hundred and thirty. The officers for 1912: 
Henry A. W. Lindgreen, W. M. ; Louis e". Plate, S. W.; Henry H. 
MeCann, J. W. ; William 0. Girardy, treasurer ; Theodore J. Milliken, 
secretarv; Charles E. Farrar, chaplain; Donald McClain, S. D. ; Tol- 
bert T. Bray, S. D. ; Halleck H. Look, marshal ; Albert Greilich, S. S. ; 
Chester W. Foster, J. S. ; E. 0. Cravens, tyler. 

Jennings Lodge No. 4, acting under dispensation as New Jersey 
Lodge, and chartered by the Grand Lodge of California May 7, 1850, 
as Berryman Lodge No. 4, of which the name was changed the same 
day to Jennings Lodge No. 4, resolved February 14, 185.3, to surrender 
its charter to the Grand Lodge, and did so, passing out of existence. 
Hon. H. C. Hastings, afterwards a justice of the supreme court of 
California, E. J. C. Kewen, and other prominent men were members 
of it. 

Sutter Lodge No. 6 was granted a dispensation by Deputy Grand 
Master Tutt April 19, 1850, with Edward J. Willis", W. M.'; C. E. 
Thorn, S. D., and Addison Martin, J. D., as officers, and was granted 
a charter by the Grand Lodge on May 7th following. The lodge, hav- 


iug lost its furuitnre aud jewels b)' fire, surrendered its charter, and 
was declared extinct by the Grand Lodge, May 6, 1853. E. J. Willis 
was county judge of Sacramento, and E. W. McKiustry, another mem- 
ber, was afterwards a justice of the supreme coui't of California. 

Washington Lodge No. 20 was organized February 19, 1852, 
granted a dispensation two days afterwards, with Charles Dunscombe, 
W. M.; Jesse Morrill, S. W. ; J. L. Thompson, J. W., and a charter 
was granted to it May 5, 1852. Its first master, N. Greene Curtis, 
served four terms as grand master, and it has in its membership our 
present governor, Hiram Warren Johnson, besides two governors who 
afterwards received foreign appointments — John Bigler, United States 
Minister to Chili, and Romualdo Pacheco, United States Minister to 
Guatemala, and who was the second native Spanish Californian, as 
far as is known, to receive the degree of Masonry. There were a num- 
ber of other members who became prominent in the state's historj". 
The officers for 1912 were: John Gibson Labadie, W. M. ; Clyde 
Horace Brown, S. W. ; John Henry Lindenmeyer, J. W. ; Benjamin 
Huntington Gallup, treasurer; John Scott, secretary; Frank Bock, S. 
D. ; Mahlou E. Waldron, marshal ; George B. Herr, tyler. 

Sacramento Lodge No. 40 was granted a dispensation July 20, 
1853, and May 3, 1854, obtained its charter, when its officers were: 
James Lawrence English, W. M. ; John A. Tutt, S. W. ; John H. Gass, 
J. W. ; W. J. Kohlman, treasurer; W. G. Borneman, secretary; B. F. 
Crouch, chaplain; W. W. Stovall, S. D.; H. Greenbaum, J. D. Edwin 
Sherman, author of "Fifty Years of Masonry in California," was a 
member of this lodge. John A. Tutt, William Lawrence English and 
E. C. Atkinson were all grand masters. W. M. Petrie, for more than 
thirty years treasurer of the lodge, W. L. English, Isaac Davis and 
W. F. Knox have been grand high priests of the Grand Chapter, and 
grand commanders of the Grand Commandery of California. Davis 
and English were also grand masters of the Grand Council. 

Union Lodge No. 58 was granted a dispensation June 5, 1854, 
with James Ealston, W. M. ; Gabriel Haines, S. W. ; and Sol Kohl- 
man, J. W., pro tern.; May 4, 1855, its charter was granted, with 
the same master and senior warden, W. A. Walters as junior war- 
den, taking Kohlman 's place. The only charter member now living 
is Col. A. Andrews of San Francisco. Samuel C. Denson, a former 
judge of the superior court, was a grand master from this lodge, 
and George T. Bromley, known all over the coast for his amiable 
and genial qualities, was a member. He was conductor of the 
first train on the first railroad built in California. Benjamin Welch, 
another member, was a thirtv-third degree member of the A. and 
A. S. R. 

Concord Lodge No. 117 never received a dispensation. Its peti- 
tion for a charter was received by the Grand Lodge May 14, 1857, and 
its charter was granted the next morning, naming John L. Thompson, 


W. M. ; Thomas Johnson, S. W. ; and Charles S. White, J. W. William 
H. Hevener, the oldest member and a past master of this lodge, was 
given his degrees in 1859. He has been secretary of the lodge for 
nearly thirty years. The late S. H. Gerrish, who died in Angnst, 1912, 
for many years secretary of the Sacramento Free Library, was a 
member of this lodge. 


Sacramento Chapter No. 3, R. A. M., was instituted October 5, 

1852, with the following officers and charter members : Isaac Davis, 
H. P.; J. H. Bullard, K.; Joel Noah, S.; T. A. Thomas, C. of H. ; 
Charles Duncombe, P. S. ; J. Ball, R. A. C. ; J. P. Gouch, M. Third V. ; 
Q. Haines, M. Second V. ; J. Wilcoxson, M. First V. The other charter 
members were: A. B. Hoy, T. W. Thayer, John L. Thompson, Jesse 
Morrill, William Reynolds, I. N. Briceland, A. Hullub, Cyrus Rowe. 
The chapter at present numbers over three hundred members. 

Sacramento Council No. 1, Royal and Select Masters, was insti- 
tuted April 10, 1858, with the following officers and charter members : 
Isaac Davis, T. I. M. ; John A. Tutt, D. I. M. ; Geo. I. N. Monell, P. C. 
of W. ; G. E. Montgomery, R. ; N. Greene Curtis, treasurer. Other 
charter members were : Jesse Morrill, T. A. Thomas, G. Haines, H. H. 
Hartley, O. H. Dibble, A. G. Richardson and J. Wilcoxson. It has at 
present a very large membership. 

Sacramento Commandery No. 2, K. T., was instituted July 5, 

1853, with the following charter members and officers : Isaac Davis, 
E. C; Jesse Morrill, G.; T. A. Thomas, C. G.; C. I. Hutchinson, A. B. 
Hoy, John L. Thompson, Charles Duncombe, J. P. Gouch and James 
M. Stockley. It numbers over two hundred and fifty members. 

In 1869 the Scottish Rite branch of Masonry was introduced in 
Sacramento, Jacques de Molay Council No. 2, Knights Kadosh, being 
instituted on May 13th of that year. Palestine Lodge of Perfection 
No. 3 and Alpha Chapter No. 1, Rose Croix, were also instituted about 
the same time, but the interest in the Rite dying down, they were dis- 
continued in 1873. It was revived again April 3, 1895, by the insti- 
tution of Isaac Davis Lodge of Perfection No. 4 -and Palestine Chapter 
Rose Croix No. 6, October 25, 1901, and Sacramento Council No. 5, 
Knights Kadosh, instituted on the same date, followed. Sacramento 
Consistory No. 7 was instituted March 17, 1905. The order is in a 
most prosperous condition. It belongs to the southern jurisdiction of 
the United States of America. In the late '80s, or early '90s, a 
spurious order of Scottish Rite endeavored to obtain a foothold in 
Sacramento, but was short lived. 

There are at present two 33° Masons in Sacramento: William 
M. Petrie and Edward C. H. Hopkins, Benjamin Welch and M. J. 
Curtis having recently died. 

Naomi Chapter No. 36, Order of the Eastern Star, was instituted 


May 3, 1879, witbiu a few weeks the meiubership increasing to forty. 
It is the senior chapter in the city, and boasts of the largest member- 
ship. The officers and charter members were: Mrs. E. M. Frost, W. 
M. ; J. N. Young, W. P. ; Mrs. M. J. Cravens, A. M. ; E. C. Atkinson, 
secretary; W. H. Hevener, treasurer; Mrs. A. J. Atkinson, chaplain; 
Miss H. A. Palmer, C. ; Miss M. A. Stanton, A. C; Mrs. A. Coghlan, 
Adah ; Mrs. G. Van Voorheis, Ruth ; Mrs. M. E. Parsons, Esther ; Mrs. 
E. M. Hartley, Martha; Mrs. C. P. Huntoon, Electa; Mrs. M. F. Mc- 
Laughlin, W. ; J. T. Griffitts, sentinel. 

Columbus Chapter No. 117, 0. E. S., was instituted August 8, 
1892, with eighty-three charter members. Sacramento Chapter No. 
190, 0. E. S., was instituted March 7, 1901, with seventy-one charter 
members. Ada Chapter No. .301, 0. E. S., was instituted in 1911. 

Jewel Court, U. D., of the Royal and Exalted Degree of Amar- 
anth, was instituted August 27, 1910, the grand officers of the order 
conducting the installation. The first ofiScers were: Royal matron, 
Eliza Higgins ; royal patron, Frank Kleinsorge; associate royal ma- 
tron, Lulu E. Adams; honored seci'etary, Estella Labadie; honored 
treasurer, Frances Just ; honored conductress, Addie De Coe ; honored 
associate conductress, Ellen Bowden; honored herald, Frankie Carlaw; 
honored marshal in the east, Mary N. Martin; honored marshal in the 
west, Alice E. Teal; honored prelate, James T. Martin; Lady Truth, 
Bertha Peart; Lady Faith, Elsie Lindgreen; Lady Wisdom, Elsie 
Kleinsorge ; Lady Charity, Margaret Z. Kelly ; honored warder, Agnes 
Hummell; honored sentinel, Henry Lindgreen. The court received its 
charter April 12, 1911. 

The colored people have what they claim are lodges of Free- 
masonry, working under charters obtained from other jurisdictions, 
but not recognized by the white Masons as being regular. 

Philomathean Lodge No. 2, F. and A. M. (Colored), worked under 
a charter ol)tained from England. It was organized November 6, 1853, 
and has qi;ite a large membership. St. John Chapter, R. A. M. (Col- 
ored), was organized in 1873. 

Adah Chapter No. 2, 0. E. S. (Colored), was instituted in 1871 
with twenty-nine members. Dr. R. J. Fletcher was the leading spirit 
in Colored Masonry among the colored people, and was instrumental 
in establishing the Grand Chapter 0. E. S. (Colored), which was in- 
stituted in this city December 27, 1882. The Chinese have a sign 
stating that they have a lodge of Masons on Third street, and are said 
to use some of the s^nnbols of the order, but whether they have any 
of the esoteric work is not known. It is known, however, that there 
are Masonic lodges in China. 

General A. M. Winn has the credit of introducing Odd Fellowship 
into Sacramento as early as August, 1849. There were a number of 


Odd Fellows in the city at that time, and General Winn effected an 
informal organization among them for the purpose of affording 
relief to the sick members of the order, as well as to others. Their 
noble deeds should never be forgotten, for they spared neither time, 
work, nor money in relieving the distress and sickness that were so 
prevalent at that time. The Masons joined with them in the work 
and erected a joint hospital. The complete organization of the first 
Odd Fellows' lodge, however, did not take place until January 28, 1851, 
when Sacramento Lodge No. 2, I. O. 0. F., was instituted, with Horatio 
E. Roberts, N. G. ; G. H. Peterson, V. G. ; George G. Wright, Secretary, 
and Lucius A. Booth, Treasurer. The other charter members were: 
Samuel Deal, M. Kaliski, Robert Robinson, N. C. Cunningham, M. C. 
Collins and William Childs. The meetings were held at first in the 
rooms of the Freemasons. The lodge numbers between two hundred 
and fifty and three hundred members. 

Eureka Lodge No. 4, I. 0. 0. F., was organized January 7, 1852, 
with the following officers and charter members : George I. N. 
Monnell, N. G. ; Thomas Sunderland, V. G. ; A. P. Andrews, Secre- 
tary; William Watson, Treasurer; John Turner, R. S. N. G.; R. Por- 
ter, L. S. N. G. ; W. H. Tilley, R. S. V. G. ; W. H. Hall, L. S. V. G. ; 
Thomas M. Davis, Warden; A. J. Lucas, Conductor; also David Hall 
and Jesse Morrill. 

El Dorado Lodge No. 8, I. 0. 0. F., was organized September 24, 
1852, with officers and charter members as follows: J. F. Cloutman, 
N. G. ; J. L. Polhemus. V. G. ; L. D. Kelly, R. S. ; George W. Chedie, 
Treasurer ; A. B. Armstrong, L. Korn, James Levi, Thomas B. Moore, 
Joseph S. Korn, James S. Scott and W. Prosser. 

Capitol Lodge No. 87, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted June 10, 1859, 
by District Deputy Grand Master, Samuel Cross, with the following 
first officers and charter members; E. F. White, N. G. ; C. M. Mason, 
V. G. ; John McClintock, Secretary, and Amos Woods, Treasurer; the 
other charter members were: E. M. Heuston, G. A. Basler, C. B. 
Steane, Lewis Shuck, Thomas B. Byrne, James Bowstead, M. M. 
Estee and F. K. Krauth. 

Schiller Lodge No. 105, I. 0. 0. F., was organized on June 26, 
1862, with officers and charter members as follows: S. J. Nathan, N. 
G. ; Joseph Schwab, V. G. ; Charles Schwartz, secretary, Charles 
Dohn, P. S. ; L. C. Mendelson, treasurer; Lewis Korn, H. Theilbahr, 
Anton Wagner, A. Meier, George Ochs, F. Gotthold, Jacob Klippell, 
Louis Greenbaum, Peter Kunz and George Guth. 

Industrial Lodge No. 157, T. 0. 0. F., was organized April 24, 
1869. The officers and charter members were as follows : G. W. 
Carroll, N. G. ; J. M. Ripley, V. G. ; J. A. Seamon, R. S. ; G. A. Stod- 
dard, P. S. ; John Ri]-)pon, treasurer. Other charter members were: 
G. B. Dean, T. P. Ford, I. C. Shaw, Charles Noyes, C. C. Ault, H. C. 
Wolf, J. M. Anderson, M. Phelan, B. F. Huntlev, S. H. Gerrish, Roval 


Preston, W. F. Emersou, R. McRae, J. L. Gerrisb, P. Bolger, G. F. 
Pattison, W. D. Hammoud, J. S. Pbilbrick, George Landon, M. Fa- 
vero, E. E. Masters, W. C. Gent, Joliu Thomas, Add Crandall, J. C. 
Carroll and F. Woodward. 

Pacific Encampment No. 2, I. O. 0. F., was organized July 29, 
1853, with eight charter members: Matthew Parden, P. C. P.; C. C. 
Hayden, P. C. P.; Thomas W. Davis, P. H. P.; W. H. Watson, 
P. ii. P. ; John F. Morse, P. Robinson, A. J. Lucas and Walter Prosser. 

Occidental Encampment No. 42, I. 0. 0. F., was organized No- 
vember 14, 1871. S. S. Nixon, P. L. Hickman, J. F. Clark, F. H. 
McCormick, R. Davis, Nelson Wilcox and W. M. Ruse were the 
charter members ; nearly all have passed away. 

Grand Canton Sacramento No. 1, Patriarchs Militant, I. 0. 0. F. 
June 14, 1875, fifty Odd Fellows organized Sacramento Battalion 
Company A. The first officers were: A. H. Powers, commander 
H. A. Burnett, first lieutenant; A. Menke, second lieutenant; J. A 
Hutchings, secretary; G. M. Mott, treasurer; F. Hogeboom, first ser 
geant; James S. Scott, second sergeant; J. H. Miller, standard bearer 
P. E. Piatt and J. H. Stebbins, color bearers. 

The Sovereign Grand Lodge, at a regular session in September, 
1882, made a provision for the uniformed bodies of Odd Fellows and 
passed laws and regulations for them, to be known as Degree Camp 
of Uniformed Patriarchs. January .30, 1883, Sacramento Degree 
Camp No. 1, Uniformed Patriarchs, was organized with forty-three 
members and elected the following officers : Ed. M. Martin, com- 
mander; Frank Hogaboom, vice-commander; William A. Stephenson, 
secretary; Nelson Wilcox, treasurer; H. A. Burnett, officer of the 
guard; W. E. Piatt, picket; F. P. Lowell, banner; Charles Cooley, 
guard of tent. The first two initiates in the state were W. F. Nor- 
cross and J. Carlaw. 

Tn September, 1885, the Sovereign Grand Lodge, I. 0. O. F., reor- 
ganized the military branch and changed its name to "Cantons of 
Patriarchs Militant, I. O. 0. F." It also adopted a complete set of 
laws, with a complete list of military officers, to be under the Sovereign 
Grand Lodge. In accordance with this change, March 8, 1886, Grand 
Canton Sacramento, No. 1. Patriarchs Militant. I. O. 0. F., was organ- 
ized by General C. W. Breyfogle, with eighty members. It elected 
officers as follows: W. N. Sherburn, commander; Elwood Bruner, 
lieutenant; S. A. Wolfe, ensign for Canton No. 18, both Cantons to 
compose Grand Canton No. 1, which elected W. A. Stephenson clerk, 
and Nelson Wilcox accountant. 

Rising Star Lodge No. 8, Rebekah Degree, I. 0. O. F., was organ- 
ized December 22, 1871, with seventv-one members. Its first officers 
were: P. G. William S. Hunt, N.'G.; Mrs. Ellen Gilman, V. G.; 
Martha A. Hunt, R. S. ; Mrs. W. Roth, P. S. ; Julia Patterson, T. 

Germania Lodge No. 38, Rebekah Degree, I. O. O. F., was organ- 


ized April 27, 1876, with charter officers as follows: A. Heilbron 
(P. G.), N. G.; Mrs. Anna C. Greisel, V. G.; Mrs. Julie Fisher, R. S.; 
Mrs. Fredericke Newman, F. S. ; Mrs. Amilie Meckfessel, T. ; also, 
C. F. G. Salle, P. G. ; F. Fisher, S. Morris, P. G. ; Mrs. Dora Morris, 
John Bolze, P. G. 

Capital City Rebekah Lodge No. 160, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted 
September 3, 1890, by Grand Master John Glasson, with eighty char- 
ter members, eighteen of whom still retain their membership. The 
membership at present is two hundred seventy-five. The first officers 
elected were: Delia Pettit, N. G. ; Alice Seadler, V. G. ; Mary Mur- 
ray, recording secretary; Mary Moore, financial secretary; Annie 
McCaw, treasurer. The present officers are: Mabel Gordon, N. G. ; 
Emma Brady, V. G. ; Emma Gregory, recording secretary; Mary 
Mills, financial secretary; Jennie Washburn, treasurer. 

Sacramento Rebekah Lodge No. 232, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted 
March 29, 1898, with twenty-six charter members, and the member- 
ship at present is one hundred forty-two. The first officers elected 
were: Laura Label, P. N. G. ; Rose E. Schmitt, N. G. ; Rose E. 
Futterer, V. G. ; Lavinia Broughton, recording secretary; Emma E. 
Reinersman, financial secretary; Katherine Futterer, treasurer. The 
appointed officers were : Annie M. Schmidt, Ward. ; Carrie Gruhler, 
Cond. ; Gustave Kortstein, 0. G. ; Josie Reinerman, I. G. ; Mary A. 
Mayhen, R. S. N. G. ; Amelia Meckfessel, L. S. N. G. ; Carrie Popert, 
R. S. V. G. ; Josephine Lakin, L. S. V. G. ; Ida A. Ohnstead, chaplain. 

Oak Park Lodge No. 5, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted April 29, 1905, 
by D. D. G. M. David F. Fox, with Weeden G. Conklin, P. G.; James 
McDougal. P. G.; Frank L. McGrew, William H. Dymond, W. A. 
Bird, William E. Cole, P. G. ; Alexander Orr and M. A. Jenkins, 
charter members. The first officers elected were: James McDougal, 
A. P. G.; William E. Cole, N. G.; William H. Dymond, V. G.; 
W. G. Conklin, secretary; Alexander Orr, treasurer. Twenty-four 
candidates were initiated on the night of its institution. The mem- 
bership at present is one hundred. 

Union Degree Lodge, No. 3, I. 0. 0. F., was organized October 7, 
1853, with a number of members, but was discontinued some time 
during the '80s. 

The Veteran Odd Fellows Association of Sacramento was organ- 
ized in 1873 by a call of several veteran Odd Fellows in this city. 
In order to be eligilile for membership one must have been an Odd 
Fellow for twenty years and be a member of some lodge, in good 
standing. The Odd Fellows' General Relief Committee consists of 
three members from each lodge, to attend to the wants of transient 
members of the order who may be in need. The Odd Fellows' Temple 
Association was preceded by the "Hall Association," incorporated 
June 25, 1862, with a capital stock of $60,000, iafterwards increased 
to $80,000, purchased the St. George hotel building at the corner of 


Fourth and J streets and fitted it up and kept it for several years 
as an Odd Fellows lodge and business block. July 26, 1869, the 
trustees of the lodges and encampment met and organized the present 
Temple Association and purchased a lot for the erection of a temple. 
The result was the erection of the fine four-story building at Ninth 
and K streets, which was at that time the finest structure in the city, 
with the exception of the Capitol. The Association also owns a fine 
plat in the City Cemetery, adjoining the Masonic Cemetery plat. 

Sacramento Lodge No. 2189, G. U. 0. of O. F., (colored) was 
organized on July 14, 1881, with thirty-one members. The first 
officers were: F. T. Bowers, P. N. F. ; E. Brown, N. F.; D. A. John- 
son, P. N. G.; B. A. Johnson, N. G.; R. J. Fletcher, V. G.; H. H. 
Williams, E. S. ; R. H. Small, P. H. ; Q. H. Guinn, W. T. ; R. C. Fer- 
gaison, W. C. The executive authority for this order was derived 
from the national body, under a sub-committee of management lo- 
cated at Philadelphia and acting in harmony with the order in Eng- 


The Knights of Pythias erected a fine hall at the northwest corner 
of Ninth and I streets, which was dedicated July 4, 1889. It is 40x90 
feet, four stories high, and fitted up for the lodge, drill and lecture 
rooms, and a banquet hall. 

Sacramento Division No. 7, Uniform Rank, Knights of Pythias, 
was instituted in October, 1882, with fifty-four charter members. 
The first officers were: James A. Davis, commander; John W. Guth- 
rie, lieutenant commander; Theodore Schumacher, herald; Frank H. 
Kiefer, recorder; George H. Smith, treasurer; George B. Katzenstein, 
sentinel; Joseph T. Keepers, guard; Charles E. Leonard, standard 

Sacramento Lodge No. 11, K. of P., was organized December 2. 
1869, with a large membership, the following being the officers : G. W. 
Wallace, C. C. ; J. H. Sullivan V. C; S. Pearl, Prelate; Frank W. 
Marvin, K. of R. and S.; R. W. Jackson, M. of F.; J. E. Goods, 
M. of E. 

Columbia Lodge No. 42, K. of P., was organized April 21, 1877, 
with J. W. Guthrie, P. C; A. J. Vermilva, "C. C; P. J. Spacher, 
V. C. ; S. A. Wolfe, P. ; John McFetrish, K. of R. and S. ; 0. H. P. 
Sheets, Jr., M. of F.; Robert Pettit, M. of E.; W. E. Lugg, L G.; 
W. E. Oughton, 0. G. ; also, J. Stubbs, M. Odell, J. Goddard, William 
Neidhart and W. Kay. 

Confidence Lodge No. 78, K. of P. was organized August 28, 1882. 
with officers as follows: J. F. Lucas, P. C; J. A. Baker, C. C; 
A. V. Bovne, V. C; F. H. Kiefer, Prelate; A. J. Plant, M. at A.; 
W. B. Rodgers, K. of R. and S. ; J. H. Smith, M. of E. 

Three of the Sisters having heard that Mrs. C. L. C. Lawrence, 


S. M. of E. and C, would pass through Sacramento on her way to 
Los Angeles, where she was to institute the first Temple of Pythian 
Sisters, conceived the idea that as long as Sacramento was the Capital 
of the state, why not also have the first Temple of Pythian Sisters 
there. A committee met Mrs. Lawrence at the train and persuaded 
her to stop over and institute this Temple. This was on the morning 
of December 17, 1889. On the evening of the same day, the first 
Temple of Pythian Sisters in the state of California was instituted 
in this city, in Castle Hall, corner of Ninth and I streets. California 
Temple No. 1 had a charter membership of fifteen Sisters and eight 
Knights. Georgia Guthrie, who died July 22, 1909, was the first 
M. E. C. of the Temple and was also the first Grand Chief of the 
order in this state. Of those who signed the charter at the institution 
of the Temple the following are still members: Sallie Wolf, Delia 
Pettit, Emma Schumacher, Mary Alvord Fitzgerald, J. J. C. Fitz- 
gerald and J. W. Guthrie. 

California Temple has the honor of having had five Sisters elected 
to the highest office in the state, that of Grand Chief. They were as 
follows: Georgia Guthrie, Sallie Wolf, Wessie Katzenstein, Mary 
Alvord Fitzgerald and Maude Berry Sheehan. 

I. o. R. M. 

Cosimmes Tribe No. 14, I. 0. E. M., was organized October 19, 

Eed Jacket Tribe No. 28, I. 0. R. M., was organized October 7, 
1869, with officers as follows: S. Pearl, Sachem; M. T. Brum, S. Sag.; 
P. Gushing, J. Sag.; W. T. Crowell, C. of E.; George A. Putnam, 
K. of W. 

Owosso Tribe No. 39, L 0. E. M., was organized March 25, 1871, 
with sixty-six charter members. The first officers were: Matthew 
E. Johnson, Sachem; Ed. M. Martin, Sen. Sag.; A. C. Freeman, Jun. 
Sag. ; Will J. Beatty, C. of E. ; Daniel E. Alexander, K. of W. ; George 
Y. Yount, financial secretary; George A. White, prophet. 

Eed Cloud Tribe No. 41, I. 0. E. M., was instituted November 
13 and 18, 1871, with over seventy names on the charter list. The 
first officers were : Thomas Sullivan, sachem ; E. A. Eenwick, Sen. 
Sag.; W. Harper, Jun. Sag.; J. J. Carter, C. of E. ; William Huller, 
K. of W.; W. A. McNaughton, F. C. 

Wenonah Council No. 2, Degree of Pocahontas, I. 0. E. M., was 
organized in October, 1887, with forty-one members. 

Juniata Council No. 5, Daughters of Pocahontas, I. 0. E. M., was 
organized July 9, 1888, with twenty-nine members. 

Sacramento Stamm No. 124 U. 0. E. M., was organized October 
18, 1888, with charter members and officers as follows: K. F. Wie- 
meyer, 0. Ch.; F. Engehardt, U. Ch.; C. Schmidt, B. Ch.; E. Nobeh 


seci'etary; J. Suverkrupp, treasurer; George W. Derman, W. Kubnle, 
Charles Sold, George Schmeiser, Charles Boettcher, and W. Braun. 

A. o. u. w. 

Union Lodge No. 21, A. O. U. W., was organized February 9, 1878, 
with thirty-eight charter members, and the first officers were: M. T. 
Brewer, P. M. W. ; C. B. Kellogg, M. W. ; T. W. Sheehan, F. ; George 
T. Bush, 0. ; E. J. Gregory, R. ; Felix Tracy, receiver ; John F. Farns- 
worth. Fin. ; Robert Frazer, guard. The lodge is a large and pros 
perous one. 

Sacramento Lodge, No. 80, A. 0. U. W., was instituted February 
8, 1879, with a large list of charter members. The first officers were : 
John F. Farnsworth, P. M. W. ; James M. Henderson, M. W. ; Edward 
I. Robinson, 0. ; George B. Katzensteiu, R. ; M. R. Beard, Fin. ; 
C. H. Stevens, receiver ; John W. Guthrie, G. ; W. H. H. Willev, I. W. ; 
W. I. Wallace, 0. W. 

Lily of the Valley Lodge No. 11, Degree of Honor, A. O. U. W., 
was organized in 1882, with thirty-three charter members. 

Walhalla Grove No. 6, U. A. 0. D., was organized August 10, 
1866, and incorporated June 13, 1874. The charter members and 
officers were: Anton Menke, N. A.; C. H. Krebs, V. A.; Theodore 
Even, secretary; Jacob Keeber, treasurer; C. C. Haydeu, M. Kestler 
and J. Acker. 

Union Grove No. 6, U. A. 0. D., was organized in 1885. Capi- 
tal City Grove No. 66, U. A. 0. D., was organized April 14, 1887, 
with thirty-six members. Fidelity Grove No. 31, U. A. 0. D., organ- 
ized in 1878, was consolidated with Walhalla Grove, May 1, 1888. 
Sacramento Druidic Circle No. 1, was a society for women, instituted 
April 7, 1872, but was soon permitted to dissolve. 

N. s. G. w. 

The Native Sons of the Golden West is an order originated by 
Gen. A. M. Winn in San Francisco in 1875. He had thought, while 
acting as marshal of a procession July 4, 1869, that a company of 
young Californians would make an interesting part of the procession. 
The idea was in harmony with the times, as the rapid growth of the 
order soon proved. It soon became an influential fraternal and bene- 
ficial society. The designation of each local organization is "parlor," 
indicating its refined and social character. The order celebrates an- 
nually the anniversary of California's admission into the Union. Its 
founder was the first mayor of Sacramento, and his body was buried 
in the Pioneers' plat in the City Cemetery, where a monument to his 
memory was unveiled on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. 

Sacramento Parlor No. 3, N. S. G. W., is one of the oldest Parlors 


in the stcate, having been organized March 22, 1878, with the following 
officers and charter members: Benjamin O'Neil, president; John C. 
Luce, first vice-president; Edward B. Carson, second vice-president; 
James P. McGinnis, third vice-president; Edward R. Knox, R. S. ; 
William Rider, F. S. ; Clarence E. Parker, treasurer; Da^dd M. Mad- 
dux, marshal; Henry Steinmiller, Thomas W. O'Neil, and Martin 
Coffey, executive committee. Other charter members were: H. C. 
Chipman. Joseph Maddux, George Steinmiller, Thomas O'Brien, Wil- 
liam O'Brien, Joseph J. Maguire, Fred Kidder, George Adams and 
John Feeney. 

Sunset Parlor No. 26, N. S. G. W., was instituted January 21, 
1884, with forty members. Both Sacramento and Sunset Parlors 
are now large and prosperous. Calafia Parlor No. 22, N. D. G. W., 
was organized in November, 1887, with one hundred nine members 
and now has a large membership. La Bandera Parlor No. 112 and 
Sutter Parlor No. 117 were instituted in 1900. 


California Lodge No. 1580, K. of H., was organized April 22, 
1879, by Harmon Gregg, with forty charter members, the following 
being the first officers elected : Grove L. Johnson, P. D. ; Edward F. 
Aiken, D. ; Norman S. Nichols, V. D. ; John N. Larkin, A. D. ; Israel 
Luce, C. 

Unity Lodge No. 2088, K. of H., was instituted March 1, 1880, 
with thirty-nine charter members. 

Harmony Lodge No. .399, K. and L. of H. ; Equity Lodge, No. 
1219, K. and L. of H., and Olive Branch Lodge, K. and L. of H., 
were organized later. 

Pioneer Council No. 54, American Legion of Honor, the first coun- 
cil in the state, was instituted December 18, 1879, with thirty-eight 
charter members. J. M. Henderson was the first commander and Mrs. 
N. S. Bntterfield, vice-commander. 

Court Capital No. 6742, A. 0. F., was organized January 17, 1881, 
with forty-three charter members, Henry Longton, C. V. Court Sac- 
ramento No. 6861, A. 0. F., was organized Jime 30, 1882. Court 
Sutter No. 7246. A. 0. F., was instituted later. The Foresters of Sac- 
ramento were the first in the state to erect a building of their own. 
It is located on I street between Seventh and Eighth. 

Friendship Council No. 65, 0. C. F., was organized February 21, 
1882, with twenty-five members. Sacramento Council No. 96, 0. C. F.. 
was organized September 4, 1884, with about fifty charter members. 

Division No. 1, Ancient Order of Hibernians, was organized Jan- 
nary 31, 1870, P. A. Murphy, priest. It was re-organized later. Di- 
vision No. 2, Ancient Order of Hibernians, was organized in the '80s, 
but soon discontinued. 

The Young Men's Institute, Branch No. 11, one of the first to 


organize in the state, was started August 8, 1885, at old St. Rose's 
ball, where the present postoffice building stands. There were fifty 
charter members, which soon increased to one hundred. D. J. Long 
was president, R. E. Murray first vice-president, Joseph McGuire 
second vice-president, T. T. Wiseman recording secretary, Benjamin 
Neary financial secretary and James O'Reilly treasurer. Branch No. 
27, Young Men's Institute, was organized in their hall May 7, 1886, 
with thirty-one charter members and T. W. O'Neil president. Young 
Ladies' Institute No. 17 has a large membership. 

Etham Lodge No. 37, I. 0. B. B., was organized June 23, 1859, 
by Grand Lodge Deputy Jacob VogelsdorfT, with Joseph Davis presi- 

The first organization of the Hebrew Benevolent Association was 
in December of 1851 and the society was incorporated in February, 

Governor Leland Stanford Camp No. 11, Sons of Veterans, was 
organized July 11, 1887, with eighteen members. Among the first 
officers were P. H. Dodge, captain, William Kellogg first lieutenant 
and William H. Larkin second lieutenant. 

The Veterans of the Mexican war were organized at the Orleans 
house June 5, 1876. The first officers elected were as follows: John 
Domingos, president; Fred Chamberlain, vice-president; Peter Mc- 
Graw, treasurer ; and Joseph Sims, secretary. Joseph Sims is the only 
one of the charter members now living, so far as the writer knows. 

The Sacramento Turnverein was organized June 2, 1854, with 
Theodore Steudeman, president; George Meyer, vice-president; J. 
W. Lehmann, secretary; Phil Kitz, treasurer; H. Lux, first turn 
leader ; J. Knauth, second turn leader ; R. Nobel, steward, and twenty- 
three other members. In 1859 the society erected a brick building on 
K street between Ninth and Tenth, costing $14,000 and known as 
Turner Hall. 

Benbow Lodge No. 229, Sons of St. George, organized in March, 
1887, was designed to take the place of the British Mutual Benefit 
and Social Society, which had been organized in 1877, but had gone 
out of existence. The society admitted to membership Englishmen, 
the sons and grandsons of Englishmen. It was discontinued, as was 
Victoria Lodge No. 1, Daughters of St. George. They have been re- 
]ilaced by Victoria Lodge, which is prosperous. 

The Robert Burns Scottish Benevolent Association was organized 
in November, 1871, to relieve natives of Scotland who might be in 
need. It was succeeded by the Caledonian Society of Sacramento, 
incorporated in November, 1888, and which admits as members Scotch- 
men, sons and grandsons of Scotchmen. 

The Independent Order of Good Templars found its way to Cali- 
fornia in 1855, a lodge being organized in Santa Cruz on the 22nd 
of February of that year. Sylvan Lodge No. 2 was instituted in Sac- 


ramento September 16, 1856, and in 1860 a convention was called here 
for the purpose of forming a Grand Lodge. It was instituted May 
29, of that year. The order grew rapidly throughout the state and 
for many years the headquarters of the Grand Lodge was in Sacra- 
mento. The Rescue, the official paper of the order, was published 
here. Sylvan Lodge is now the oldest lodge on the coast. Capitol 
Lodge No. 51, I. 0. G. T., was organized December 12, 1861, became 
extinct in 1876, but April 2, 1879, an entire new organization with 
a new charter was formed, which assumed the same name and number. 
The I. 0. G. T. Bands of Hope (juvenile organizations) were formed 
in this city and known as Sacramento No. 56, Capitol No. 91 and 
California No. 163. Several divisions of the Sons of Temperance and 
a Father Mathew Total Abstinence Society also were organized here 
and flourished for some years, but were finally absorbed by other 
teniijerance organizations. 

Sacramento Grange No. 12, Patrons of Husbandry, was organized 
December 4, 1867, with the following officers and members : W. S. 
Manlove, worthy master; I. N. Hoag, w. overseer; E. F. Aiken, 
w. lecturer; J. Holland, steward; G. F. Rich, a. steward; R. William- 
son, chaplain; A. S. Greenlaw, treasurer; William Haynie, secretary; 
R. S. Lockett, g. k.; Mrs. W. S. Manlove, Ceres; Mrs. I. N. Hoag, 
Pomona; Mrs. E. F. Aiken, Flora; Mrs. J. Holland, lady assistant 
steward; the other charter members were Amos Adams and wife, 
T. K. Stewart, William Kendall and A. P. Smith. Sacramento Po- 
mona Grange was instituted about twenty-five years ago. 

Almost every fraternal order and union are represented in Sac- 
ramento and claim large memberships. All are in a prosperous con- 



In the earliest days of the country's history, when there was prac- 
tically no law to restrain the criminal element, and when the pioneer 
environment and training of many of those coming here were such 
as to make them value human life lightly, it was to be expected that 
crimes would be committed. During the period when the community 
was a law unto itself, it was naturally to be expected that crime would 
become rampant. As a matter of fact, in spite of the lack of legal 
restraint, the community at first was more free from crime than many 
older ones that were under the protection of the law. 

In 1850, however, when the rush to the land of gold had assumed 
greater proportions, bringing with the other immigration a percentage 
of the criminal element, robbery and murder became more frequent 
and the operation of the law that had taken the place of self-govern- 
ment was so slow that people became exasperated by its delays; they 


arose to correct the existing evils and took the execution of justice 
into their ovm hands. 

The first victim of the aroused sentiment was a i^rofessional 
gambler named Frederick J. Roe. A quarrel arose at a monte table 
in the Mansion House, at the corner of Front and J streets, and he 
engaged in a fight with an unknown man. They were separated sev- 
eral times by the bystanders, but as often renewed the conflict. At 
leng-th Charles Humphrey Myers, a i^eaceable and industrious man 
and a partner in the blacksmithing establishment of Joseph Prader 
& Co., again parted them and was fatally shot by Roe, the ball, which 
entered his head, not killing him immediately. He was carried into 
the shop, where the surgeons announced that his wound was neces- 
sarily fatal. A crowd gathered and the excitement became intense. 
Dr. Mackinzie, who was a member of the city council, mounted a 
wagon and made a vehement address, sa;sT[ng that crime had run 
ramjDant long enough and that the courts and officers did not seem 
able to prevent it. It must be stopped somehow, or honest and re- 
spectable people would have to leave the city; that the people had the 
remedy in their own hands, and they owed it to society that they 
should exercise it. David B. Milne and Ross and Taplin spoke to the 
same effect. A meeting was organized and Ross was chosen president. 
It was ascertained that Roe had been taken into custody and was in 
the station house, corner of Second and J streets, and the meeting 
determined to bring him out. A man named Everard addressed it, 
saying that if they ever intended to rid the city of the scoundrels 
infesting it, now was the time. He advocated the appointment of a 
committee to determine what should be done, aiid James Queen 
urged the selection of a jury to try the prisoner. The crowd fre- 
quently interrupted them with cheers and shouts of "Hang him." 

City Marshal N. C. Cunningham addressed the crowd, saying that 
he had the prisoner in custody and that he could not escape, and asked 
them in the name of God and of Sacramento to let him be tried by 
the proper tribunal, the courts of the country. He was interi'upted 
by the cries of "No, no; they have proved useless to prevent crime 
and punish murder." "If he don't get justice in the courts," said 
he, "I will help you to get it. I pledge my honor I'll resign my office 
and help you; but I am an officer of the law and cannot let you have 
him." His voice was drowned in cries of "Let the people have a 
jury. ' ' Queen spoke again, saying that he was in favor of having laws 
and supporting them, but they had proved inoperative. Let us have 
a people's jury as San Francisco did. 

C. A. Twfeed was called to the chair and said he believed the 
prisoner was a great scoundrel and ought to be hanged, biit he wanted 
it done according to law. He was hustled out of the chair and a man 
named Scranton replaced him. Justice of the Peace Bullock pleaded 
for law and order, but his voice was smothered by cries for a jury. 


A jury was chosen and all accepted except F. C. Ewer, who said he 
was a newspaper man and must report the proceedings impartially 
and Dr. J. V. Spalding was appointed in his place. The jury retired 
to the Orleans Hotel on Second street, and Levi Hermance was ap- 
pointed foreman and George G. Wright secretary. A committee was 
a])pointed to guard the prisoner and see that the officers did not re- 
move him. The marshal and other officers pleaded, but it had no 

The privilege of a lawyer for the prisoner was proposed and was 
voted down. Committees were sent to the jury room to ask them to 
hurry up, as they were too deliberate to suit the crowd of twenty- 
five hundred people determined on lynching. The committee reported 
that the jury was acting fairly, but needed the protection of the people 
to keep the lawyers out, as they could elicit the testimony themselves. 
The lawyers were ordered out — and stayed out. 

Tweed undertook to make the point that Myers was not yet dead, 
but the crowd would have none of it, and one man shouted that it 
was a deliberate murder that had made a widow and four orphans. 
"Blood for blood. He must die. All those in favor of hanging say 
'aye'." He was answered by a storm of "ayes." Dr. Taylor wanted 
men to go with him and take the prisoner, saying that if they had 
him they would know where he was. A large number stepped for- 
ward, but were stopped by a cry that the jury had agreed. The ver- 
dict was read from the balcony of the Orleans and was listened to in 
silence. It was as follows: 

"We, the committee of investigation appointed by our fellow citi- 
zens to investigate the circumstances of the unfortunate occurrence 
that took place this afternoon, report that after a full and impartial 
examination of the evidence we find that at about 2 o'clock P. M. 
this day, Frederick J. Roe and some other person, whose name is un- 
known, were engaged in an altercation which originated in the Man- 
sion House, and that after said parties had proceeded to the street, 
and where they were fighting, ' Charles H. Myers, who was passing 
in the street, interfered with words requesting them to desist fighting 
or show fair ]3lay; and that immediately thereupon the said Roe 
called out, "What the devil have you to say?" and drew his pistol 
and without further provocation shot said Myers through the head. 

"John H. Scrautou, W. F. Prettyman, J.'b. Starr, H. H. Lang- 
ley, George G. Wright, Harrison Olmstead, John T. Bailey, Edward 
Cronan, D. 0. Mills, F. B. Cornwall, A. M. Winn, L. Hermance." 

These signers composed the entire jiiry except Dr. SiJalding, who 
participated for some time, but withdrew in consequence of what he 
considered the undue influence of the people's committee sent to the 
jury. As soon as the verdict was read, there was a stampede for the 
station house. Dr. Taylor, who had from the first urged immediate 
action, stated that he had conversed with the prisoner and found him 


penitent; that he thonght the murder was without malice or delibera- 
tion and he hoped a connnittee would be appointed to guard tlie pris- 
oner till next day, when a course of action might be determined. He 
was hooted down by the crowd. A. D. Rightmyer said the verdict had 
been murder, and he considered it the duty of all good citizens to see 
it carried out; he was ready, on his }>art. The assembly elected him 
marshal by acclamation. 

About 9 o'clock awning posts were pulled up and made into bat- 
tering rams, under the blows from which the doors of the station 
house soon gave way. Deputy Sheriff Harris stood in the doorway 
with a small posse and by remonstrance and threats to tire kept the 
mob at bay for a short time, but they soon crowded in and took him 
and his posse prisoners. Roe was found chained in an inner cell and 
it was found difficult to get his shackles off. As soon as that was 
done he was informed that he was to be hanged forthwith on one 
of the large oak trees that stood on Sixth street, between K and L 
street. Arri-\dng at the spot where a staging had been placed for 
the purpose, he was jjlaced on the stage, his hands and feet tied, and 
Rev. M. C. Briggs was sent for. Through him Roe said that he had 
shot Myers in a fit of ijassion and had nothing more to say in self- 
defense, that he was an Englishman by birth, was twenty years old 
and had a mother and sister living in England. After the minister 
had concluded his duties, a noose was placed around the prisoner's 
neck, the rojje being thrown over one of the big limbs of a tree, and 
many strong hands drew him up to his fate in the presence of five 
thousand jieople. Myers was not yet dead at the time of Roe's 

Thus ended the only lynching in the history of Sacramento, ex- 
cept one the following year, when a convicted prisoner was reprieved 
by the governor. Only the presence of the military prevented the 
hanging of Raten for the nmrder of Lansing, many years later. 

July 9, 1851, William H. Robinson, James Gibson and Jolm 
Thompson knocked down and robbed James Wilson in broad daylight, 
on L street between Fourth and Fifth. More than a thousand people 
assembled around the jail and violent speeches were made, but it was 
finally decided, after a jury had been appointed and could not agree, 
that the parties should be indicted ancl tried the following Monday, 
when a special term of court would meet. They were tried and con- 
victed and sentenced to death, the law at that time making robbery 
and grand larceny punishable with death, at the discretion of the 
jury. Judge Willis sentenced them to be hanged August 22, and 
Gibson and Thompson were executed on that day on an old syca- 
more tree at Sixth and streets; but Robinson was first reprieved 
by the governor and afterward hanged at the same place by the 

On the night of Februarv 20, 1853, John Carroll, alias "Boot- 


jack, ' ' one of a gang of thieves, was killed on the levee near Tenth and 
B streets by his associates, who suspected him of being a traitor. One 
of the gang, William Durham, turned state's evidence when arrested 
and Jack Thompson, Barney Ackerman and Charles Stewart were 
sentenced to hang. A gallows was erected near Sutter's Fort on the 
open plain, and April 29, 1853, they were hanged on it in presence of 
a large concourse. Thompson was twenty-five years old, Stewart 
twenty and Ackerman nineteen. 

Ah Chung, a Chinaman, was hanged between J and K streets, 
just below Sutter's Fort, May 9, 1856, for the murder of Ah Let, whom 
he claimed was his wife, and unfaithful to him. His execution was 
public and was witnessed by a large number. 

Samuel L. Garrett was hung near Sutter's Fort, June 27, 1856, 
for the murder of Amiel Brickell at the Golden Eagle Hotel, April 
26, 1855. Brickell had a difificulty with Garrett, relative to the daugh- 
ter of the former, whom he claimed Garrett had seduced. The quarrel 
ended by Garrett's shooting Brickell. He was tried before Judge 
Monson, convicted and sentenced to hang January 9, 1856, but took 
an appeal to the supreme court, which affirmed the judgment and he 
was again sentenced and executed. He was married to Miss Harriet 
L. Brickell, the daughter of the murdered man, by Justice C. C. 
Jenks, on the prison brig the Sunday before the execution, in the 
presence of a large concourse. She attempted suicide by taking 
poison a day of two before he was hanged. 

William S. Kelly was executed at the same time for the nmrder 
of Daniel C. Howe at Long Valley, Eldorado county. Mickey Free, 
George Wilson and Kelly went to the cabin of Howe and Ruggles, 
traders, on the night of July 10, 1855, for the purpose of robbery. 
Free shot Howe dead and Wilson shot Ruggles with a rifle, but" did 
not kill him. Ruggles turned his side to them after being shot and 
asked them to kill him. Free said he would accommodate him, and 
stabbed him several times with a bowie knife. After Ruggles was 
dead, Wilson said Kelly must have a hand in the deed also, and com- 
pelled him to cut the murdered man's throat. Free was executed at 
Coloma, October 26, 1855, and in his confession corroborated Kelly's 
statement. Wilson was the ])rincipal witness against Kelly and de- 
clared that Kelly cut Ruggle's throat before he was dead. Kelly got 
a change of venue in Novemljer, 1855, to this county, and was tried 
and convicted befoi'e Judge Munson, December 20, 1855. He appealed 
to the suprezne court, but the judgment was affirmed. 

Peter Lundberg was executed April 30, 1860, at the waterworks 
building, for the murder of John Peter Ritz. They worked for a 
man named Palm and Ritz had a dispute over money with his em- 
ployer. Lundberg confessed that he was induced to commit the mur- 
der and Mrs. Palm was arrested and tried, but acquitted. One dark 
night Ritz called on a friend above the old gas works, and when 


returning, was shot dead. The police suspected that Pahn was the 
murderer, and Officer Burke went to his house, finding Mrs. Pahn 
alone there. Burke turned down the light and waited and in a short 
time Lundberg appeared and the muddy condition of his clothes led 
the officer to suspect him and he was arrested. 

The case of William Wells, in 1860, is still talked of among old 
timers, on account of the singular circumstances connected with it, 
and the mystery connected with his fate. Some time during that year 
an old man named Matthias Wetzel was murdered and robbed of a 
large amount of jewelry and precious stones. Wells had been arrested 
at Virginia City for the murder, some of the property being found 
in his possession. He was on his way down from Virginia City to 
Sacramento, in the custody of Deputy Sheriff Wharton of Sutter 
coimty and George Armstrong, a mountaineer of Virginia City. They 
left Marysville on July 25th, for this city. They reached Nicolaus 
safely, but at that place Wharton went to the stage driver and told 
him that Whitney, the driver of the up-stage, had informed him that 
the morning stage from Marysville had been met on the Lisle bridge 
by a party of men who looked like a rescuing mob. Whipple drove 
into the town without his passengers and rejDorted to the officers, say- 
ing that AVharton expected assistance and would wait until they came. 
Officer Deal and Whipple returned to Nicolaus and there learned that 
Wharton had engaged a wagon, and a man named W. C. Stoddard, 
to go with them, and that they had left Nicolaus by the river road 
to avoid the supposed mob. At about 1:30 a. m. the party arrived 
at a point about half a mile from Swift's bridge over the American 
river. Stoddard was driving, and Wharton sitting on the seat beside 
him. Behind them, on the bottom of the wagon box, sat Wells, Arm- 
strong being stretched out on the bottom of the wagon, fast aslee)i. 
Stoddard said to Wharton, "We are near to Sacramento. You would 
better wake Armstrong up." As Wharton turned. Wells shot him in 
his right side, knocking him off his seat, upon the horses. Then Stod- 
dard was shot and killed instantly, and a third shot disabled Arm- 
strong. By this time Wharton had disentangled himself from the 
horses and fired at Wells, who was escaping, and who returned 
the fire, striking Wharton in the thigh. Wells appeared to have felt 
perfectly safe, as he started towards Sacramento, then went down to 
the river and took a row-boat, rowed back to the scene of the murder 
and robbed Armstrong of the money and jewelry stolen from Wetzel. 
He had evidently taken the key to his handcuffs from Armstrong's 
pocket as he lay asleep, unlocked the handcuffs and then taken Arm- 
strong's revolver from his belt and used it with such fatal effect. 
Armstrong died that day, and Wharton the next. 

For several years Wells was reported as ha\dng been seen, first 
in one state, and then in another. In March, 1866, the officers brought 
to Sacramento a man whom thev had arrested in Idaho under the 


idea that they had captured Wells. He i^roved to be Donald 
McDonald, and was freed and later was presented with $600 by vote 
of the legislature, to compensate him for loss of time and damage to 
his reputation. The last heard of Wells was a letter received by the 
Union from a man in Idaho, stating that Wells was killed in 
Washington Territory in 1864, by one of a party with whom he was 
traveling. The theory generally accepted among the officers of Sacra- 
mento,, however, was that he did not free himself from the irons and 
was drowned while attempting to cross the Sacramento river. He had 
been known as a man of low character and a lounger at Wetzel's 
saloon, and frequently had been arrested for petty larceny. 

The next execution was that of Louis Kahl, at the waterworks 
building, November 29, 1861, for the murder of Catherine Gerken. 
The woman was found strangled in her room on L street, about mid- 
night on January 4th, preceding, and the deed had evidently been 
for the purpose of robbery. Officer Frank Hardy, assisted by a 
convict called "Jinuney from town", arrested Kahl the following 
afternoon at the Father Ehine house, on J street, opposite the 
plaza, and the murdered woman's watch was found on his person. 
He could give no satisfactory reason for having it, and was tried, 
convicted and sentenced to hang. His case was appealed to the 
supreme court and sent back to the district court with directions to 
carry out the sentence. Kahl was a native of Germany, twenty- 
three years of age. 

May 20, 1864, William Williams was hung in the outskirts of 
Washington, about a quarter of a mile from the river, for the murder 
of A. Blanchard. He came to California from Wales in 1854, 
settling in San Joaquin township, in partnership with Blanchard. 
They had quarreled and dissolved partnership, but had ranched as 
neighbors and could not agree. A dispute about a horse resulted in 
Blanchard 's favor. A half-witted Englishman named Joe Blake 
was in Williams' employ, and as Blanchard was returning home from 
Sacramento on the night of August 3, 1860, Williams and Blake lay 
in wait for him in a ditch, Williams having a pick handle and Blake a 
wagon spoke. Blanchard was found dead next day, with his head 
terribly mutilated. Williams was arrested and comdcted of the 

B. F. Eussell was murdered near Benson's ferry on the niglit 
of July 11, 1860, and George Nelson Symonds was hanged in the old 
waterworks building on December 4, 1863, for the murder. Symonds 
and Monroe Crozier had been arrested for robbery committed in Placer 
county, immediately after the murder, but before it was known that 
the murder had been committed. On July 12th they crossed the ferry 
with four horses saddled and bridled and their clothing was wet and 
their actions suspicious. When they were arrested for the robbery 
they had a valise containing some bloody clothes, a stencil plate with 


the name of B. F. Eussell on it and other articles belonging to the 
murdered man. In October, 1860, Symonds turned state's evidence 
in the robbery case, and shortly afterwards Grozier escaped. 

In October two bodies were found in the slough near the ferry, 
which had evidently been sunk there several months before, and were 
discovered when the water dried up. They proved to be Eussell and 
a man named Selizer, who had started early in the season for the 
mines at Coso. Symonds was brought down from Placer when the 
bodies were found, and tried before Judge McKune March 9, 1861, 
convicted and sentenced to hang May 10th. The supreme court granted 
him a new trial which was begun June 2, 1862, and on the 6th he 
was sentenced to be executed July 25th. He again appealed to the 
supreme court, which affirmed the judgment of the district court and 
he was sentenced for the third time and executed. 

Frank Hudson, a corporal in Company I, Second cavalry, was 
executed at Camp Union Agricultural Park, June 16, 1865, for the 
murder of Lieut. "Webster Levergood, at Camp Bidwell, Butte county, 
on April 14th. Hudson had been ordered on the double quick by 
Lieutenant Livergood for drunkenness on the afternoon, and in the 
evening Livergood was shot and died in two days. He was certain that 
Hudson shot him. and as the latter deserted at once there was a 
strong case against him. He was captured, tried by court martial, 
brought here and hanged. 

The case of "Tip" McLaughlin, who shot and killed a man named 
Charles Lundholm, a barkeeper in the Eailroad Exchange saloon, on 
the evening of June 17, 1870, excited much attention and criticism. " It 
was alleged that Lundholm had written some slanderous stories about 
a relative of McLaughlin, which were published in a disreputable sheet 
called the Mazeppa. McLaughlin was indicted for the murder, and 
the regular venire of jurors being exhausted, a special venire was 
summoned, which singularly was composed of the prisoner's friends. 
The prosecution exhausted all their peremptory challenges and were 
forced to go to trial. The jury disagreed after being out three days, 
and the prisoner's counsel applied for bail, which Judge Ramage 
refused. A writ of habeas corpus was issued by the supreme court, 
fixing bail at $10,000, the court holding that the fact of the jury's dis- 
agreement indicated a grave doubt as to the crime being murder in 
the first degree. The second trial was held in October and the jury 
brought in a verdict of murder in the first degree, and McLaughlin's 
attorney gave notice of a motion for a new trial. The Judge ad- 
journed court till next morning at 9 o'clock. McLaughlin was not 
given into the custody of the sheriff and walked quietly out of the 
court room. He was seen at various places around the city that night, 
but when court commenced next morning he was nowhere to be found, 
and a number of years ago he died in South America. Judge Eamage 
held that the order of the supreme court admitted the prisoner to 


bail and the bail bond provided for his appearance for judgment and 
the execution thereof, and that by ordering him into the cvistody of 
the sheriif he would have been placed in contemiDt of court. 

Charles Mortimer was executed in the yard of the Sacramento 
county jail, May 15, 1878, for the murder of Mary Gibson. His name 
was Charles J. Flinn and his brother, William J. Flinn, came on from 
Massachusetts to rescue him, and was killed by Deputy Sheriff Cross 
on the night of April 16th, a month before Mortimer's execution. The 
woman, who lived on "Jib-boom" street, was found murdered on the 
morning of September 20, 1872. Her face was lacerated by a blow 
from a broken glass, and strychnine was found in a glass of beer. 
Police detectives Len Harris and Nick Dole went to investigate and 
were accompanied by E. B. Willis, then a reporter. Willis noticed 
some hairs from a man's whiskers grasped in the dead woman's hand 
and called their attention to it. The officers suspected Mortimer and 
when he was arrested it was found that he had shaved and that an 
abrasion showed some of his whiskers had been torn out. Carrie 
Spencer, his companion, was also arrested and in their room some 
of Mrs. Gibson's property was found. A paper of strychnine was 
also found in Mortimer's pocket. After his conviction he made a 
confession, which was published, and stated that he had killed Caro- 
line Prenell in San Francisco the May previous. As stated, his 
brother tried to rescue him, ringing the bell of the jail about half 
past one in the morning. The night jailer going out into the yard 
was confronted by a masked man, with his coat turned wrong side out 
and a revolver in his hand. He fired twice and killed the man, whom 
Mortimer acknowledged to be his brother. Mortimer feigned insanity 
during the trial, but was hanged in the presence of about one hundred 
fifty persons. 

John Cruse, a sailor, was murdered for his money on the night 
of April 7, 1874, by Domingo Estrada and Klomena Cotta, and so 
energetic was Chief of Police Karcher that the murderers were 
arrested and confessed before dark next day. Their case was ap- 
pealed and great efforts were made by prominent men to induce Gov- 
ernor Booth to commute their sentence, but without avail, and they 
were hanged February 19, 1875. At the time of the execution the 
housetops and ti'ees in the vicinity of the jail were crowded with 

David Turley, a sheep herder, attended a horse race near Rose- 
ville, April 1, 1875. He had been drinking and was on horseback. A 
farm hand named W. H. Shaw, intoxicated and on foot, applied an 
epithet to Turley, who drew a pistol and shot him dead. He then rode 
to Roseville and surrendered himself and was brought to Sacramento 
and tried. Creed Haymond defended him and took the ground that 
Turley was so much intoxicated that he was not responsible. The 


law, however, recognizes no such excuse, and Turley was convicted 
and hanged, February 25, 1876. 

A murder that for many years remained a mystery was that of 
Joseph Scott, a policeman, who was shot on the night of December 
7, 1878, about 8 o'clock in the evening, on Seventeenth street, between 
I and J streets. A citizen heard the shot and saw four men running 
from the sjiot, one of whom wore a long white coat. Several years 
after, James Ivey, a convict in San Quentin, informed the authorities 
that he had heard three men confined in the prison detail the par- 
ticulars of the murder, and that they had committed it. They were 
brought to Sacramento on the expiration of their terms and confessed 
that they were ex-convicts and had stolen a ride from Marysville, in 
company with another ex-convict named Edwards. Jumping off as 
the train slowed up near Twentieth street, they started down town 
with the purpose of robbing the first man they met. There had been 
a fire at the Orphan Asylum at Nineteenth and L streets that evening 
and Officer Scott had been detailed to watch the ruins. The men met 
him on Seventeenth street, attemi^ted to rob him, and when he resisted, 
Edwards shot him and they all ran away without searching him and 
caught a train to Stockton. Three of them went to Sonoma county, 
robbed the house of Judge W. C. Wallace and were apprehended and 
convicted. When their terms expired, they were brought to Sacra- 
mento and tried. They pleaded guilty, with the understanding that 
their punishment should be life imprisonment. In the meantime 
Edwards had gone east and was confined in a state prison there. 

One of the most remarkable murders in the records of crime was 
that of a rancher on Grand island named A. M. Tullis, who was 
killed August 1, 1878, and was found dead in his orchard. He was a 
bachelor living alone on his ranch, and no motive could be found for 
the murder, as he was not known to have any enemies and no property 
was taken. Some little time afterwards some pieces of lumber, evi- 
dently part of a duck boat, were found in the tules on the opposite 
side of the river. Further down and on one of them was a calcula- 
tion of lumber surface. The board was taken to the various lumber 
yards in this city and finally identified by a salesman as made by him- 
self. The lumber had been purchased by a Swede named Edward 
Anderson, who was curious about the method of figuring, and the 
salesman had explained to him and repeated the figiares on one of 
the boards purchased. The drayman who delivered the lumber stated 
that he delivered it at the house of Troy Dye, at that time public 
administrator. The neighbors stated that a boat was made in the 
basement of the house and an expressman took the boat to the river. 
Parties had seen two men passing down the river in an unpainted 
boat, and described them. Dye and Anderson were arrested and eon- 
fined in separate cells, and both confessed fully. Dye had agreed 
with Anderson and a gambler named Tom Lawton to kill a number 


of wealthy persons in the county who had no relatives in the state, in 
order that he might make commissions by administering their estates, 
and divide them with those who killed them. TuUis was selected as 
the first victim, and Anderson and Lawton went to his ranch in the 
diick boat. They met him in his orchard and while in conversation 
with him, Anderson struck him with a sand bag and Lawton shot him. 
They then rowed across the river and started up the road, where Dye 
met them by appointment in a buggy, the agreed signal being that he 
should whistle "The Sweet Bye and Bye." They returned to Sac- 
ramento and on the same night Anderson returned to his work on 
a threshing machine in Sutter county. It was agreed that in case 
of danger a letter should be written to Mm, signed with a fictitious 
name, underscored once or more, to indicate the degree of danger. 

On August 8th a letter was sent to Anderson with the signature 
double underscored, as follows: 

John A. Parker, Esq. : 

Your child is very sick. You must come home at once. 
It would be well to come down in the night. It would be so 
much cooler for you. Call at the Doctor's new house. I will 
be there. Yours in haste, 

Charles Parker. 

Anderson came down and was arrested by the officers, who were 
watching for him. Lawton got wind of danger and was never cap- 
tured. Dye and Anderson were convicted and executed in the jail yard 
March 28, 1879. The defense of Dye was on the ground that several 
years before he had received an injury which had caused a lesion of 
his brain and consequent insanity, and there was a division of opinion 
among medical witnesses on the subject. After his conviction a 
sheriff's jury declared him sane. 

On the afternoon of April 10, 1882, a tragedy occurred that would 
have caused a lynching if the militia had not been called out to pro- 
tect the jail. Simon Raten, a Siberian, had been beaten in a quarrel 
with a man and had applied for a warrant and been refused. He 
procured a revolver and meeting the man on K street, near Fourth, 
took a shot at him and ran away, followed by a number of people. 
While ijassing up an alley between K and L, Third and Fourth 
streets, James Lansing, proprietor of the International Hotel, ran out 
and tried to stop him. ' Raten shot him in the stomach and he died 
that evennig in great agony. Lansing had been sheriff and assessor, 
and had a host of friends. Excitement ran high, and several thousand 
people surrounded the city prison, threatening summary vengeance on 
Raten. The mayor addressed the crowd, urging them to let the law 
take its course, but to no avail. The militia were summoned and drove 
the crowd away, and a gatling gun was placed in the prison door, 


ready for action. Eaten was placed on trial a month later and con- 

At the same time Joseph Hurtado shot and killed a man named 
Estuardo at Front and I streets and was convicted and sentenced to 
hang. The attorneys for Eaten and Hurtado appealed their cases 
to the state supreme court, but to no avail. They then carried them 
to the supreme court of the United States, on the ground that an 
information filed by a district attorney under the provisions of the 
state constitution was void, and that no man could be put on trial 
for a felony imtil after he had been indicted by a grand jurj'. It was 
further claimed that the state constitution contravened the federal 
constitution, but the United States supreme court in an elaborate 
opinion held the point was not well taken and the men were re- 
sentenced to death. Eaten meanwhile gave indications of insanity 
and was sent to Stockton. He was kept there in the asylum for a 
number of years, but was discharged some years ago as cured. On 
his way to Sacramento he met some Japanese and without provocation 
killed one of them near Hicksville. He was tried and recommitted 
to Stockton, where we believe he died. Hurtado died of consumption 
in the county jail before the day set for his execution. 

In March, 1888, John Lowell went from his ranch near Brighton 
to his other ranch in Eldorado county, about seven miles from Folsom. 
Not returning search was made for him and his body was found 
buried under his Eldorado cabin on June 2nd. Three men, Jolm Henry 
Myers, John Olson and William Drager, brought some horses, a buggj^ 
and harness of Lowell's to this city and sold them openly. They were 
arrested, made a full confession that they had gone to Lowell's ranch 
ostensibly to cut wood, and that while they were going out to look 
at the wood, one of them had shot Lowell with a shotgun, their motive 
being robbery. They were taken to Placerville, convicted and hung. 
Lowell some years before had trouble with some parties near Brighton, 
in which he shot and killed a man named Joseph Bowers, but was 
tried and acquitted. 

On the morning of December 30, 1894, the community was horrified 
to learn that F. H. Weber, a grocer living on L street near Thir- 
teenth, had been brutally murdered, together with his wife. They 
lived over the grocery store and were found lying on the floor, their 
skulls cloven with a sharp instrument, and a bloody hatchet near by 
told the tale. Eobbery was evidently the object, as the house had 
been ransacked. No clue was to be found by the officers, who worked 
assiduously, but it bade fair to be one of those mj'sterious affairs 
that are never solved. The theory was advanced by a man who had 
traveled in Europe and Asia, that the method of murder indicated 
it was probably done by a Eussian or a Finn, the ax being a favorite 
weapon with those nationalities. But as time rolled on the mys- 
tery did not clear up, and it began to be classed as one of the cases 


that would always remain unsolved. The various clues that had been 
followed up proved false. But the old saying that "murder will out" 
was once more verified, although it was nearly sis months before the 
discovery came through the drunken statement of the murderer. Ivan 
Kovalev was one of ten Russian convicts who escaped from the Si- 
berian penal colony at Saghalien and were picked up at sea in a pi- 
tiable condition and brought to San Francisco by the whaling bark 
Cape Horn Pigeon in the winter of 1893. They claimed to be Nihil- 
ists and excited wide spread sympathy by a recital of their terrible 
treatment. Later developments proved that some of them, at least, 
were sent to Siberia for crimes committed. Kovalev 's companions 
were Kharlampi Nitikin and Mathiew Stcherbakov. Kovalev was 
arrested in San Francisco June 25, 1895, from information given to the 
police by a carpenter named Zakrewski, who said that Kovalev, while 
drunk, in the preceding February, had confessed to him a murder. 
He said that Kovalev told him that he . and Stcherbakov had been 
watching the Weber store for three days and went around to the back 
of the store on the night of the murder and that he went up on the 
back porch, where he found a hatchet and when Weber came out with 
a candle in his hand, he (Kovalev) struck him on the head with the 
hatchet. As he did so, Weber cried out, "I'm murdered! I'm killed!" 
The two men then went into the house, found Mrs. Weber, demanded 
money and then killed her. They took some money and jewelry and 
left the city. Kovalev buried a little box about seven inches square, 
three miles from Sacramento. 

In March, 1895, Zakrewski accomiaanied Kovalev, Nitikin and 
Stcherbakov to San Jose, and while there they tried to rob a little 
grocer, but he wielded his pocketknife so effectively that one of the 
i-obbers, supposed to be Stcherbakov, was found dead nearby the next 
morning. When Kovalev was arrested he was identified by Mr. 
Weber's son Frank, as a man he had seen loafing about the store just 
])receding the murder. He identified the trousers Kovalev wore as 
belonging to his father, and the suspenders Kovalev wore as made 
by his sister for his father. The trial began December 5, 1895, and 
lasted till the 21st, when the jury, after fifteen minutes absence from 
the courtroom, brought in a verdict of guilty of murder in the first 
degree. He had feigned insanity and had been tried for insanity by 
a jury and declared sane, after the trial began. He was sentenced 
on the 29th, just one year after the murder, to be hanged February 
21, 1896, and the sentence was carried out at the state prison at 

Chin Hane was hung at Folsom prison on December 13, 1895, 
for the murder of Lee Gong in 1893. The murder was the result of 
a tong war. At that time the street cars ran on Third street to I. 
Lee Gong lived on the west side of the street, between I and J, and 
the tong headquarters were on the opposite side of the street. Sud- 


deuly a fusillade beguu from the toiig headquarters and Lee Gong was 
shot down at his door. A street car containing- i^assengers was passing 
at the time, and the shooting endangered the safety of the passengers. 
Much excitement ensued, and there were threats of "cleaning out" 
Chinatown, but as no white people were hurt, they soon calmed down. 
While there have been a number of other executions at Folsom 
since, most of them were of persons from other counties, and those 
hung since the execution of Kovalev who were sentenced from this 
county are: George Puttman, November 19, 1900; Kochichi Hidaka, 
June 10, 1904 ; Charles Lawrence, October 7, 1904 ; Sing Yow, January 

6, 1905, and three men who were condemned for participating in the 
break at Folsom prison July 27, 1903. They were Joseph Murphy, 
Harry Eldridge and W. M. Gray. 

July 27, 1903, thirteen desperate convicts in Folsom prison as- 
sailed the guards, captured the prison, armory and escaped, carrying 
with them Warden Wilkinson and Capt. R. J. Murphy. They had 
armed themselves with "file" knives and razors. Two of them turned 
on W. A. Chalmers, the outer gatekeeper, and stabbed him in the arm, 
while the others rushed into the captain's office, captured the warden, 
captain and other officials and taking them as shields, demanded that 
the armory be opened to them, or they would slaughter all the officials. 
The armory was opened and they supplied themselves with rifles, 
revolvers and ammunition and still holding their prisoners to shield 
them, demanded that the main gate be opened, under the same threat, 
and it was done. 

To the honor of "two prisoners be it said, Joseph Casey, a life 
termer, slammed the inner door, preventing a general escape. 0. C. 
Clark, another convict, doing twenty years for forgery, dropped down 
in the office and going to the warden's office, gave the alarm, which 
was telephoned to Folsom, and the big siren was sounded. The war- 
den and officers were released and returned to the prison, their cap- 
tors having exchanged clothes with them. Chief Turnkey Joseph 
Cochrane had been badly stabbed, and Guard William Cotter was dead 
* and others wounded. At Pilot Hill the convicts were overtaken by 
posses and J. J. Allison, a convict, was killed. On August 1st as a 
militia company from Placerville was trailing the convicts on a hill 
near that place, they were fired on from ambush and two of them, 
Festus Rutherford and Charles Jones, were killed and William Gill 
wounded. The convicts split into two bands, and posses hunted the 
foothills and mountains for them. Roberts was captured in a grain 
field near Davisville on August 5th by Deputy Sheriff John J. Hinters 
of this county. Roberts and Howard had come to Sacramento and 
passed the night at Agricultural Park, separating afterwards. Seavis, 
the negro convict, was captured on August 6th, at Auburn, by Sheriff 
Keene and Deputy Coan. Fahey had a battle on the night of August 

7, with Detective Max Fisher and Deputy Sheriff Wittenbrock, but 


got away in the dark. On August 23rd Murphy was captured by offi- 
cers at Reno, and AVoods was captured in the same city the next day. 
Ro}^ Fahey, "Red Shirt" Gordon and some of the others have never 
been captured. 

December 30, 1904, a desperate attempt was made by seven con- 
victs engaged on the rock-crushing plant in the prison grounds, to 
duplicate the break of 1903, but it was a disastrous failure. Warden 
Yell, anticipating that such an attempt was contemplated, had given 
strict oi-ders to the guards to fire on the convicts, no matter who might 
be killed, if such an attempt be made. The convicts were aware of 
the order, but did not believe it would be carried out. They stopped 
the machinery by throwing a sledge hammer into the rock crusher, 
and when Captain Murphy went to see what was the matter they 
seized him and Charles Jolly, a guard, using them as shields. The 
convicts had cached a number of knives made from pieces of steel, 
with which they threatened to kill their prisoners. The convicts were 
Charles Carson, W. J. Finley and F. Quijada, life-termers; and D. 
Kelly, W. Morales, J. Quinlan and H. C. Hill. The guards began firing 
and in less time than it takes to tell it. Morales, Quinlan and Hill were 
lying dead, and the others badly wounded. Captain Murphy and 
Jolly, whom they had used as shields, were both wounded by bullets. 
Finley and Carson, being life-termers, were convicted after their 
recovery from their wounds, and sentenced to hang, but by appeal to 
the United States supreme court managed to delay their fate, but are 
now under re-sentence. 

Joseph Piraino was brutally murdered March 3, 1908, on the 
Yolo side of the river a little above the town of Washington, his body 
being almost severed and disemboweled, leaving only the backbone 
and a strip of the abdomen to hold it together. He was then thrown 
into the river by the murderers, but his innnense vitality enabled him 
to reach the shore, where he was found. He told the officers that he 
had befriended a fellow countryman, a Sicilian named Antonio Cip- 
polo, who enticed him to go with him and two others to get some fish 
from a fisherman opposite the second Barnum's slough; that they 
attacked him in the brush, demanding the $120 he carried in his money 
belt, and stabbed him repeatedly and flung him into the river. De- 
tective Max P. Fisher searched untiringly for Cippolo until he cor- 
nered him in the lodging house where he and Piraino had lived, and 
the dying man identified him as the murderer. Part of the money was 
found in his shoe, and Fisher so skillfully wove a web of evidence 
around him that he was convicted and hung April 28, 1909, refusing 
to the last to reveal the names of his accomplices. 



The great railroad strike of 1894, which as far as California was 
concerned, was a purely sympathetic strike, was the cause of loss and 
damage to this state, from which it took years to recover. Having 
its inception in a dispute between the Pullman Car Company and it& 
employees over a reduction in wages, it was far-reaching in its effects, 
involving business of all kinds and parties who had nothing to do with 
the dispute and became sufferers through events with which they were 
not even remotely connected. The strike occurred at the time when 
the heaviest shipments of fruit from California to the east were 
being made, and in one day the business of the fruit growers was 
paralyzed and hundreds of carloads of fruit were left to rot in the 
boxes because they could not be forwarded on account of the strike. 
The fruit was ripening fast during the hot weather, and the total stop- 
page of traffic made the crops ripening at that time of year almost 
a total loss to the growers. A large percentage of them were ruined, 
and it was several j^ears before others recovered from the blow and 
re-established themselves in their business. One singular thing in the 
circumstances was that a number of them, and of others in other 
branches of business who were also sufferers from the stagnation that 
resulted, were in s>-mpathy with the strikers and aided them. Much 
of this feeling was probably only the open expression of the hatred 
many people bore for the Southern Pacific Company, engendered by 
its connection with state politics, and by personal causes. 

The province of the historian is to weigh carefully all the data 
and e\'idence he is enabled to collect, and to state impartially the facts 
in each case as well as he can ascertain them. The strike on this 
coast created a great deal of bitterness which, at nearly twenty years' 
distance, has not been entirely obliterated. The writer, however, feels 
that at this date the consensus of opinion would be that the strike 
should never have extended to this coast, as the cause of it had no 
connection with the railroads doing business in this state. The strike 
began at the town of Pullman near Chicago. The town was known 
as a "model town," being owned solely by the company, which had 
built it for use by the employees, with streets, sewers, etc., complete. 
They were in no sense railroad men, being in reality members of the 
cabinet makers' and kindred trades. But they had affiliated with the 
American Railway Union, the aim and scope of which was intended 
to embrace all crafts in connection with the railroad business. Al- 
though not railroad men, the Pullman employees' union had affiliated 
with it, and when they appealed to it for aid, the A. R. U. thereupon 
declared that they were willing to handle the trains on the railroads 
affected, providing the roads would refuse to handle or put into their 
trains the Pullman cars. The railroads declining to do so, the mem- 


hers of the union refused to handle Pullman cars or trains of which 
they were a part. The railroad companies operating in California 
could not separate their interests from those of the Pullman company, 
the Southern Pacific being a three-fourths owner of the Pullman cars 
used in this state. The strike being declared, the Santa Fe railroad 
was the tirst to feel it, all trains being stopped June 27, 1904. As 
the Santa Fe road did not extend to Sacramento, this history is not 
further concerned in it further than the mention of this fact. 

On the following day, the 28th, however, Eugene V. Debs, the 
president of the A. R. U., telegraphed from Chicago to the heads 
of the local unions in this state to tie up the Southern Pacific com- 
pany's roads completely, and the strike was on in full force. It imme- 
diately assumed a threatening aspect in the main railroad centers and 
Sacramento being the main center of the system in California, was 
forced to bear the brunt of it. It was brought under control in Los 
Angeles before it attained full headway, while in Oakland, which con- 
tained many strikers, they managed to do considerable mischief. The 
railroad company refused to yield, and the fight grew more bitter 
daily. Besides the workers in the Sacramento shops, numbering about 
three thousand, there were all the train crews, freight handlers, sec- 
tion men and other out-door men of the system, numbering several 
hundred more. Most of these had become members of the A. R. U., 
and they became daily more irritated and inclined to violence in order 
to coerce the company to do their will. Passengers on the trains were 
tied up at various points. Baggage and freight were daily piling up. 
The crux of the situation, however, was the delayed mail, which accu- 
mulated rapidly and which finally forced the United States govern- 
ment to take a hand. It was evident that the dam must soon break. 
The situation had grown beyond the power of the local authorities. 
The local police could not cope with the trouble and it was generally 
known that the sheriff of Sacramento county s^Tupathized with the 
strikers, and that both in Sacramento and Yolo counties there were 
many among the farmers and business men who were in s^Tiipathy 
with them. California had hitherto been free from any experience 
like this, but the eastern National Guard had been called out several 
times, to combat strikers who had deteriorated into rioters, and it 
was a foregone conclusion that as events were moving so fast toward 
a critical point, the National Guard would be called out to protect 
people and property. Governor Markham was marooned in Los An- 
geles, where he had been when the strike was declared, and all orders 
from him had to be received over the telegraph wires. The situation 
had become serious. 

r>nt Uncle Sam was ready to move, and on July 1st Attorney- 
General Olney sent instructions to all United States marshals having 
jurisdiction over the territory aifected by the strike, to execute the 
process of the court, and prevent any further hindrance to the free 


movement of the mails. In accordance with this order, the United 
States marshal of the southern district of California called on Gen- 
eral Euger, commander of the western division of the regular army, 
to furnish assistance at Los Angeles. Six companies, three hundred 
and twenty men, imder the command of Colonel Shafter, were dis- 
patched there on July 2nd, and left San Francisco that night. 

Barry Baldwin, United States marshal of the northern district of 
California, was at Sacramento with a large number of deputy mar- 
shals, sworn in for the occasion, to co-operate with the regular troops. 
The plan was to break, almost simultaneously, the blockade in Sac- 
ramento and Los Angeles, the two real strategical points. At Los 
Angeles the regulars experienced but little trouble, but the marshal 
and his de^Duties found it very ditf erent at Sacramento. Here the 
mob of strikers was larger and more desperate, and also better 
organized than anywhere else in the state. Baldwin, on the afternoon 
of July 3rd, attempted to open up the blockade. The strikers calmly 
watched the operation of making up the trains, and everything seemed 
to be progressing smoothly, when all at once, at a signal, the strikers 
rushed forward and demolished in a few minutes what it had been 
the work of hours to accomplish. Superintendent J. B. Wright and 
T. W. Heintzelman, assistant superintendent of motive power, both of 
whom were favorites with the men, when they attempted to throw 
off the brakes and start the train, were lifted bodily from the plat- 
forms by the strikers and carried to the ground. The brakes were dis- 
abled and the train could not start. Marshal Baldwin was furious 
and endeavored to force his way through the crowd, but was tlirown 
to the ground several times. Regaining his feet, he drew a revolver 
but was prevented from using it and the cooler heads in the mob had 
difficulty in keeping him from being severely handled. Seeing the 
hopelessness of trying to move the train, he left the depot in posses- 
sion of the strikers. He called on Grovernor Markham immediately 
for the assistance of the military to enable him to enforce his authority 
and maintain free passage for the mails. The Governor responded 
by ordering Major-General Diniond, of the National Guard, to furnish 
the necessary assistance. The experience of the militia in eastern 
strikes ha^^ng shown the salutary effect of a large display of force, 
it was determined to call out a large number of troops. Accordingly 
troops were ordered out as follows: of the Second Brigade, com- 
manded by Brigadier-General Dickinson, the First Regiment of In- 
fantry, Colonel Sullivan, the Third Regiment of Infantry, Colonel 
Barry; one-half of the Sig-nal Corps under command of Captain 
Hanks, and a section of the Light Battery, consisting of Lieutenant 
Holcombe, twelve men and a gatling gun ; of the Third Brigade, Com- 
panies A and B of the Sixth Regiment, iinder command of Captain 
Nunan; of the Fourth Brigade, under command of Brigadier-General 
Sheehan, Companies A, E and G of the Second Infantry Regiment, 


commanded by Colonel Guthrie, the Signal Corps, and Light Battery 
B; in all about one thousand men. The Fifth Regiment, Second Ar- 
tillery Regiment and First Troop Cavalry were ordered to hold them- 
selves in readiness. Companies A and B of Stockton, Colonel Nunan 
commanding, were ordered to be ready to join the San Francisco 
troops when they reached Stockton, and the Sacramento troops were 
to join the main body on their arrival here. 

The men arrived in Sacramento the next morning, ready for duty, 
at 8 A. M. The officers had expected to disembark at the depot, but 
found that orders had been given to stop the train at Twenty-first 
street and the men were forced, after an all night ride, to march 
thence to the armory at Sixth and L streets, arriving there weary and 
hungry a little after nine o'clock. Here they were to breakfast. The 
adjutant-general had given orders for the men to be supplied with 
rations, but it had been overlooked, and they had none. They were 
promised an ample breakfast at the armory, but after an hour's delay 
it was found to consist merely of strong coffee and bread, and was the 
last food that most of them received until night. While the troops 
were being fed in relays, the Sixth Regiment stood in line on L street 
in the hot sun. It may here be stated that July 4, 1894, was one of 
the hottest days during the season, and the troops from San Fran- 
cisco, being unused to the climate, suffered severely through the day, 
and many succumbed to the heat, several officers among them. While 
in line, a ])rivate of the Sixth attempted to load his gun, but it not 
being in order, the cartridge exploded. The bullet passed through the 
leg of a soldier in front of him and, striking a cobblestone, was shat- 
tered into a number of fragments. Here was shed the first and only 
blood of the day. The fragments of that bullet did deadly work, cost- 
ing the life of an estimable citizen, 0. H. Wing, and wounding six 
other persons. 

After the troops had finished breakfast, they were marched to the 
depot, reaching it about noon. General Dickinson's troops marched to 
the west end of the depot. General Sheehan's being at the head of the 
column. The description of the day's events at the depot is collated 
and condensed from the testimony and report of the Court of Inquiry 
held afterwards in an effort to ascertain where the blame lay for the 
failure of the troops to take ])ossession of the depot and drive the 
strikers out of it; and from the Record-Union report, part of which 
the writer had helped to make. 

Company A of the Second Infantry, one of the three Sacramento 
companies, flatly refused to go to the depot, saying that they were 
willing to do guard duty, at the armory, but would not fire on the 
strikers if ordered to do so. The Board of Inquiry held afterwards 
censored Major-General Dimond and Brigadier-Generals Sheehan and 
Dickinson, but the governor and adjutant-general afterwards declared 
that General Sheehan had received an undue degree of censure. It 


is certain that several blunders were made by various officers. The 
San Francisco troops were not properly equipped, and had to ride all 
night and stand on the streets most of the forenoon without any- 
thing- to eat. Even when they had breakfast in the armory it con- 
sisted only of coffee and bread, and. hardly enough of that for the 
companies who breakfasted last. After this insufficient meal they had 
notliing more until evening, when they were taken to a hotel for 
supper. When to this was added their being compelled to stand in 
tlie broiling sun for hours, on one of the hottest days in the season, 
many of the San Francisco and Stockton troops succumbing to the 
heat, while red tape delays prolonged their sufferings, it is not to be 
wondered at that their enthusiasm was dam])ened. 

It being the Fourth of July, the city was filled with people from 
the country, and others seeking a holiday, and when the troops l)egan 
to march to the depot, the sidewalks were filled with curious men, 
women and children who accompanied them, unmindful of the fact that 
any moment might precipitate a bloody conflict, in which they might 
come to harm. When the dejiot was reached, too, they formed a crowd 
of about two thousand in the west end of it, consisting of strikers and 
their sympathizers, among whom were mingled hundreds of women 
and children, many baby carriages even being present in the mob. 
These were what the soldiers found to confront them, and it is not a 
matter of wonder that the thought of firing into or charging with 
bayonets upon such a crowd apjialled many of the troops, and tested 
their loyalty to the state and to society. They were confronted with 
men who were defying the law, but these men were not at the time 
actively engaged in destrojdng property, nor did they, as a body, show 
any intention, as is shown clearly, of attacking the troops. On the 
contrary, they were good-humored and attempted to fraternize and 
argue with the members of General Sheehan's command, who occu- 
pied the head of the column, and among whom many of them had 
relatives and friends. In justice to all, these circumstances must be 
taken into account in passing judgment on the fiasco of the day. 

General Sheehan, on being ordered by General Dimond to clear 
the depot, found the west entrance blocked by the mob, who refused 
to give way, and pressed up close to Company G. He addressed 
them, telling them the troops did not wish to use force, if it could be 
avoided, but were there to protect the United States marshal in the 
discharge of his duties, and must use force if it became necessary. He 
asked them to disperse and ]^ermit the troops to occupy the depot, as 
they umst place the railroad company in possession of the government 
mail trains, as ordered, and would have to do their duty. Major 
Weinstock addressed the strikers in the same manner, but they said 
they would die in their tracks rather than give up the fight. General 
Sheehan convinced some of the leaders that they could not right any 
wrongs by resisting the law, and the mob began to give way to the 


troops, when some one cried out to liold on, and demanded that he 
would promise not to allow any Pullman cars to be moved. He 
answered that his troops would not help to move any cars, but if 
called on, must do their duty and protect those moving them, and a 
chorus answered, "Then you can never enter here unless you do so 
over our dead bodies. ' ' 

Some time prior to this General Sheehan had discovered that the 
east end of the depot was unguarded and unoccupied by the strikers, 
and he suggested to General Dickinson, who was with the San Fran- 
cisco troops in the rear of his command, that he occupy it. Major 
Douglas, who was sent by him to General Dickinson with the sugges- 
tion, forced his way through the crowd and delivered the message, and 
General Dickinson referred him to General Dimond, who was in con- 
sultation with Marshal Baldwin in the office of Superintendent Wright. 
General Dimond, on Major Douglas' explanation of the situation, ap- 
proved of the suggestion and calling Colonel Hooper, his chief of 
staff, directed him in Major Douglas' presence to instruct General 
Dickinson to carry out General Sheehan 's suggestion, and detail a 
body of his men to pass around the depot and occupy it from the 
other end. Meanwhile General Sheehan endeavored for more than an 
hour to induce the strikers to give way, but they still refused, baring 
their breasts and inviting the soldiers to use their bayonets. "You 
wouldn't put that steel through me, would you, Bill?" said one striker 
to his brother, who was in uniform, and whose bayonet was within a 
few inches of the striker's breast. "Then, for God's sake, step 
aside, Jim, ' ' said the soldier, pale and quivering with excitement. ' ' Go 
ahead, Jack ; jab your bayonet throiigh me, and make your sister a 
widow, ' ' said another. ' ' Go ahead, boys, and run us through ; we 
might as well die here as to starve," said others. 

Seeing the situation was hopeless unless force was used, and that 
General Dickinson had not taken any action towards occupying the 
east end of the depot, and that his order to the troops to "charge 
bayonets" had produced no effect on the mob. General Sheehan went 
to Marshal Baldwin and told him of the situation, and that nothing 
but force would dislodge the mob; that if it was the marshal's desire 
to use force, he must decline to use it unless he received the written 
order of the marshal to do so. The marshal took the position that the 
troops were under the orders of General Dimond, to whom he referred 
General Sheehan. General Dimond was present, and thereupon exer- 
cised his privilege of turning over the command of the troops to the 
marshal. Finding that the responsibility now rested on him. Marshal 
Baldwin told General Dimond that if he must take charge his first 
order would be that the Sacramento and American river bridges must 
be immediately guarded and protected by troops. General Dimond 
thereupon turned to General Sheehan and directed him to detail two 
of his companies and a light battery to take position on the bridges 


named. All of this time the strikers were endeavoring to persuade 
the men of Companies E and Gr to lay down their arms, but they re- 
membered their duty, and refused. The men were suffering terribly 
from the heat and many fell exhausted, and had to be removed and 
cared for. An injunction issued by Chief Justice Fuller of the United 
States supreme court had been served on Harry Knox, chairman of 
the strikers, restraining him from interfering with any and all trains, 
but he paid no attention to it, and the wreck of the first train out 
occurring a few days later, so far as known no punishment was ever 
meted out to him for his contempt of the court's order. He refused 
the request of the committee of the board of city trustees that he 
would consult with the officials of the railroad company. That after- 
noon Major Steinman issued a proclamation requesting all citizens to 
abstain from visiting the depot or grounds or helping to swell the 

Marshal Baldwin ascended a locomotive cab and harangued the 
strikers to no avail and finally suggested that they call together their 
calmest and ablest leaders and see if they would not agree that it 
would be best to leave him in peaceable possession of the depot. After 
some opposition this was agreed to, and a truce was declared till 
three o'clock, and afterwards extended to 6 P. M. The troops were 
dismissed and left the grounds. During the afternoon armistice a 
crowd of strikers went to Smith's hall on Seventh street, where the 
Bersaglieri Guard, an independent Italian organization, kept their 
arms, and took possession of the entire outfit of guns and accoutre- 
ments, it is understood, without much opposition. 

The order of Marshal Baldwin withdrawing two companies of 
General Sheehan's command for the purpose of guarding the bridges 
over the American and Sacramento rivers was an unfortimate one, 
?ind being misunderstood, had the effect of encouraging the strikers. 
On receiving the order. General Sheehan requested the crowd to fall 
back about five feet in order that he might not be compelled to use 
force on them. His request was complied with, and on the command 
"Fours right! Column right! March!" the two companies of Sacra- 
mento troops that had faced the crowd marched off the ground and 
proceeded to the bridges as ordered. No sooner did the crowd see 
the troops marching away than they began to cheer, and the report 
soon spread that the troops had refused to fire on the people when 
ordered to do so. The Sacramento troops having departed, and no 
orders having come to take further action. Colonel Nunan, command- 
ing the Stockton troops, took upon himself the responsibility of order- 
ing his men, who were weakened and almost prostrated by the heat, 
to break ranks and seek the shade. Again the crowd cheered, and 
again the false report spread that the Stockton troops had been 
ordered to fire, and had refused. This left only the two regiments of 
the Second Brigade, under General Dickinson's command, who still 


stood in line. Many of these had fallen out of the lines and were 
being cared for by the surgeons. After the truce between Marshal 
Baldwin and the strikers was declared, the troops were allowed to 
seek the shade, and at 6:30 P. M. they were ordered to fall in for 
supper, and were marched to the hotels. 

On July 5th the troops were ordered to put up tents and make 
their camp in Capitol Park, which was done, and the camp was main- 
tained there until the order to dismiss them was given. 

Excitement over the occurrences on the Fourth quieted down 
next day and the troops took up the routine of camp duty. On the 
11th, however, there came a terrible change that caused a revulsion 
of the tolerant feeling with which the strikers had been regarded, and 
which cost five lives. On the morning of the 11th, nearly eight hun- 
dred United States troops arrived on the steamer Alameda and 
the steam barge Acme, consisting of two troops of cavalry, tive bat- 
teries of light artillery with several gatling guns and two Hotchkiss 
rapid-fire cannon, six companies of marines and one company of 
infantry. There was also a full corps of surgeons and hospital stew- 
ards, army wagons with supplies, etc. They were under the command 
of Colonel Graham, commandant at the Presidio, in San Francisco. 
The whole river frontage was at the time occupied by the National 
Guard, eight hundred strong, under the command of Brigadier-General 
Sheehan. The boats landed at the foot of Y street and the troops 
debarked, being covered from interference by the militia. The cavalry 
deployed and took possession of the cross streets, to guard the march 
of the infantry and the guns, and lining up the spectators driven 
from the streets, in the rear of the cavalry. The command took pos- 
session of the depot grounds, without resistance, the strikers realiz- 
ing that here was a force it would not do to trifle with. Guard lines 
were thrown out rapidly and the batteries planted, and in a short time 
the whole railroad property was enclosed in a line of sentinels. While 
the guards were clearing the grounds, the switch engines, under the 
guard of a heavy body of soldiers, began to clear away the congestion 
of cars and locomotives. The gatling guns were cleared ready for 
service and a detail was sent to guard the supply train, which soon 
arrived. The hospital tent was set up near the baggage room, and 
the surgeons put their instruments in order. Meanwhile, a detach- 
ment of marines had taken possession of the Yolo bridge, cleared it 
and had taken up its position at the Yolo end, having been preceded 
bj^ a cavalry company which took an advantageous station. 

Meanwhile the militia had been under fire and had returned it. 
About 8:30 A. M., opposite the foot of street, five shots were heard, 
and the bullets came whizzing overhead. About fifty shots were sent 
back, and one man was seen to fall from a tree, while others were 
seen behind a sand bank on the Yolo shore, deliberately aiming at the 
troops. One shot from the troops entered Reed's cannery, wounding 


a Jai^anese. A boat with a white flag was sent across, and several 
men were found behind the levee, who were unarmed and claimed that 
they had been sent over by the strikers to patrol the levee and see 
that no more shots were fired, but they were not believed. However, 
there was no proof against them, and they were not arrested. 

Heretofore there had been no bloodshed, but it seemed as if the 
arrival of the reg-ular troops, although it had served to clear the depot 
and give possession of it to the railroad company, had served to make 
the strikers desperate. It developed afterwards that Worden and 
others had planned to use dynamite to destroy the regulars when 
they arrived and disembarked. Prol)ably nothing but the fact that 
the militia had occupied and guarded the river bank prevented the 
murderous scheme from being carried out. The strikers' leaders, 
angered by their temporary defeat, had resolved on desperate meas- 
ures. Members of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers stated 
that they had been threatened by members of the American Railway 
Union, and that they had been told that they would never live to haul 
a Pullman car ten miles. In view of the events of this day, and the 
testimony adduced at the trial of the strike leaders, Harry Knox, 
Thomas Compton and James Mullen, later on, there remains no reason 
to doubt that they liad determined to prevent the moving of trains by 
all means in their power, however desperate. The body of the strikers 
were not admitted to the councils of the leaders, and it is certain 
that the large majority of them would never have sanctioned the 
means employed. Indeed, a large number of the strikers not only 
took no part in the unlawful acts, but even stayed at their homes, not 
coming to the vicinity of the shops at all. 

After the regulars had comjileted their investment of the depot, 
their attention was turned to the making up of a train for move- 
ment. The cars belonging to overland train No. 4, which had been 
"killed" by the strikers two weeks before, were assembled and prepar- 
ations made to start the train for San Francisco. The train was com- 
posed of a locomotive, two mail and three express cars, one baggage 
car, three day coaches, and the three Pullman coaches and the Pull- 
man diner that came in with the train originally. The locomotive was 
handled by Samuel B. Clark, one of the oldest and most popular 
engineers in the employ of the company, with J. S. Denekamp as fire- 
man, and conductor Samuel Reynolds. The train was giiarded by 
twenty-one men of Battery L, Fifth United States Artillery, under the 
command of Lieutenant Skerret, as it was thought that the strikers 
or their s^^npathizers might fire on it or assault it. How many strik- 
ers had knowledge of the plans to wreck it will never be known, but 
it is certain that many of them freely prophesied that the train would 
not go far and it is certain that many of the strikers knew of the 
wrecked train before the messengers bearing the news arrived at the 
depot. It is known that the strikers applied to Father Grace for 


permission to use the Cathedral tower as a signal station, but that 
he refused. It also developed afterwards that several of the strikers 
were in the Capitol dome watching the train with field glasses and 
that they signalled to persons in the street below. 

The train steamed out of the depot with its guards, the crowd 
that had assembled outside of the sentry-line looking sullenly on and 
casting an occasional jeer at the trainmen and soldiers. It passed on 
out of sight, six of the soldiers perched on the locomotive and the 
rest scattered along on the car platforms, with rifles ready to repel 
attack. "The blockade is broken at last," said some of the railroad 
ofificials, not dreaming of the terrible fate impending over the occu- 
pants of the train. It was nearly an hour after its departure, and the 
railway officials were awaiting news of its arrival at Davisville, when 
a colored Pullman porter came running into the depot and proceeded 
to Superintendent Wright's ofiSce with a message from Conductor 
Reynolds, stating that the train had been wrecked at the long trestle, 
two miles from the city, and Engineer Clark and several United 
States soldiers were killed. In a few minutes the wrecking train was 
prepared and sent, with a couple of coaches, to the rescue, carrying 
several surgeons and men with stretchers, as well as a number of 
armed soldiers. As the wreck had occurred on the trestle, it was 
difficult to get on the farther side of it, and there was some delay before 
the wrecking train returned with the wounded men, who were im- 
mediately cared for. 

Conductor Reynolds stated that the train was running about 
twelve miles an hour when it came to the trestle. As soon as it struck 
the trestle there came a crash, and he evacuated the mallear in which 
he was, as quickly as possible; the engine had gone over and lay in 
about six feet of water and deep in the mud, with two express cars 
piled on top of it. Engineer Clark and three soldiers lay buried under 
the engine, and others were floundering in the water, one soldier 
named Dugan having his arm cut off, being caught between the engine 
and a trestle beam. Denekamp, the fireman, saved his life by jump- 
ing when he felt the engine topple. Besides Engineer Clark, Privates 
Clark, Byrne, Lubberdon and Dugan were killed, the latter dying that 
evening. An inspection of the track told that the wreckers had done 
their work well. The spikes and fishplates of a rail had been pried 
up and taken away, leaving the rail in place, with nothing to show 
that it was loose, and decei^'ing the engineer. As it was reported that 
several men were lurking in the brush on the other side of the river 
along the track, a squad of cavalry was sent to scour the ground. 
Such was the revulsion of feeling in the crowd over the horrible plot, 
that the crowd cheered them as they swept by. The Southern Pacific 
immediately offered $5000 reward for information that would lead to 
the arrest and conviction of one or all of the murderers, and the 
United States district attorney offered $2000 more. 


During the afteruoou four men were arrested and lodged in the 
county jail. Thej' were Salter D. AVorden, A. G. Greenlaw, William 
Burt and H. E. Rodmer, the first being charged with wrecking the 
train, and the others with conspiraej' and obstructing the marshal. 
Detectives who had been investigating found that Worden had hired 
a team and wagon and taken a party of four or five into Yolo county, 
the team being returned without them. It was also learned that 
Worden stopped a lineman of the Western Union Telegraph Company 
and took his tools from him. Worden presented himself at the stable 
later in the day, and was arrested, and some dynamite and fuse was 
found to have been left in the wagon by the wreckers when it was 

The wrecking of the train caused a revulsion of feeling in the 
community. A great number of citizens who had sympathized with 
the strikers suddenly awoke to the fact that murder and violence like 
this could not be condoned, and that it had placed the leaders beyond 
the pale of sympathy. They realized that the talk of peaceful resist- 
ance to the law was only a hollow pretense, and that the men most 
active in the strike were prepared to go to any length in order to 
carry out their purpose. The naked fact stood out in bold relief in 
all its hideousness and could no longer be ignored. Men whose heated 
imagination had placed the strikers and their leaders on the pedestal 
of martyrdom realized that they had been deluded and their ardor of 
sympathy suddenly cooled. The press of the state, which had largely 
expressed itself as on the side of the strikers, changed its tune and 
voiced the general horror and indigiiation at the cowardly act. An 
attempt by a number of men on the morning of the 24th to wreck 
a Southern Pacific train by taking up the rails on the track near 
Arcade station, on the grant, and who fought a pitched battle with 
the soldiers who discovered them, augmented the revolution in the 
minds of the people. It is probable, also, that many strikers, whose 
passions had been excited to a high pitch by the organizers and 
leaders, begaii to realize whither their zeal was leading them. An 
attempt was also made at Dutch Flat on the 18th to wreck a train by 
piling obstructions on the track. Fortunately it was discovered in 
time to save the train, which had on board a large number of women 
and children. In consequence. Colonel Graham ordered that anyone 
found tampering with the rails should be shot first and allowed to 
explain afterwards. The strikers began to fall away from the organ- 
ization, and when the notice was given on the 17th by the company, 
that those who had not resorted to violence or destruction of property 
could return to work when the whistle blew on the morning of the 
18th, several hundred men gladly availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity, and in a few days all the men that were needed were once 
more at work, only a couple of himdred of the violent strikers being 
barred out. Some of these began to threaten the men who returned 


to work, but Colonel Grraham quickly put his soldiers on patrol duty 
to protect the workers, and the recalcitrant strikers soon decided to 
let them alone. 

The reg-ular soldiers were not at all backward in obeying orders 
regarding the strikers. They had been deeply angered by the 
dastardly slaughter of their comrades in the wreck at the long trestle, 
and were eager to avenge their death if the strikers gave them prov- 
ocation to do so. The militia sliared this feeling, for they also had 
been abused and threatened. A number of strikers and sympathizers 
had been arrested for insulting soldiers, but a much sterner lesson 
was necessary, and on the 13th it was given. A number of soldiers 
had been detailed to ride on the flat cars and protect the railroad 
employees in their work in the yards, there being many cars of valu- 
able freight that should be moved to more secure quarters. Captain 
Roberts and Lieutenant Skerret, with men of Battery L, Fifth Regi- 
ment, U. S. Artillery, some marines, and Company F of the Third 
Infantry, N. Q. C, were overseeing the switching, when they were 
abused and stoned by a group of men in the rear of the sheds, and 
some shots were fired at them from the sheds. The soldiers made a 
rush for them, when most of them threw up their hands, but some 
ran away. They were called on to halt, but not heeding the warn- 
ing, the troops fired, wounding two, one of whom, named Stewart, died 
that night. A number of prisoners were also gathered in, and held 
to answer before the federal court. 

On the 19th Debs telegraphed to the Oakland strikers' executive 
committee to effect a settlement with the company, allowing the men 
to go back to work, and on the 22nd tlie local union declared the 
strike off. 

In the meantime Knox, Compton and Mullen, who had been ar- 
rested, were charged with the murder of Engineer Clark and the 
soldiers. Their preliminary examination began at Woodland on the 
18th, before the justice of the peace. The case against Worden was 
postponed for a time. A number of telegrams sent by Knox were 
produced in court, among them one to a person living in Willows, 
which read : ' ' Sacramento, July 7, 1904 — To Lizzie McMillan Sehorn. 
Willows, Glenn Co., Cal. : We need financial assistance, but armed 
assistance would be more acceptable. John Buchanan, by H. Knox." 

These dispatches were offered in corroboration of the charge of 
conspiracy against the defendants, and the manager of the Postal 
Telegraph company testified that they were sent through his o.ffice. 
Arthur J. Wilson, owner of the stable, stated at the preliminary exam- 
ination of Knox, Compton and Mullen, at Woodland, that Worden 
asked for a wagon that would hold nine people, but that he could 
furnish one that would hold six only. Worden presented an order 
which read: "Give bearer a rig to go to Brighton. H. A. Knox." 

The trial of the defendants was long drawn out. There was 


difficulty in getting a jury, as public sentiment ran high on both sides ; 
also many were afraid to serve on the jury, as threats and intimida- 
tion were charged to have been made against jurymen and witnesses. 
The result of the trial was generally looked upon by unprejudiced 
people as a miscarriage of justice, the evidence clearly pointing to 
the guilt of the defendants. Worden, who was an impulsive, erratic 
man, and was regarded largely as the tool of the three conspirators, 
was the only one to suffer, and was found guilty and sentenced to 
hang. His sentence, however, through influential intervention, was 
commuted to imprisonment for life. At this writing (1912), he has 
presented an application for parole. It was found impossible to con- 
vict Knox, Mullen and Compton, and they escaped punishment. 

The strike cost California many millions of dollars, ruined a 
large number of fruit growers through the loss of their crops, par- 
alyzed business for several months, and accomplished nothing of the 
purpose for which it was inaugurated. It is to be hoped that another 
one like it will never visit this coast. 

September 30, 1911, the employes belonging to an association 
similar to the American Railway Union of 1894, which attempted to 
consolidate the various railway unions into one, with a managing 
board to make all agreements with the various railroads of the United 
States, and to claim recognition of the consolidated unions and the 
concession of certain demands, went on a strike, which is still pend- 
ing. Quite a few employes forfeited their chance for pensions in the 
near future by joining the strike, while a number of others refused 
to go out. 


The iirst church organization in Sacramento was Grace Protestant 
Episcopal church, of which the present St. Paul's church is the suc- 
cessor. During the first rush of the gold seekers to the coast the 
worship of Mammon was predominant. It seemed as if the lust for 
the yellow metal had taken precedence of all the early training of the 
men who had joined in the mad scramble for wealth. Church-goers 
and members, deacons, and even in some case ministers, turned aside 
from the straight path and threw off all the restraints that religion 
had imposed on them. It is recorded by Dr. Morse that one preacher 
descended to dealing monte in one of the early gambling tents, and 
another to playing faro. But many still remained faithful to their 
early training, and needed only the opportunity to avow their allegi- 
ance to the religion of Christ. The opportunity came about the mid- 
dle of August, 1849, when Rev. Flavel S. Mines, of San Francisco, 
visited Sacramento, and for the first time a church gathering was had, 
and the beautiful service of the Protestant Episcopal church was 


heard in the citj'. The place iu which this and others of the earliest 
religious services were held, and which acquired thereby a historical 
reputation, was the blacksmith shop between J and K, on Third street. 

On the day following the parish was organized under the name of 
"Grace Church, Sacramento," at the store of Eugene F. Gillespie, by 
the election of officers as follows: A. M. Winn, senior warden (Mr. 
Winn was at the time mayor of the city and presided at the meeting) ; 
F. W. Moore, junior warden; Eugene F. Gillespie, Henry E. Robin- 
son, E. J. Barren, P. B. Cornwall, J. M. McKenzie, William Prettiman 
and J. F. Morse, vestrymen. In the early part of September, Rev. R. 
F. Buruham of New Jersey, visited the city, and preached, and was 
called to the rectorship of the parish. His health, however, became 
impaired, and he died in April, 1850. Rev. Samuel P. Morehouse was 
then placed in charge of the parish, and held occasional services until 
about the 1st of October, 1850, when Rev. Orlando Harriman of New 
York, became the rector, but as he was attacked by typhoid fever 
shortly after and was left in a debilitated condition, he was able to 
officiate a few times only. During his sickness Rev. Mr. Pinnell and 
Rev. Augustus Fitch of New York, officiated several times. Mr. Har- 
riman left the citj' and returned to his home in the east in March, 
1851, and an interregnum followed lasting until 1854, during which 
Rev. Orange Clark, Rev. John Reynolds, Chaplain, U. S. A., and Rev. 
John Gungan officiated occasionally, the causes being the great fire 
of 1852, which destroyed the church records, and later the flood which 
inundated the city for several months. 

In February, 1854, however. Right Rev. Bishop William Ingra- 
ham Kipp paid his first visit to Sacramento. He preached in the 
edifice of the Methodist Church South, and confirmed six persons. This 
infused new energy into the parish. July 29, 1854, the parish was 
legally incorporated under the name of "Grace Protestant Episcopal 
Church of Sacramento." A call was sent to Rev. H. L. E. Pratt, of 
Perth Aniboy, N. J., who accepted it at a salary of $250 a month, and 
held services for the first time on Monday, the 19th day of November. 
Bishop Kipp preached again in the same Methodist church on the 
morning and evening of September 24, 1854, and administered the 
Holy Communion to twenty-one communicants, it being the second 
time that sacrament had ever been administered by him in this city. 
Just previous to Rev. Pratt's coming, Hamilton hall, on K street, 
between Fourth and Fifth, had been rented by the vestry and fur- 
nished as a temporary place of worship. Services were held in this 
place for about a year, when a change was made to Pioneer hall, on J 
street, between Front and Second, and while still using that place, Mr. 
Pratt resigned, in the spring of 1856. Rev. W. H. Hill, at that time 
rector at Nevada City, Cal., accepted the call to succeed him. His 
connection with the parish began in May, 1856, and continued until 
June 1, 1870. 


A brick structure was erected on the lot on the corner of Eiglith 
and I streets during the summer of 1856. It was capable of seating 
three hundred people and cost about $15,000. Rev. Mr. Hill preached 
the opening services September 7, 1856. Mr. Hill tendered his 
resignation in 1870, and in May Rev. J. H. C. Bonte accepted the 
call. The walls of the church built in 1856 having settled, the build- 
ing was abandoned after the first Sunday in March, 1871, and April 
18, 1871, Bishop Kipp laid the cornerstone of a new church on Eighth 
street between I and J. A mortgage to aid in building the New Grace 
church was placed on the property at the time of its erection. The 
church cost $26,000, exclusive of the lot, and was mortgaged to the 
Odd Fellows' bank for a loan of $10,000. For several years the in- 
terest on the loan was paid regularly, and during that time $1000 of 
the principal was also paid. In 1874, however, owing to the removal 
from the city of some of the wealthiest parishioners, the closing of 
the church for several months on account of the absence of the rector, 
the revenues of the church were lessened. The interest being unpaid, 
the debt began to increase, and in 1877 the parish had become bank- 
rupt. The mortgage was foreclosed, and all of the property of the 
church was sold to satisfy creditors, and the name of the church and 
its organization were extinguished. 

Realizing the crisis that had arisen, a number of the i^rominent 
laymen collected enough money to purchase the church from the bank, 
and the new iiarish of St. Paul's was organized March 23, 1877, and 
in May following Rev. E. H. Ward, of Marysville, was invited to take 
charge. He was succeeded January 1, 1882, by Rev. Carroll M. Davis, < 
and he in turn was followed by Rev. John F. von Herrlich. Under his 
charge improvements amounting to over $2000 were made, and later 
two fine stained glass memorial windows of beautiful design were 
placed in the church. The one in the chancel was the gift of Mrs. 
Charles Crocker, in memory of Mrs. Col. Fred Crocker, and a large 
side window was put in as a memorial for Mrs. Creed Haymond. 
These windows cost over $1000 each. Later Grovernor and Mrs. Stan- 
ford placed a memorial window for their son, Leland Stanford, Jr., 
who died in Rome during their visit in that city.' 

Rev. G. A. Ottman succeeded Mr. von Herrlich, and was in turn 
succeeded by Rev. C. L. Miel. Mr. Miel was very energetic and ag- 
gressive, and the work was extended under his rectorship. The church 
on Eighth street having been racked by a severe storm, was con- 
demned. The lot was sold, and a lot purchased at Fifteenth and J 
streets, on which a parish house was erected for temporary use. Later 
a stone church was erected on the corner of J street, of which the 
present rector is Rev. Charles E. Farrar. It is one of the few stone 
churches in the state, and one of the finest ecclesiastical edifices in the 
northern part of California. In March, 1897, Mr. Miel started a mis- 
sion church at Twentv-third and K streets, which was known as St. 


Andrew 'y, aud a few mouths later Rev. Mr. Johnson was put in 
charge by Bishop Graves. Later Bishop Morel and purchased a lot 
on M street, and St. Andrew's was moved Upon it and it became 
known as Trinity, Rev. George Swan being placed in charge. In 
1909 Trinity pro-cathedral, a fine stone edifice, was erected on the rear 
of the lot by Bishop Moreland. The Good Samaritan Mission, on 
Seventh street, between N aud 0, was opened, but was closed about a 
year afterwards. St. Paul's Japanese Mission was established at No. 
502 M street and was afterwards moved to Fifth street, Bishop More- 
land having purchased property there for it. 

Christ Church, Episcopal, of Oak Park, is the third church for 
Sacramento of the jurisdiction of Bishop Moreland. Early in Febru- 
ary, 1908, Rev. Harry Perks, the present rector, conducted tlie first 
service of the church in Red Men's hall. Magnolia avenue. Interest 
continued, and in May of the same year the church was organized as 
"Christ Church, Episcopal." In September the new congregation was 
accepted by the Diocese of Sacramento. In July, 1910, the fovmdation 
was laid for the new church. The building has a Packard organ and 
is furnished with modern pews and kneelers. It was opened for wor- 
ship September 4, 1910. It is part of a plan which, when complete, 
will include a larger church, parish house, social hall and rectory. 

St. Rose's Church: Rev. Augustine P. Anderson, 0. S. D., a 
native of New Jersey, arrived in this city August 7, 1850. He at 
once began the organization of the Roman Catholics, procuring a 
building on L street, between Fifth and Sixth, which answered as a 
temporary cha]3el until the church could be erected at the corner of 
Seventh and K streets. October 28, 1850, ex-Governor Peter H. 
Burnett executed a deed to Anthony Langlois, in trust for the Roman 
Catholic Bishop of California, for lot 8, in the block between Seventh 
and Eighth, and J aud K streets, and Augiist 17, 1867, Governor 
Burnett deeded lot 7 in the same block to Bisho]) Alemany. During 
the terrible epidemic of cholera Father Anderson labored unceasingly, 
visiting the cholera hospital several times daily and seeking out the 
poor and afflicted in their tents and administering all the consolation 
and aid in his power and procuring medical assistance for those un- 
able to pay for it. His unceasing ardor in his work weakened his 
system and in his exhausted condition, having contracted ty]ihoid 
fever, he succumbed to it, a victim to his self-sacrificing zeal, dying 
November 26, 1850. By this time the frame of the new church had 
been erected and the roof i)artially completed, but a severe gale aris- 
ing, the building was blown down and many of the timbers shattered. 
Rev. Anderson was succeeded by Rev. John Ingoldsby, who comjileted 
the church, but it was destroyed in the great fire of November 2, 1852, 
after which a frame building on Seventh street and Oak avenue was 
used for a church until the completion of tlie brick basement story of 


the iK'W L-hiu'cli. Rev. John Quinu wueeeeded Rev. lii^oldsby in 
April, 1853. 

Oetober 18, 1854, the cornerstone of the brick church was hiid \)y 
Archbishop Aleniany, and service was held in the basement on Christ- 
mas following. The church was sixty by one hundred feet; the base- 
ment, nine and one-half feet in the clear, cost $10,500, and the church, 
which was completed in 1861, cost nearly $50,000. The bell, which was 
placed in the tower, arrived on July 13, 1859, and weighed 2079 
pounds. The earthquake which shook the state in the winter of 1871- 
7'2 rocked the tower so that the great bell rang. It is now in the 
tower of St. Francis' church. In 1861 Rev. Eugene O'Connell was 
placed in charge of the northern part of the state. He resided in 
Marysville, as Sacramento was in the San Francisco bishop's juris- 

During the charge of Rev. James S. Cotter in 1866, some im- 
provements were made to the building, amounting to over $15,000. 
He was assisted first by Rev. M. McGratb and afterwards, in 1868, 
by Rev. Patrick Scanlan. Father Cotter, who was a great favorite 
with all classes, died in this city Jime 18, 1868. Rev. Thomas Crim- 
min, another priest here, died also in this city January 20, 1867, a 
few hours after being stricken with paralysis. Rev. James Cassm 
was pastor in 1861-62, assisted by Rev. N. Gallagher. Rev. Thomas 
Gibney was pastor in 1868-70. After that time Rev. Patrick Scanlan 
was rector, assisted by Rev. J. McSweeney, until July, 1881, when 
he went to San Francisco, being succeeded by Rev. Thomas Grace 
from Marysville, who was assisted by Rev. William Walsbe until 
1886, and afterwards by Father Leonard Haupts. Father Grace in 
1886 was appointed rector of St. Rose's pro-cathedral by Bishop 
Patrick Manogue, the seat of the diocese having in that year been 
transferred from Marysville to Sacramento. When Bishop Manogue 
<'ame to build the splendid cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament in this 
city, he found that Father Grace had, during his ministry, made a host 
of friends who became zealous assistants in the work. 

The Cathedral, begun in 1886 and dedicated in 1889, is a stately 
and imposing structure in the later Italian style of architecture. Its 
dome rising to a height of one hundred and seventy-five feet, its 
arches, and arched ceiling set in frames of varied frescoes, the har- 
niony of due proportion in dimensions, the storied windows, rare 
paintings, and the statues it contains, endear both the structure and 
its venerable builder to Sacramento citizens of all classes. Its delicate 
spire, surmounted by a golden cross, that rises to a height of two 
hundred and sixteen feet, meets one's eye for miles outside the city. 
Its tower clock and massive dials, with its sonorous chimes, mark the 
hours as they pass. The building is cruciform, and is two Inmdred and 
eight feet in length by one hundred and fourteen feet in width, being 
l)y far the most spacious church in California, as well as the most 


elaborate and ornate in design. Bishop Manogiae had the consolation 
of seeing it and his residence completed and financed before he passed 
away. A year after his death he was succeeded by Father Grace, who 
was consecrated bishop of this diocese and still fills that office. Bishop 
Grace was born in Wexford, Ireland, in 1841, and is of Norman 
lineage, being a descendant of Raymond le Gros, of the twelfth 

Opposite the Episcopal residence at Twelfth and K street is the 
Christian Brothers' College. The brothers were induced to locate the 
school here by Father Scanlan in 1876, and many thousands of boys 
have since passed through their school. Father Scanlan, who re- 
cently died in San Francisco, was in charge here for many years and 
had a host of friends in this city. 

St. Joseph's Academy, on G street, conducted by the Sisters of 
Mercy, was established first in 1857, in a building connected with St. 
Rose's Church. There is an interesting incident connected with the 
coming of the little band of seven sisters, who came to San Francisco 
in 1854, with Mother Mary Baptist Russell as Superior, at the in- 
vitation of Archbishop Alemany. They had made arrangements to 
come on the ill-fated steamer Arctic of the Collins line, but on their 
arrival in Liverpool they found, to their great disappointment, that 
there was no room for them, and they were forced to wait for two 
weeks. Their disappointment was turned to rejoicing, later, when the 
news arrived of the loss of the Arctic, that they were not on board. They 
taught school in this city, visited the sick and prisoners, and when 
the cholera broke out, they nursed the sick fearlessly and lovingly. 
They hold a warm place in the hearts of the pioneers for their gentle 
ministrations, and their deeds should never be forgotten. The convent 
and school was soon moved from Seventh and K streets to its 
present location, the whole block being purchased. The orphanage 
carried on for several years by the Sisters was moved to Grass Valley 
in 1870, and the large and commodious school as carried on at present 
was erected and incorporated as St. Joseph's Academy in 1875, gradu- 
ates of which are living all over the state, and the reputation of which 
ranks high among educational institutions. 

Under the guidance of the Sisters of Mercy the church took up 
the care of homeless children in 1904, at the Stanford mansion on N 
and Eighth streets, which was a gift for that purpose by the late 
Mrs. Jane Stanford. A school for the inmates is carried on in con- 
nection with the home. In all, there are five Catholic schools now in 
this city, the Sisters of St. Francis carrying on the work of teaching 
in some of them. 

When Bishop Manogue was in charge of the diocese he extended 
an invitation to the Pro\dneial Council of the Sacred Heart Province 
of St. Louis to establish a parish of the Order of St. Francis of Assisi 
in this city. Accordingly, Rev. Augustine McGlory, 0. F. M., was sent 


here to establish the parish and arrived in Sacramento October 16, 
1894. By agreement the new parish was to accommodate both the 
Englisli and German speaking members by preaching in both lan- 
guages. The northern ha]f-bloel<: between K and L, Twenty- fifth and 
Twenty-sixth streets was acquired as a site for the several buildings 
of the new parish, and a small cottage was remodeled for the Fathers. 
The first services were held in Union hall. Twentieth and O streets, 
and February 7, 1895, the work on the present church, school and 
monastary was begun. 

On Palm Sunday, April 7, 1895, the first services were held in the 
new St. Francis church, and in the autumn of the same year, on 
November 5th, the St. Francis parochial school was opened by the 
Sisters of Mercy. The cornerstone of the present church of St. Fran- 
cis of Assisi was laid by Right Reverend Bisho]i Grace October 17, 
1908. The church, which is a very handsome specimen of the Cali- 
fornia mission style, was dedicated on Sunday, October 23, 1910, by 
Bishop Grace. It has a seating capacity of nine hundred, and con- 
tains forty-six stained glass art windows from Innsbruck, Austria. 
Rev. Godfrey Hoelters, O. F. M., is the present rector. 

The First Church of Christ in Sacramento (Congregational) was 
organized in 1849, the first preliminary meeting being held on Septem- 
ber 16 of that year in the original schoolhouse which stood near the 
northeast corner of Third and I streets. The chairman was Rev. J. 
A. Benton, and Rev. S. V. Blakeslee was secretary. A number of 
those present at the meeting were Presbyterians, which fact gave rise 
to a discussion. The question of organizing a Presbyterian church 
was raised, but Mr. Benton announced that as he was not a Presby- 
terian, he had no authority to organize a church of that denomina- 
tion. They therefore organized a church under the title of the First 
Christian Chiirch of Sacramento, omitting purposely the word "Con- 
gregational" in order to preserve harmony and co-operation. As this 
absorbed about all the Presbyterian membership in the city, the Pres- 
byterians did not organize a church until 1856. 

A confession of faith and a covenant were adoiited September 23, 
1849, and temporary officers were elected. A manual was adopted 
early in the following year, and January 6, 1851, the i^ermanent 
officers of the church were chosen as follows: Rev. J. A. Benton, 
pastor ; James Gallup, J. W. Hinks, John McKee, Z. W. Davidson, A. 
C. Sweetser, deacons; W. C. Waters, treasurer; J. C. Zabriskie, clerk. 
May 5, 1850, an "ecclesiastical society" was formed in connection with 
the church, when they became able to build a church on the west 
side of Sixth street, between I and J. A fraine building was erected 
there and was dedicated on the 6th of October following. It is 
claimed that the laying of the cornerstone, on September 4th. was the 
first public ceremonial of the kind ever held in the state. But the 
structure erected then was swept away in the great fire of July 13, 


1854. The cougregation sold the lot for $1300, and the society pro- 
ceeded to erect the present brick church directly opposite. The church 
and society were so popular that they received very substantial aid 
from the public, both in building the structure and caring for it after- 
wards. The property was sold for a good price recently, and Mrs. 
Cornelia Fratt, relict of C. E. Fratt, donated to the church a valuable 
lot, 80x80, on the northeast corner of Fifteenth and P streets, where 
a fine church will be erected. 

It is a fact worthy of mention that from the. organization of this 
chuvch until 1890, only three pastors were in its service — Revs. J. A. 
Benton, I. E. Dwinell and W. C. Merrill, the latter assuming the 
pastorate. Since that time the pastors have been: J. B. Silcox, 
1890-92; J. B. Koehne, 1892-94; Henry N. Hoyt, 1894-98; J. B. Silcox, 
1898-1900; C. A. Dickinson, 1900-02; J. A. Chamberlain, 1903-04; 
Henry K. Booth, 1904-07; William H. G. Temple, 1907-10; Arthur B. 
Patton, 1910. The Sunday school of the church was organized August 
26, 1849, thus being the first Sunday school established in this city. 
The Golden Jubilee of the church was celebrated with impressive serv- 
ices on the 22nd and 23rd of September, 1899. A resolution to incor- 
porate having been adopted, the church was incorporated on June 20, 
1899, under the name of the First Congregational Church of the city 
of Sacramento, with William Geary, S. E. Carrington, L. Tozer, C. 
T. Noyes, D. W. Carmichael, P. R. Watts and A. H. Hawley, trustees. 
At present the trustees are: W. L. With.erliee, C. T. Noyes, 0. G. 
Hopkins, S. S. Finney, C. L. White, Dr. E. H. Pitts and W. A. Friend. 
Deacons : C. T. Noyes, J. H. Stebbins, W. L. Witherbee, A. J. McKay, 
AV. A. Friend. Deaconesses: Mrs. G. A. Stoddard, Mrs. M. E. Gal- 
lup, Mrs. C. L. White. Clerk, George A. Ca]ien. 

Westminster Presbyterian Church : The Presljyterians were the 
first to hold religious worship in Sacramento, Revs. J. AV. Douglas, 
A. AVilliams and S. AA'oodliridge having preached here as early as 
March and April, 1849. The Presbyterians united at first with the 
Congregationalists, and no Presbyterian church was organized until 
1856. The organization was named the First Presbyterian Church of 
Sacramento. The church failed to raise the necessary funds for the 
])urchase of Philharmonic hall for a place of worship, during the years 
from 1860 to 1863, and disbanded. The Sunday school, however, was 
kept alive by the zealous and energetic efforts of AA^. S. Hunt. The 
]5reseut church was organized January 21, 1866, under the name AA^'est- 
minster Presbyterian Church, and has since that time enjoyed a ])eriod 
of steady growth. It has a large Sunday school, a Chinese mission 
school, young people's society and other organizations. 

Since its organization the pastors have been: Revs. AVilliam E. 
Baker, P. A^ A^eder, A. Fairbairn, N. B. Clink, Joshua Phelps, J. S. 
McDonald, 1866-69 ; Frank L. Nash, 1869-72 ; Charles Schieling, 1872- 
74; James S. McKay, 1874-75; Henry H. Rice, 1875-86; J. E. Wheeler, 


1886-90; R. M. Steveusou, 1890-97; R. J. Jolmstou, 1897-1901; H. C. 
Shoemaker, 1901-04; Rev. J. T. Wills, D. D., succeeded Mr. Shoe- 
maker, January 4, 1904. For many years the cliurch edifice was at 
Sixth and L streets, Ijein^' huilt in 1866 at a cost of $18,000, and dedi- 
cated March 24, 1867. The building was sold a few years ago to the 
Roman Catholic denomination and is now known as Serra hall. A 
new edifice was erected at Fourteenth and K streets. 

During the various pastorates since 1886, in addition to the Sun- 
day school, various organizations have been added to the church, as 
follows: Chinese Sunday school. Ladies' Missionary Society, Gleaners, 
Ladies' Mite Society, Christian Endeavor Society, Boys' Brigade, 
Junior Christian Endeavor, Bethel Mission Sunday school. Young 
Men's Conservatory, Loyal Sons, Loyal Daughters, and Home De- 
]iartmeut. In 1911 Charles M. Camp])ell, who had loyally given his 
services as Sunday school superintendent for twenty-three years, re- 
moved from the city, and was succeeded by John Stein. Tlie churcli 
Tuembership is about four hundred and fifty. 

Fremont Park Presbyterian Church: The Westminster Church or- 
ganized a Sunday school in July, 1868, and maintained it under the 
name of the Bethel Sunday school. It was on Fourteenth street, be- 
tween and P, and in March, 1882, it grew into a church, becoming 
self-sustaining and free from debt in a few years. The church was 
instituted by Rev. Dr. Thomas Fraser of San Francisco, assisted by 
Revs. H. H. Rice and Nelson Slater, and Andrew Aitken of Sacra- 
mento. Rev. A. H. Croco acted as pastor imtil July, 1883, when he 
resigned, and Rev. George R. Bird was called. Mr. Bird had been 
pastor of the Hamilton Square Presbyterian church in San Fran- 
cisco, having previous to that had charge of the First Presbyterian 
church in Seattle, Wash._ Until the past three years the church was 
known as the Fourteenth Street Presbyterian church, as it was located 
on that street. Two years ago a new church edifice was erected at 
Fifteenth and streets, and it is now known as the Fremont Park 
Presbyterian church. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Churcli: This church is familiarly 
known as the "Sixth Street Methodist church." It was first organ- 
ized under another local name October 28, 1848, at Dr. Miller's store, 
by Rev. Isaac Owen, and seventy-two persons enrolled their names. 
Mr. Owen was familiarly known as "Father Owen," and was the first 
missionary sent by .his church to California. He and his wife and 
baby suffered many hardshi]>s in crossing the plains, and he was 
nearly drowned by the carelessness of a drunken crew in capsizing a 
schooner in Suisun bay. He managed to escape with the clothes he 
wore, which were rusty from crossing the ]^lains, and came to Sacra- 
mento, preaching here October 23, 1849, under an oak at the corner 
of Third and L streets, and organized a church. A man of great 
energy, he had great plans for upbuilding the chi;rch in the state. 


One of his dreams was a university, and it was largely through his 
aid and energy that the University of the Pacific was afterwards 
built, being the first of its kind chartered in California. As material 
for a church 24x36 feet in size had been shipped for him from Balti- 
more by the conference, and had come by way of the Horn, it was 
soon put up, and the church was finished ready for use. It was plain, 
but as it was the first church building erected in this city, it was 
looked on as an elegant house of worship. Erected on a fine lot 
presented by General Sutter, at the southeast co:«ier of Seventh and 
L streets, fronting on Seventh street, it was known as the Seventh 
Street Methodist church, and the society took the same name. Mr. 
Owen soon had a comfortable parsonage. In the flood of 1850 his 
church was carried from its foundations, and his house rendered 
untenantable, so he removed to San Francisco. 

Later in the year he was succeeded by Rev. M. C. Briggs, who en- 
larged the church to accommodate the rapidly growing congregation. 
It was known as the Baltimore California chapel. Mr. Briggs served 
this church three terms, being the only pastor who did so. 

The cornerstone of a new brick edifice, 50x80, which cost $18,000, 
was laid June 22, 1852, Rev. S. D. Simonds making the address. Revs. 
J. A. Benton, Congregationalist ; 0. C. Wheeler, Baptist, and W. R. 
Gober, M. E. Church South, participated. It was to have been dedi- 
cated on Sunday, November 3rd, but a terrible fire broke out in the 
city on Saturday, destroying .$5,000,000 worth of property, and the 
new church was swept away with the rest. The society was un- 
daunted, however, and hurriedly erected a cheap building, in which 
they worshiped until they could erect a frame church on the site of 
the Baltimore House. This was sold to the Jewish congregation in 
January, 1859, for aliout $3500. The society worshiped for a while 
in the hall over the old postoffice until they erected the present church 
on Sixth street. It is 52x100 feet and cost about $25,000. It was 
finished in 1874, when it was raised to a higher grade, and the tower 
and steeple built, at a cost of about $15,000. 

The pastors of this church were: Isaac Owen, 1849-50; Royal B. 
Stratton, 1851-53; Warren Oliver and Elijah Merchant, 1853-55; N. 
P. Heath, 1855; George S. Phillips, 1855-57; J. W. Ross, 1857-59; J. 
D. Blain, 1859-61 ; Jesse T. Peck, 1861-63 ; M. C. Briggs, 1863-65 ; J. W. 
Ross, 1865-68; J. H. Wvthe, 1868-70; H. B. Heacock, 1870-73; A. M. 
Hough, 1873-75; M. C. Briggs, 1875-78; R. Bentley, 1878-81; T. S. 
Dunn, 1881-84; E. R. Dille, 1884-87; Arnold T. Needham, 1887-91; T. 
C. George, 1891-93; C. Y. Anthonv, ]894; M. D. Buck, 1894-97; J. S. 
Carroll, 1897-1901; W. K. Beans, 1901-03; W. W. Case, 1903-06; J. H. 
N. Williams, 1906-07 ; Frank Kline Baker, 1907 imtil the present time. 
Mrs. Helen R. Peck is the deaconess. The church is prosperous, has 
a large membership and a number of societies that are doing effective 


Central Methodist Episcopal Church: This society was organized 
with seven members as the H Street Methodist Episcopal church, 
December 9, 1855, by Rev. N. R. Peck, Rev. N. P. Heath, Presiding 
Elder, Martin Grier; J. L. Thompson, A. Fowler, H. Kronkite, L. 
Pelton and B. Ward composed the first official board. A church edi- 
fice was erected and paid for during the first year of its existence, at 
a cost of $2000. It was dedicated Jime 29, 1856, by Bishop Kavanaugh 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. Rev. N. R. Peck was the 
pastor until 1857, being succeeded by Rev. David Deal, who was 
])astor for two years, and afterwards served a second term. During 
his ]iastorate a parsonage costing $1500 was erected, and prosperity 
attended the church. Rev. H. Baker succeeded Mr. Deal and was in 
turn succeeded by Rev. W. S. Urmy. During the pastorate of the 
latter the great floods of 1861-62 occurred, and the water rose eighteen 
inches above the pews of the church, and Mr. Urmy and his family 
were rescued from the parsonage in boats. No service could be held 
for several weeks until the water subsided. The church suffered at 
this time from the business depression following the flood, and the 
exodus of many people from the city. 

At the conference of 1863 the jiroposition was made to unite the 
two congregations, but it was not approved, and Rev. N. R. Peck 
was returned as pastor, and reported an increase of eighteen mem- 
bers during the following year. Rev. J. A. Bruner was appointed to 
the charge next, ancL served one year. During the years 1865 and 
1866, both the H street and Sixth street churches were under one 
liastorate. Rev. J. W. Ross being the pastor. This arrangement was 
disastrous to the H street church, nearly destroying its identity and 
decimating its membership, but in 1867 the old status was restored. 
Rev. J. M. Hinman being appointed pastor, and the church took on 
renewed jjrosperity. May 12, 1869, some miscreant attempted to burn 
tlie church by setting a fire in the bookcase and in the pulpit. 

Rev. George Newton was appointed in 1869 to this charge, and 
kept it for three years, during which time some radical changes took 
place. Early in his pastorate a success was realized that seemed to 
justify a change, and the old church lot on H street was sold, as well 
as the parsonage. The old church building was moved to a lot on the 
corner of Eleventh and I streets, the present church site being a part 
of the lot. The building was cut in two and fitted up for dwellings. 
An old building which stood on the lot was fitted up for a parsonage, 
and iilans were made for the erection of a large church building, to 
be a "memorial church" for Bishop Kingsley, who had died during 
the year at Beyrout in Syria. The plans included the erection of a 
chapel first, and this was done and was called "King.sley Chapel." 
But the church had been too ambitious. By the close of Mr. Newton's 
pastorate the debt had amounted to about $8500, and the property 


had become so mnoli involved that further prosecution of the plans 
was impossible. 

The years that followed were of various success and depression, 
and their record tells a tale of heroic sacrifices on the part of the 
members in striving to uphold the cliurch and liquidate the indebted- 
ness. It was discouraging work, but they persevered in spite of tlie 
increasing indebtedness and a decreasing membership. A revival 
under Mrs. Van Cott encouraged them by increasing the membership 
during the pastorate of Eev. J. L. Trefren, but most of these after- 
wards went to other churches. Rev. A. J. Wells, J. E. Wickes and 
Deal succeeded to the pastorate in turn, and during the dark hours 
of the society they labored devotedly and made great sacrifices. At 
length, in 1882, Rev. McKelvey was appointed jiastor. By his in- 
domitalile energy during his pastorate he succeeded in wiping out debt, 
by the sacrifice of all the property excejit the church and the lot it 
stands on. He also remodeled and imjiroved the church building at a 
cost of .$3500, most of which was raised by Mrs. McKelvey outside of 
the membership, and the name was changed from Kingsley Chapel to 
the Central Methodist church. Thus when it was reopened by Bishop 
Fowler the congregation had a neat church, free from debt. Rev. Mr. 
McKelvey was removed by limitation before an opportunity was of- 
forded him of enjoying the fruits of his labor, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Thomas Filben. After four years' service Mr. Filben was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. C. H. Beechgood, who gave way in 1892 to Rev. E. E. 
Dodge. In 1894 Rev. J. L. Trefren was returned to his former cliarge 
for three years, and then Rev. J. B. Chynoweth came, and remained 
for six years, the time limit having been removed. Rev. Richard 
Rodda succeeded him and is the present pastor. 

A German Methodist church was organized in this city in 185(i, 
but debts finally accumulated until in 186fi-67 the luirden became so 
heavy that the church was broken up. 

St. Andrew's Church, African Methodist Episco]>a]. was organ- 
ized in 1850 by Rev. Isaac Owen, at the house of "Uncle Daniel Blue," 
on I street, between Fourth and Fifth. A church building was erected 
on the site on Seventh street, between G and H, where the present 
brick church now stands. The first pastor was James Fitzgerald, who 
served in 1851-52. 

The Methodist E]iisco])al Cliurch South was organized in A])ril, 
1850, by Rev. W. D. Pollock, who was also the princi]ial factor in the 
building of a frame church on the site of the brick church wliich suc- 
ceeded it, on Seventli street between J and K. The latter edifice was 
dedicated by Bishop Pierce July 10, 1859. Tlie first building was 
burned in the fire of November 2, 1852, and the second cost $4000. 
Mr. Pollock was forced by ill healtli in the fall of 1850 to return to 
Alabama, where he died the following year. He was succeeded by 
Rev. Mr. Penman, who shortlv afterwards abandoned the ministrv and 


engag-ed in other pursuits. Since that time the pastors have been as 
follows : W. R. Gober, 1851-52 ; John Matthews, from August, 1852, to 
April, 1853; B. F. Crouch, appointed by Bishop Soule, 1853, to April, 
1855; A. Graham. 1855-56; W. R. Gober, 1856-58; Morris Evans, 1858- 
60; J. C. Simmons, 1861-62; S. Brown, 1862-63; George Sim, 1863-65; 

E. K. Miller, 1865-66 ; T. H. B. Anderson, 1866-68 ; George Sim, 1868- 
69 ; W. R. Gober, 1869-72 ; T. L. Moody, 1872-73 ; C. Chamberlain, 1873- 
75; B. F. Page, 1875, to fill out Mr. Chamberlain's time; R. Pratt, 
1875-76; M. C. Fields, 1876-78; C. Y. Rankin, 1878-79; T. H. B. And- 
son, 1879-82; F. Walter Featherstone, 1882-83; H. C. Christian, 1883- 
87; George B. Winton, 1887-88; A. C. Bane, 1888-90; H. Singleton, 
1891-93; T. A. Atkinson, 1893-97; W. E. Vaughn, 1897-1901; P. T. 
Ramsey, 1901-04; C. C. Thompson, 1904-05; W! A. Oft, 1905-06; C. T. 
Clark, 1906-10; L. S. Jones, 1910-14. Mr. Jones, the present iiastor, 
is bringing the church to a prosperous jieriod. 

German Evangelical Lutheran Church : In 1865-67, Rev. Mr. 
Buehler, of San Francisco, and Rev. Mr. Elbert ]3reached in this city 
a few times and endeavored to organize a church, but without success. 
Rev. Matthias Goethe, formerly of Australia, later began work in 
Sacramento, organized the church December 1, 1867, with twenty- 
three charter members, and purchased the old German Methodist 
church on the corner of Ninth and K street (now Hale's) for $2400. 

F. Klotz, H. Winters, H. W. Schacht, F. Hopie and A. Grafrailler were 
elected trustees. The building was afterwards sold and the later 
church on the corner of Twelfth and K streets was erected in 1872 at 
a cost, including the three bells, of about $15,000. This property was 
sold in 1911 and another church edifice is lieing constructed at Seven- 
teenth and L streets. 

Mr. Goethe was succeeded in 1875 by Rev. T. Langebecker ; Dr. C. 
Taubner, 1877-1888, and Adolf Jatho, 1887-1890. In 1890 Rev. Cliarles 
P. Oehler succeeded to the pastorate, and has continued in it with 
s]ilendid success, building up the church to a large and prosperous 
membership. Soon after his arrival the debts were ]iaid off and a 
parsonage erected. A new pipe organ was installed and many mem- 
bers added to the church and Sunday school. Services were held in 
German and English. About six years and a half ago Mr. Oehler con- 
ceived the idea of establishing a building fimd, to be used when the 
time arrived for the erection of a larger and more beautiful edifice. 
The fund was started by an Easter offering in 1905, Mr. Oehler hav- 
ing sent out a letter asking for an offering of $1000 and receiving 
$600. Since then the pastor, trustees, and women and other members 
of the church have labored faithfully and increased it to $16,000. and 
in 1911 a fine lot, 120x160, was purchased on the corner of Seven- 
teenth and L streets, the sale of the old church property at Twelfth 
and K streets netting a large sum, and the new edifice is in course of 
construction. The style of the church is German Gothic and the 
material a fine white artificial stone. Four of the large windows will 


be memorial windows, and the church will seat more than five hundred 
people, and will have galleries in the rear and the transept. The 
cornerstone was laid December 10, 1911, Mayor Beard, the local Luth- 
eran clergy and several visiting ministers participating. The Grerman 
Evangelical Lutheran church is the second oldest Lutheran church in 
the state of California, Rev. J. M. Buchler having begun as early as 
1864 to make preparations for establishing it, but it was not organ- 
ized until 1867 by Rev. Matthias Goethe. 

First Church of Christ, Scientist: The first public Christian 
Science services held in Sacramento were in Granger's building. Tenth 
and K streets, in 1890. The First Church of Christ, Scientist, here 
was organized in 1899, and granted a state charter in 1901. The his- 
toric church building on Fourteenth and K, known as the United 
Brethren church, was purchased in 1904. Later this property was sold 
and a lot purchased on Twenty-third street, between K and L. 

The beautiful structure erected there was finished in 1910, at a 
cost, including the site, of about $35,000. The exterior is of Medusa 
cement, with mahogany interior finish. The four-square domed audi- 
torium is seated with opera chairs on a sloping floor. Three large 
art windows and a fine crystal electrolier make it one of the best 
lighted auditoriums in the United States. This was the tenth church 
of the denomination in California. 

Christian Church, or Disciples of Christ : October 13, 1855, Elders 
J. N. Pendegast and Thomas Thompson conducted the first services 
held by this denomination in Sacramento. They met in the Methodist 
brick church which until a few years ago stood on Seventh street, 
between J and K. John 0. Garrett and R. B. Ellis were appointed 
elders, and Rufus Rigdon and A. M. C. Depue, deacons. A nice chapel 
was erected on Eighth street, between N and 0, in 1877, the cost, in- 
cluding the lot, being $4500, and the church was very largely indebted 
to the enterprise of Elder J. N. Pendegast for the building. In 1896 
a new church was erected on the corner of Sixteenth and L streets, 
which was destroyed by fire on the night of July 4, 1910. 

The pastors have been Revs. John G. Parrish ; Stev- 
enson, who published a ]5aper in this city; J. N. Pendegast, who pub- 
lished the same paper; Peter Burnett; McKorkle; Alexander 

Johnson; E. B. Ware; R. L. McHatton; L. N. Early; A. M. Growden; 

A. M. Elston ; Hand ; B. B. Burton ; J. E. Denton ; Henry 

Shadle; W. F. Reagor, and J. J. Evans, the latter succeeding Mr. 
Reagor in 1909, and being the present pastor. 

In 1896, during the pastorate of Rev. J. E. Denton, the old church 
became too small, and was removed to the corner of Sixteenth and 
L streets, and made the basis for the erection of a new edifice, the 
enlargement and finishing costing about $6000, a debt being incurred 
that has since been wiped out. On the evening of July 4, 1910, the 
church took fire, supposedly from a rocket which fell on the roof 


during the eelebratiou, aud the building was burned and almost tlie 
entire contents were destroyed. A new site at Twenty-seventh and N 
streets was selected, and a new edifice was erected, containing two 
auditoriums with a combined seating capacity of nearly nine hundred. 
Eev. H. 0. Breedon conducted the dedication services December 17, 
1911. The structure also contains eighteen rooms for classes and 

Calvary Baptist church was first organized October 17, 1869, by 
Rev. Frederick Charlton, pastor of the First Church. The organiza- 
tion took the form of a mission Sunday-school superintended by R. H. 
Withington and held in a schoolhouse situated on Thirteenth and G 
streets. When it became necessary to have more suitable accommoda- 
tions a building, 40x160 feet, costing $1,000, was erected on I street 
between Twelfth and Thirteenth. Another building, 38x65 feet, was 
erected in 1870 at a cost of $2,000. In 1871 a new church was organ- 
ized to accommodate members of the parent church living in that 
part of the city. The first deacons of this church were W. R. Strong, 
A. J. Barnes and R. H. Withington. The clerk was A. A. Bynon. 
The pastors have been as follows : J. P. Ludlow, R. F. Parshall, 
William Hildreth, C. F. Forbes, H. W. Read, George L. Lewis, S. B. 
Gregory, J. Q. A. Henry, 1881-84; S. A. McKay, 1884; A. C. Herrick, 
December, 1884, to 1891; J. H. Reider, 1892 to 1896; F. M. Mitchell, 
1896-99; S. G. Adams, 1899-1904; D. M. McPhail. During the latter 's 
pastorate the edifice was destroyed by fire. A new lot was then pur- 
chased at the northwest corner of Sixteenth and I streets, where the 
present building was erected, at a cost of about $13,000. Soon after 
the retirement of Mr. McPhail, who was with the congregation about 
six years, the proposition of consolidating with Emanuel Baptist 
Church was taken up, with Rev. A. J. Sturtevant to act as pastor of 
both churches. The proposed union did not materialize and in 1911 
Rev. C. H. Hobart, the present pastor, took charge of the work, 
which has prospered under his leadership. 

.The First Baptist Church was the pioneer Baptist organization 
in Sacramento. As early as 1849 Rev. J. Cook, wlio kept a boarding 
house on I street, preached a number of times in the grove. Rev. 0. 
C. Wheeler came up from San Francisco September 9, 1850, and while 
the state was being admitted to the Union he was busy organizing 
the First Baptist Church at the residence of Judge E. J. Willis on 
H street between Sixth and Seventh. He was probably assisted in 
the work by Mr. Cook. Judge Willis and John A. Wadsworth were 
elected deacons ; Madison Walthall, treasurer ; Leonard Loomis, clerk ; 
and Rev. J. W. Capen, pastor. The first public services were held 
the following day in the courthouse on I street. A church costing 
$4,000 was built in the spring of 1851 on the corner of Seventh and 
L streets and was consumed in the fire of November 2, 1852. What 
was claimed to be the finest church building in the state was erected 


in 1854 on the west side of Fourth street between K and L. While 
costing only $8,000, it was a very fine edifice for the price and had a 
main auditorium 35x85 feet, with a vestr}^ 15x32 in the rear. In the 
great fire of July 12, 1854, it was only saved from destruction by the 
most strenuous exertions of the citizens. During 1877 it was sold for 
$3,000 and was afterwards removed to the corner of Fourteenth and 
K streets, where it was used for a number of years by the United 
Brethren in Christ. The present building on Ninth street between 
L and M was erected in 1877-78 at a cost, including the lot, of $18,- 
230.48. The corner stone of the edifice was laid with Masonic cere- 
monies August 20, 1877, and opening services were held March 10, 
1878. Ah Mooey, a Chinaman, was admitted into the church Septem- 
ber 2, 1855, and subsequently was licensed to preach, his baptism 
being supposed to have been the first of one of that nationality in 
California. His conversion occurred during the pastorate of Rev. J. 
L. Shuck, who was then an accredited missionary to the Chinese of 
Sacramento and later went to South Carolina, where he died in 1863. 

The Siloam Baptist Church (colored) was organized in 1856 and 
existed until late in the '80s. 

The Seventh Day Adventist Church of Sacramento was organized 
February 6, 1885, with ten members, by Elder E. A. Briggs, then a 
resident of Oakland. The congregation had been first established at 
Pleasant Grove, Sutter County, and had borne the name of that 
town, but in October of 1887 the name was changed to Sacramento. 
The members of this denomination observe Saturday as the Sabbatli. 

In March of 1872 an Advent Church was organized in Sacramento 
by Elder Miles Grant with about thirty members, but the organiza- 
tion existed only about four years. That congregation observed Satur- 
day as the Sabbath. 

The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 
was established in Sacramento in 1865 and met at first in the Chinese 
chapel on Sixth street between H and I, next in Graham's hall, later 
in the lower hall of the Masonic building and finally in 1884 erected 
a frame l)uilding, 34x44, on the corner of Twenty-fourth and K streets, 
costing $2100. This society has worked faithfully for the wiping 
out of polvgamv. Among the elders who have served in the church 
are E. IT. Webb, G. W. Harlow and J. H. Parr. 

A small society of Brighamite (polygamous) Mormons were in 
existence in Sacramento in 1872, and a few years afterwards. 

The first Unitarian sermon yireached in Sacramento was ))y Rca-. 
Mr. Brown December 29, 1867, in the Metropolitan theatre. During 
the spring of the following year the First Unitarian Church of Sacra- 
mento was organized and the congregation increased rapidly for a 
time, but went down in 1873, was revived in 1887 and worshiped in 
Pioneer hall. A lot on Sixteenth street between K and L was pur- 


chased, ou which to erect an edifice. For some years Rev. C. P. 
Massey (now deceased) preached occasionally, i'or nearly seven- 
teen years, with the exception of the occasional sermons of Mr. 
Massey, the church was without a pastor and then in 1911 Rev. Frank- 
lin Baker assumed the pastorate. 

Congregation B'nai Israel was formed in 1852. Previous to that 
there had been another organization, which met at the residence of 
M. Hyman, a jeweler on Front street. Rev. Mr. Wolf officiated. 
The lirst synagogue owned by the society in this city was a small 
frame building on Fifth street between N and 0. This was sold 
afterward to the colored Baptists, who worshiped there until the 
l)uilding was destroyed by fire in 1861. The frame house on Seventh 
street near L was purchased from the Methodist Episcopal Church 
for $3,500 and was converted into a synagogue. This building also 
was destroyed by fire in October, 1861, and in the early part of 
1864 the congregation purchased the building on Sixth street between 
J and K, previously used by the First Presbyterian Church. The 
building was remodeled and then used for some time, but eventually 
sold. The congregation now worships in a fine synagogue which they 
erected on Fifteenth street between N and 0. The rabbis have been 
as follows: Rev. Mr. Wolf; Z. Neustadter, 1857-59; R. Rosenthal, 
1859-60; S. Peck, 1860-61; R. M. Cohen, 1861-62; M. Silverstein, 

1862-65; Stamfer, 1865-68; H. P. Lowenthal, 1868-79; S. Gerst- 

man (who led in changing the society from orthodox to reformed), 
1879-81 ; J. Bloch, 1882-83 ; G. Taubenhaus, 1884-88. 

Ebenezer Church, Evangelical Association, (German) was organ- 
ized in 1881 and the following year the present edifice was erected. 
It stands on Tenth street between and P. The old building, which 
was owned by Trinity Church, Evangelical Association, was sold in 
1887 and that society disbanded many years ago. 

United Brethren in Christ have been represented in Sacramento 
for many years. During 1875-76 Rev. Alexander Musselman took 
the first stei)S toward organizing a church of this denomination here. 
A series of meetings were held in the Calvary Baptist Church in 
1876 by Rev. J. H. Becker and Rev. J. L. Field. In the fall of that 
year the present organization was formed. The old building known 
as the Fourth Street Baptist Church was purchased for $3,000. The 
closing of the sale was delayed for some reason and the society did 
not obtain possession of the building until November, 1877. In 
September, 1878, they removed it to the corner of Fourteenth and 
K streets, raised the building six feet, and repaired, repainted and 
refurnished it, the total cost of the work being $2,800. In 1884 a 
parsonage was erected on the lot adjoining on the west. The pastors 
iiave been as follows : J. H. Becker, 1877-78 ; D. D. Hart, who became 
l^astor in 1878 and died in the pulpit in 1881 ; J. H. Becker, for various 
periods; Revs. Field and Demondrum to 1883; Francis Fisher. two_ 


years; T. J. Bander, to September, 1888; J. W. Bauiugardner, 1888- 
90; M. S. Bovez, 1890-92; Harvey Bell, 1892-94; Olin Lowe, 1894-95; 
Daniel Shuck, 1895-99; T. J. Bander, 1899-1900; William Thompson, 
1900-03; Homer Gallaher, 1903-06; T. J. Bander, 1906-07; L. Harter, 
1907-12; and H. G. Smith, who in 1912 assumed the pastorage that 
he now fills. 

Almost every denomination is represented in Sacramento. 


Some interesting reminiscences in relation to the early railroads 
were related to the writer by James G. Patterson, a pioneer of 1852 
and the son of A. D. Patterson, a pioneer of 1849. Mr. Patterson 
had a great fund of recollections to draw on, concerning both him- 
self and others, and gives one many an insight into the methods and 
incidents of the early days. Speaking of the Preeport road, he said: 

"It was projected by stockholders and bondholders of the Sacra- 
mento Valley railroad, John H. Carroll and George Mowe, who bought 
land and incorporated in 1863- '64. I was ordered down from the 
Auburn railroad in March to commence grading. I graded the track 
into Preeport and went back to work on the Auburn road. I came 
back in July and laid the rails, and finished in October, about the 
lOtb, I think, and as soon as I got the side track in, they built a 
wharf for steamboats and leased it to the Sacramento Valley rail- 
road for two years. They sounded the river at midnight and found 
thirty-five feet of water, and no one knew of the survey. Carroll 
was a stockholder in the Valley road, but they bought the ranch in 
their own names so that no one would know it was for the Valley 
road. There was a bar up the river near the Edwards place, where 
the steamboats often got aground at low water, and frequently they 
would not reach Sacramento until noon or later the next day. The 
steamboat from San Francisco used to arrive at Preeport at 11 P. M. 
and the train would start as soon as the passengers got aboard with 
their baggage. The stages connected with the trains at Latrobe, and 
passengers ate breakfast at Placerville and went on over the moun- 
tains by daylight and landed in Virginia City at 3 P. M., twenty- 
three hours from San Francisco. The road was built to sell to the 
Central Pacific, which was done. The Central Pacific bought the 
Sacramento Valley road October 13, 1865 — the last day I worked for 

"All the ties and rails for the Freeport road came iip on vessels, 
and when I began to lay the road old Captain Kidder brought me up one 
and a quarter miles of rails and only one car of ties, and only four ties 
to a pair of rails. I told him that I couldn't lay them that way, as I had 
onlv five men and thev could not handle the iron and carrv it so far. 


The engine was a light one, but it was a greyhound to run, and I asked 
the engineer if four ties at the ends and middle of the rails would carry 
the engine. He said it would, so I put down a tie every ,six feet. The 
next day he gave us plenty of ties, and two of my men on the car un- 
loaded them. I walked along ahead and held up my hand as a signal to 
throw them down. They unloaded a whole train and then pulled the 
train out of the way. Then we shoved the ties in under the rails. 

"When the Central Pacific was laying its track near Gold Run, 
Strowbridge was superintendent of construction, and Maker was fore- 
man of the track-layers. They were experiencing the same trouble in 
regard to rails and ties that I had, and the work was proceeding slowly. 
There was an Irishman, Ned Hussey, working for Maker, and he became 
impatient at the way the work was going on. ' Av ye had Jim Patterson 
here, he'd show yez how to get this thrack down,' said he to Maker. 
'What do you know of Jim Patterson and what he would do?' asked 

Maker. 'H to your sowl, didn't I work undher hiin in laying the 

thrack an the Freeport road and the Valley road?' was the retort. 
'Well, what did he do?' asked Maker. Hussey explained to him, and 
he asked the engineer if the track would hold u]) the engine in case he 
laid fewer ties and had them put under the rails afterwards. The 
engineer said it would, and Maker hustled down to Strowbridge and told 
him al)Out it ; Strowbridge told him to go ahead. Maker had a big gang 
of Chinamen and he put them at work. The consequence was that l>e 
laid six miles of track the next day, and when additional ties came, the 
Chinamen slid them under the rails and S]>iked them down. They hus- 
tled the track laying from that time on, till the road got to Promontory 
and met the Union Pacific gang. 

"This was the only road built in California where the people did 
not know anything about it. I kept the engine out on the old Jackson 
road, and used to sneak in in the morning with the engineer and fireman 
and again at night to bring them back, the men boarding on the road, 
so no one knew anything about it. I built the first movable cook-house 
in this part of the country for the men to board in, and bought ])ro- 
visious from the ranchers, who let the men sleeji in their barns and out- 
buildings. My men were stevedores, who knew nothing but how to 
work, and I pushed things lively. Engineer Pope was running the 
engine, and was sparking Sam Rich's adopted daughter. Some days 
we laid a half mile and some days a mile of track, as we could get 
material. Old Page was owner of the Lake House then and would not 
let us grade across his land, so we had to lay the rails on the ground 
after the matter was fixed, and then haul dirt in for a roadbed. The 
trouble was adjusted afterwards. When the track was all finished I 
ran an excursion train over the road to Freeport. I stopped along the 
road and invited the farmers' families to get aboard. Then a re- 
porter got hold of it and published an account of the road, so the i^eople 
found out what I had been doing. 


"People nowadays do not realize the conditions that prevailed in 
early days. At the time of the '62 flood I went to Elk Grove, sick. 
The water was all over the countr.y and tliej" had to run a steamboat 
to Eoutier's to bring supplies for the people. There was only one 
sack of flour at Elk Grove, and George Bates had that and divided 
it with his neighbors. That was what is known as old Elk Grove 
now; the present Elk Grove was not in existence until after the 
railroad was built. You can judge how the water covered the country 
when they built a barge at Buckner's at old Elk Grove, right on the 
upjjer Stockton road, to go to Stockton for supplies. 

"Kobinson asked me if I could work, and I told him yes. There 
was very little, hay in the country for the horses and it was hard to 
get at that. I went over to Deterding's and paid $40 a ton for some 
old, rotten hay. The roads were awful, and teams were stalled every- 
where. I went over to Salisbury's and engaged some hay at $40, to 
be delivered to me the next morning, and when I went after it the 
fellow told me he had sold it for $45, so I had my trouble for my 
l)aius. I could not get to Florin or Perkins, as the water was too high. 

"The high water washed away a part of the Sacramento Valley 
railroad tracks, and the ties and rails were scattered all over the 
country. I began gathering them up, and it was a job to get them 
out of the mud with the teams. Where Agricultural Park is, was 
covered with railroad iron, and iron was iron in those days, when 
it had to come 'round the Horn.' Robinson came to my camp where 
the Buffalo brewery stands and asked me, 'how much iron have you 
got?' 'All there is here,' I answered. 'That is not enough,' says he. 
I keyit on gathering it up, and was going along by Gerber's, near the 
hospital, and saw some railroad iron in the mud. They had held a 
fair out at Buck Harrigan's that year. So I hauled it out with the 
teams, and it was hard work. I found a good deal had floated down 
there on the slough that runs through the county hospital grounds. 
Still we were short of iron. 'Tear up the sidetrack at Brighton,' said 
Robinson. 'I won't do it,' said I. 'There are a lot of rails at Buck 
Harrigan's that I will get.' 'Go to it,' said he. A good many bosses 
would have discharged me for answering that way, but I never 
worked under a better boss than Robinson. 

"When they built the S street sewer a few years ago, they found 
some rails under ground, and one of the men said there must have 
been a track there in the early days, but I told him the rails came 
there during the flood. Romeo Carroll built a corral out that way by 
splitting ties and driving them into the ground endways. I asked him 
where he got them and where I could find the rails, but he only 
laughed, and would not tell me. There are lots of rails today buried 
in the slough that runs through the William Curtis place. 

"It was tough on tlie people when everythiug was flooded so. All 
the box cars were full of families, and the water stood all about them. 


You couldn't see the wheels or the trucks. I was afraid they would go 
down and be washed away, so I got the two engines; the Garrison 
was in front and the Robinson behind. We cut the train in two parts 
and ran half of it out across the break between Eleventh and Twelfth 
streets. The water was running through fast, and I got stringers 
across and anchored them with anchors from the vessels on the river. 
Then I dumped in two carloads of cobbles that were to have been 
shipped to San Francisco for paving streets. When that was done, 
we had connection made from Sixteenth to Twenty-first street so that 
we could transfer our Folsom passengers. I was afraid the other part 
would go before we could get it out, but we saved it. 

"I worked for Colonel Wilson in '59 and '60 on the Marysville 
road; Montague was the engineer. The road onlj^ got to Lincoln, and 
was sold to the Central Pacific, which road had hard times, and there 
is more than one little bit of interesting history concerning it that 
but very few know. Before it got to Newcastle it was out of money, 
and C. P. Huntington was sent to Boston to try to make a raise. On 
the steamer, going to Boston, was Judge Slauson, a Boston attorney, 
and as Huntington had also come from Boston, they became good 
friends. Some of Slauson 's clients, moneyed men of that city, had 
become involved in a deal whereby thej^ stood to lose $7,000,000, or 
thereabouts, and he had been sent for to go east and help them out. 
Huntington confided to Slauson the financial difficulties of the road 
and asked him to get his clients to buy out the promoters. 'They 
have money,' said he, 'and can carry it on and win out and make 
money. We will sell out the road to them, rolling stock and all, for 
$1,500,000.' Slauson told his clients, but they said they knew nothing 
about railroading, and they stood to lose $7,000,000 already. Slauson 
bundled them off to Europe, where papers could not be served on 
them, and saved them $4,500,000. Then he got busy among his friends 
and raised $250,000 for Mr. Huntington on second mortgage bonds. 
As soon as he received the money the company began to work again 
and built the road to Clipper Gap. Then the change came and the 
mountains were brought down to Roseville and they got their $48,000 
a mile. The first thing they did after they got money was to buy Sam 
Brannan's mortgage and foreclose on the California Central. Charles 
Crocker bought one share of the stock for the purpose and served an 
injunction on Robinson to prevent his taking the rails on the Auburn 
road. My father and Stanford were very friendly, and they held 
three meetings in my father's house at Folsom with the Sacramento 
Valley railroad people before the California Pacific started from Sac- 
ramento. Robinson wanted to have one director on the board if they 
bought the road, but they would not consent. Finally the purchase 
was made. My father paid the Valley road the first money it ever 
received for freight, when it brought him up a ton of seed wheat for 
$1.50, the regular rate being established at $3. 


"Tlie other day Tom McCoimell, of McConnell station, was in 
here to see me, and we had a chat about the old days. McConnell 
settled at Garden Valley, on the Georgetown road near Greenwood 
and Johntown. He started a store there and cultivated a garden, 
from which the i^lace took its name. He raised potatoes and sold 
them to the miners for thirty cents a pound. Such things were high in 
those days. He came down to Sacramento one day and stepped into 
a store where Charlie Grimm was having an auction. A lot of cotton 
shirts were being sold and he bought the whole lot for five cents 
apiece and took them home; It cost two bits, in those days to get a 
shirt washed. He told the miners he would sell them the shirts for 
two bits, and they concluded it was better to wear a shirt a couple of 
weeks and throw it away than to pay for having it washed, so be sold 
all his shirts and got the reputation of being the cheapest storekeeper 
to buy of in that country. 

"In the winter of '52-53, the rains were very heavy and the bot- 
tom dropped out of the roads, and a great many teams were laid up 
along the road. Flour was selling at fifty cents a pound. Some 
freighters got within three miles of Garden Valley and got stalled. 
McConnell went down and bought their flour for thirty cents and sold 
it to the miners for forty cents. 'I was lucky,' said he; 'I just got 
rid of it when it came down to twenty- five cents.' For a time the 
price of all kinds of merchandise was low except picks and shovels, 
and McConnell said he never got more than $5 apiece for picks and 
$10 for shovels." 


The following tale of a historic event by "Forty-Niner" relates 
the incidents surrounding the first ball given in the county and was 
published in the '70s in the Record-Union, and will prove of interest 
as depicting the shifts to which those inclined to shine in "sassiety" 
in those days were reduced in order to make items for the social 
column. The narrator says : 

"In my brief history of tliis phice (Mormon Island) as a])peared 
in your issue of the 12th, I neglected to give you a statement of the 
manner we enjoyed ourselves in those good and jolly old days of '49. 
We had our social gathering once each month, after 'the ball,' how- 
ever. The first ball ever given in Sacramento county was given here, 
and was the most difficult to make a success and the most amusing. 
It will be well remembered by two of the residents of your city, and 
two of San Francisco, when they refresh their memory. A full and 
true insight as to the management of such affairs at that early time 
will be a treat to your readers, especially to those who are 'high- 
toned' this present day, if tliey had been present as spectators to 
witness those hale and buxom maidens with short dresses, gray woolen 
stockings, and brogans, soles one-half inch thick. How they did laugh 


and sing and grow fat under such innocent and moral enjoyment. 

"The second day after my arrival at the Blue Drilling hotel, I 
borrowed a yeast powder can, holding abov;t half a gill. I started, 
after my morning meal, for the bank of the river. The sand was liter- 
ally mixed with gold, as I supposed. I sat me down, exposed to the 
boiling sun, the thermometer claiming one hundred and seventeen de- 
grees, and spent the entire day gathering with the point of my knife 
the scale gold, as I thought, and depositing the same in my miniature 
tin safe. At sundown it was full, and I thought that a few days of such 
work would be all I cared for, and return home. I took the result 
of my day's work to Markham's store to have it weighed and get the 
coin for the same, but to my astonishment it was nothing more or less 
than mica. Feeling discouraged, I thought that gold is only sought as 
a means toward this end. Happiness is the concentration of all riches, 
and the most perfect happiness of this world is simply to be content. 

"My cash account growing short, I had to resort to some strategy 
to make a raise, so I suggested to the landlord that as winter was fast 
approaching he ought to have a canvas roof on his building, to pro- 
tect the health of his patrons. The roof that was on his house would 
leak when it rained, and the interior of the hotel was dry when it did 
not rain. Upon my suggestion, he concluded to make the necessary 
repairs, and I to do the sewing at fifty cents a yard, and when the 
work was done a grand ball was to be given to pay such an extrav- 
agant expense. Two gentlemen, then residents of this town (now one 
is a captain of one of the Sacramento and San Francisco boats, and 
the other a wealthy and prominent member of the board of brokers 
of San Francisco), were called upon, and the promised treat was dis- 
cussed in all its parts. One of these gentlemen suggested that a 
floor should be laid so that it would be more j^leasant for the dancers. 
I and the landlord objected, he on the ground of unnecessary expense, 
and I for the reason that the cost would overbalance the receipts; the 
house would be bankrupt, and I would whistle for my pay. I gained 
my point by arguing that the ladies' brogans would last longer on a 
dirt floor than on wood. 

"Next in order was discussion as to the proper arrangements to 
be made on such an important occasion. Our friend, 'now on the 
river,' suggested the programme, which was concurred in by the com- 
mittee. Large posters written upon brown wrapping paper, with a 
blue pencil, were posted in every direction — 'Tickets, twenty dollars,' 
and the 25th of December, 1849 — for the first ball ever held in the 
county of Sacramento. 

"A few days before, quite a large immigration from the western 
states arrived, and it was suggested and proposed that the committee 
should wait on the female portion and solicit their aid and services in 
preparing food for the supper, 'as the cook at the hotel could not be 
trusted, for he was one of those Yankee fellows, and his extravagance 


in preparing the food would surely bust the boss.' We waited upon 
the ladies, and their excuse was that having just arrived, their whole 
time would be occui^ied in the wash tub, bath tub, and the preparation 
of their outer garments. Our only hope was to solicit the aid of the 
miners for our supper, and we offered to pay them for their food and 
premiums for the best meats, bread, cakes and pies; and your cor- 
respondent was appointed a committee of one to make the award — 
which was half-price to the dance. That was a smart trick of the 
landlord, for he knew I would find some excuse for refusing any 
premiums, as he had an eye for profit, and I for my pay. 

"Well, the 25th arrived; the miners brought in their several 
meats, cakes, i^ies, etc., each one doing his best to excel the other. 
At 2 P. M. everything needed for the supper was exhibited for in- 
spection and awards in the cabin of W. Jones. The first examination 
was of two fine appearing hams. Premiums were refused in both 
cases — first, that the hams had not been washed before boiling, and 
the skin had not been taken off after boiling. The other was a 
shoulder, but by a neat contrivance about four inches of the leg of a 
ham had been carefully sawed off and with a wooden peg neatly 
placed in the shoulder, having the appearance of a genuine ham. Each 
was paid for his ham at $1 per pound, and they paid for their tickets 
$20 each. The next examination was the corn beef, which proved to 
be a chunk of 'salt horse' brought there some two weeks before by a 
sailor. He was paid for his salt horse and he paid for his ticket, as 
no premiiam was awarded him. 

"The bread was examined, and it was the unanimous opinion of 
the committee, at my suggestion, that it was dark. A person could 
not tell whether he was eating bread or leather. This report soon 
spread through the town, and an old and venerable Jack Tar had his 
trunk half full of ship biscuit, which he offered as a substitute, and 
was accepted. The bread-makers' premium was withheld, and the 
donor of the biscuits received a pass to the dance at half-price. 

"Sausage meat came next, but as it had been made of nothing 
but beef and tallow, it could not he put on the table, as fishballs 
are prepared for use, so the whole bunch was boiled and served up 
cold, and a complimentary ticket given him. The cakes were in fine 
order, sufficient grease having been used to make them palatable. 
They were accepted, and another $20 was lost. Something had to be 
done to avoid an^' further issue of free tickets for the ball, so the 
committee, taking a wink from me, agreed that the balance of the 
food should be averaged with that that had been examined except the 
pies, and they should be passed upon at the table, during supper, when 
pie was called for. The time did arrive. The first one cut proved to 
contain dried apples, brought from Boston, thoroughly eaten up with 
worms, and the black seeds still sticking in them. The crust was fair; 
he was paid for his pies, but received no pass. 


"The second pie cut had the appearance of being 0. K. of the 
dried peach order. A strong demand was made for peach pie. The 
first person that took a bite happened to have a false tooth in his 
head; instantly it fell from his mouth. An inquiry was at once made 
as to the cause of all this confusion, and the fault lay in the crust 
of the iiie. It was carefully examined by those of the committee who 
had sound teeth and found to excel India rubl^er in toughness. The 
competitor was at once assessed for the damage done, which was set- 
tled by paying for the unfortunate gentleman's ticket. 

"Our work being done, the question arose as to who should have 
the honor of presiding over the floor at the dance. My old friend, 
now of San Francisco, was appointed as boss owing to his having a 
neat, white, fried shirt to give tone to the occasion. Myself and my 
Sacramento river friend were appointed as jigger bosses, he having a 
swallow-tailed coat with brass buttons, and I having a neat and clean 
collar over my. woolen shirt, and a neat pair of boots, well greased, 
which made a good appearance. 

"The appearance of the ballroom was all that could be desired 
except that the managers were guilty of the grave oversight of neglect- 
ing to provide benches around it for the company. Wheeling planks 
were soon on hand, and, supported by drygoods boxes, made all satis- 
fied, and for the better accommodation and comfort of the ladies the 
landlord kindly allowed his two pairs of blankets to lie used to give 
them the appearance of stuffed benches. The music stand was a shoe 
liox and a three-legged stool on top. The hall was handsomely illum- 
inated by twelve candles stuck in porter bottles, and secured to the 
walls of the building with wires and handsomely decorated by the 
rough but tasteful hands of the miners with miniature flags and ever- 
greens. All was now ready; the proprietor looked up and down the 
streets for the coming of the dancers. One fellow told the landlord 
that in California the people never go to balls until tlie next day ; that 
joke cost the landlord a cocktail and a steerage cigar. The company 
began to appear, however, at rather a late hour. Everybody had 
heard of the grand ball, and everybody wanted to see the crowd in 
attendance. It was a most singular miscellany, and in some cases 
the wonder was how the requisite $20 for a ticket was raised. 

"If it were desirable, I could ciitisize the ball pretty freely with- 
out being untruthful, but I should lavish ink and exhaust rhetoric in 
the vain effort to describe the entire success of this first entertain- 
ment. I dare not do it in print for the sake of my reputation for 
veracity nor undertake to say how many sighs were lavished upon the 
managers, the languishing glances that were leveled at them across 
the hall, what eloquent rhymes were coined to their praise, and how 
many gallant men risked the perils of a duel for the honor of first 
attempting to solicit the hand of the fair maidens for a dance. Even 
the furniture — wheeling planks appeared to hold high carnival, the 


sofas displaying their elasticity, the candles winking, and the fiddlers 
sometimes bursting out into such uproarious hilarity that the very 
strings appeared as if they were struggling to get out of their places. 

"12 M. supper was called. Boards in the center of the hall 
were placed in their proper position, the old blue drilling roof was 
used for a table cloth, tin plates and knives and forks were in plenty, 
and soon the crowd took their standing positions. Be it known that 
the table was made high enough to compel the hungry crowd to 
stand, for by such an arrangement they soon got tired and woiild 
leave the table with their bunch of fives full of grub, to make room 
for the steerage patrons. Shortly after eating commenced a colored 
miner, who had been cook of a whaling ship, entered and graciously 
donated a plum duff, tapering regularly to a point from a circular 
base. The handsome donation was thankfully received, but the out- 
side of the duff had the smell of something very much like perspira- 
tion, and from its appearance must have been boiled in the sleeve 
of a shirt. However, the outside was carefully scraped, and not a 
speck was left for the second table. Supper over, the tables were 
kicked out doors and dancing renewed. A young maiden was present, 
named 'The Infant,' fourteen years of age, weight one hundred and 
eighty-nine pounds. I asked for the honor of her hand for a polka; 
her answer was 'you bet.' The first turn I made, flop I went on the 
dirt floor ; a clothes Iirush was in demand, but as none could be found, 
she took a long-handled broom and swept me otf. After this was 
done, she called aloud, 'Here, Jim, finish this dance with me; this 
fellow can't swing under my weight.' I surrendered, but before they 
got well started a string on the fiddle broke. The fiddler declared 
that he could not play any fancy dances without four strings. The 
polka had to be abandoned, at which I felt a calm satisfaction. 

"Well, the ball ran until four o'clock, and only the bass string- 
left. Thus ended the first ball ever given in Sacramento county. I 
got my pay for my work, and my name is yet Forty-Niuer." 

In the previous article. alluded to "Forty-Niner" told of customs 
at tlie "Blue Drilling" hotel. He says: "I took up my quarters at 
the hotel made of blue drilling; the polite landlord, at present a resi- 
dent of your city, bowed me into my room, which consisted of ninety 
pine i)oles covered with canvas, and would accommodate forty ])er- 
sons, but contained only two pairs of l)lankets. As soon as one fell 
asleep, the accommodating landlord would remove the blankets from 
him for the next customer, and if they were slow to. retire, a glass of 
'49 Bourbon soon compelled them to. After all were asleep, the land- 
lord took the blankets from his last patron and went to bed himself, 
to dream of the many two dollars coming in the next morning for 
lodging. Many incjuiries were made for the bedclothing, but the 


gentlemanly proprietor settled the muss by another cocktail and a 
steerage cigar (cabin cigars at that time sold for fifty cents each), 
and all was peace." 



Alabama township was established October 20, 1856, a jn-ior divi- 
sion of the county having been made February 24, 1851, by the court 
of sessions, by which eight townships (known as Sacramento, Sutter, 
San Joaquin, Cosumnes, Brighton, Center, Mississippi and Natoma) 
were established. It is bounded on the north by Lee and Cosumnes 
townships, on the west by Dry Creek township and on the south and 
east by the county line. It was originally part of Cosumnes towm- 
ship and includes township six north, ranges seven and eight east, 
which lie north of Dry Creek, and also a strip from the west side of 
townships five and six north, range nine east, nearly a mile wide, in 
this county. 

John Southerland came into this townshiy) in 1850 and engaged 
in stock raising, and Roberts and Chaplin, who were the first ones to 
raise barley in the township, settled on a ranch near him the same 
year, and Joshua and William Hewald, adjoining them, also raised 
grain and hay. In 1851 Ed Thompson, an old sea captain, settled 
with his family in the township, but afterwards sold his farm to tb** 
Goodwin brothers. Soon after selling he had a dispute with a laborer, 
and calling him out of the house, shot and killed him, then left the 
country and was never found. Dr. George Elliott settled in 1851 at 
the crossing of the Stockton road and Dry creek, kept a stage station 
and hotel, owning the stage line. The place was known as Elliott's 
station and a postoffice was established there in 1852, Elliott being 
appointed postmaster. He sold out in 1858, a Mr. Mitchell being ap- 
pointed to succeed him, until the office was discontinued, when Martin 
Scott purchased the hotel and moved it. across the creek into San 
Joaquin county. James M. Short and W. Lords came in 1852, and 
the former still lives there. Other early settlers previous to 1855 were 
S. B. Lemon. James Crocker, Thomas H. Fowler, William Mitchell 
(a large sheep-raiser), Richard White, William H. Young, William 
Callon, John Bowen and Joshua Bailey. In 1858 Thomas Steele set- 
tled at what is now known as Clay Station, and a postoffice was estab- 
lished there in 1878, Steele being postmaster, storekeeper and black- 
smith. The Sacramento and Stockton stages ran through the town- 
ship and by the station and hotel kept liy Dr. Elliott. The Forest Line 
Stage Company began running in June, 1869, and ceased in 1876, 
running from Gait to Mokelumne Hill. George Brusie kept a station 


and hotel. S. B. Lemon opened a hotel in 1854, which was closed in 
1861 or 1862, and Calvin Bates opened one in 1863, on the Michigan 
Bar or Lagiina road, which closed in 1866. 

The first school in the township was a private one, kept by George 
H. Stringfield, in 1857, which lasted one term, and in 1858 a public 
schoolhouse was built by private parties. Miss Mary McConnell being 
the first teacher. 

The soil of the bottom lands is a black loam. The upland is 
gravelly, mixed with adobe, and considerable red loam and sandy soil. 
The chief industry was stock raising until the passage of the "no- 
fence" law, since which time the land is more profitable for farming 
than grazing. Thompson and James brought several herds of cattle 
into the township in 1853, and until 1860 "Uncle Billy" Hicks, of 
Hicksville, also had considerable cattle. In 1858 sheep-raisiug ob- 
tained a hold and has ever since proved ]irofitable. After 1877 barley, 
wheat and hay began to be raised profitably. Very little fruit has 
hitherto been raised in this township, but of late the large ranches 
have been purchased and are being cut up into small tracts, with the 
idea of colonizing them for the purpose of intensive farming and 
planting vineyards. Dry creek is a torrential stream coming down 
from Amador county, which cai-ries water only in the winter and 
spring. The Lagoon, as it is known, carries a great deal of water in 
winter, sometimes overflowing its banks, half a mile wide. It runs 
nearly through the center of the township. 


On July 30, 1851, the court of sessions cut off from Sacramento 
township all of the land north of the American river, creating it into 
a township to be known as American township. On the 20tli of 
October, 1856, the board of supervisors of this county established the 
boundaries of the different townships as they now exist, all except 
Riverside township, which was carved out of Sutter township in 1909. 
In 1874 the supervisors changed the boundaries of Sacramento city, 
throwing all the land north of A and North B streets into American 
townshi)). At present almost all the land in the township is swamp 
and overflowed land, comprised in Old Swamp Land District No. 1. 
The Natomas Consolidated Company, however, has obtained ownership 
of most of the overflowed laud, and has begim the work of reclaiming 
many thousands of acres, at a cost of several million dollars, and the 
day is not far distant when the township will be the site of hundreds 
of small holdings of alluvial land of great fertility and will make a 
thickly settled section tributary to the city of Sacramento. The 
township contains about fourteen thousand acres of the Norris Grant, 
or Rancho del Paso. This also is being subdivided, and many set- 
tlers are making improvements on it. The Southern Pacific station 
at Arcade is situated near the southeast corner of the township. 


The Six-mile House on the old Marysville road was built by Mr. 
Holmes in 1852 or 1853, but sold in 1857 under foreclosure to H. C. 
Harvey, who was interested in a stage line from Sacramento to Marys- 
ville, and who kept it as a hotel and farmhouse. It is now the head- 
quarters of a game club. The Arcade House was about two miles 
from the American river bridge. The Star hotel was on the Nevada 
road on the Norris Grant. It was a favorite stopping place for team- 
sters and was owned by a Mr. Pitcher in 1857. The Twelve-mile 
House was a stage station on the Nevada road. The land, being sedi- 
mentary deposit, is very rich on the bottoms, and much sediment was 
de]iosited on it by the '62 flood, which nearly ruined the farms over- 
flowed, carrying away barns, houses, tools, etc., and the indications 
are that at some time previous to the American river occupation the 
water was much higher than in 1862. 

This township was the scene of one of the early duels — that be- 
tween Philip W. Thomas, district attorney of Placer county, and Dr. 
Dickson, one of the physicians of the State Marine hospital of San 
Francisco. Thomas had made some remarks derogatory to the char- 
acter of J. P. Rutland, one of the clerks in the office of State Treas- 
urer McMeans, and Rutland sent a challenge, which Thomas declined, 
saying he did not regard the challenger as a gentleman. Dr. Dickson 
appropriated the insult to himself, and sent a challenge to Thomas in 
his own name, which was accepted, and a hostile meeting was ar- 
ranged for four A. M. March 9, 1854. The parties left the city at 
two-thirty A. M., but found they were pursued by the sheriff and his 
deputies, and it was arranged that a mock duel should take place be- 
tween two of their friends, H. O. Ryerson and Hamilton Bowie. They 
took position and exchanged shots, and Ryerson was immediately ar- 
rested and taken to the city, where he gave bonds. The principals 
proceeded to the ground, about two hundred yards from the residence 
of H. M. LaRue, where Bowie acted as second for Thomas and Judge 
McGowan as second for Dickson. The distance had been fixed at 
ten paces, but was changed to fifteen, in hopes of saving their lives. 
The weapons used were dueling pistols, and both fired promptly at 
the word, Thomas being a little the quicker of the two, which prob- 
ably saved his life, as Dickson's bullet struck the ground at Thomas' 
feet. Dickson fell and was brought to the city, where he died at 
midnight. James H. Hardy was then district attorney, and the other 
participants were indicted, but through the exertions of Col. P. L. 
Edwards, their counsel, the indictments were quashed. Thomas was 
later twice re-elected district attorney of Placer county, and in 1860 
was elected to the state senate, but resigned before the expiration of 
his term. He died in Auburn in 1874 or 1875. 


Brighton township, as originally established by the court of ses- 


sions February 4, 1851, was described as follows: Beginning at the 
southeast corner of Sacramento township, thence along the eastern 
line of said township to the county line of Sutter county ; thence east- 
erly along said line for three miles; thence in a southeasterly direc- 
tion to Murray's ranch and including the same; thence in the same 
direction to the intersection of San Joaquin, Sutter and Cosumnes 
townships; thence along the northern line of Sutter township to the 
place of beginning. This included part of what is now known as 
Center township. In 1856 the board of supervisors changed the 

The town of Brighton was started in 184f) by a ])arty of Sacra- 
mento speculators, the town plat made, lots staked off, a race track 
and the Pavilion hotel built by the originators of the enterprise. It 
was located on the bank of the American river, nearly a mile north 
of the location of what is now known as Brighton. In 1849-51 it was 
a lively place. The Pavilion hotel burned down in 1851, and another 
hotel, the Five-mile House, with John and George Berry as propri- 
etors, was started, but closed in 1856. There were two stores and 
several dwellings in the town, but in 1852 it was abandoned, on ac- 
count of land troubles, defective title and other reasons. 

The station and postoffice now known as Perkins was called 
Brighton until the early '80s, when the name was changed. At one 
time the jiostoffice at Brighton was moved to what is now called 
Brighton Junction, remaining there for four years, and then going- 
back to its i)resent location. T. C. Perkins built the first store and 
was the first postmaster there in 1861, and his son, C. C. Perkins, 
still carries them on. S. H. Pugh built the Washing-ton hotel and the 
first blacksmith shop in 1874. 

Hoboken, or Norristown, was laid olT by Samuel Norris in 1850 
on the south bank of the American river. Very little was heard of it 
till the flood of 1852, when Sacramento was cut off by water, and Sac- 
ramento merchants had to move to the high ground in order to reach 
their customers. The town was rechristened Hoboken, and grew 
quickly. January 10, 1853, there were from thirty to fifty houses and 
tents. Prominent business houses of Sacramento .swelled the popula- 
tion to several hundred. In January of 1853 the vote for the election 
of mayor of the town stood, after an exciting campaign: E. L. Brown, 
613; Samuel Norris, 546; J. B. Starr, 598. Mayor Brown made a 
speech to the voters, promising to faithfully perform the duties of 
Ills office, "provided I am paid for it." When the waters subsided 
Holjoken was deserted and became farm land. 

Routier postoffice, named in honor of Joseph Routier, is on the 
Placerville railroad. Routier settled there in June, 1853, as the agent 
of Ca])tain Folsom, occupying the house built by Leidesdorff in 1846. 
He bought part of the property and lived there until his death in 1898. 
The first railroad station in this vicinitv was at the American Fork 


House, or Patterson's. A few years later tlie station was moved to 
Mayliew. In 1871 Mr. Patterson lost his new house by fire, and re- 
built at Routier's. In 187:2 Mrs. Mayhew, i)ostniistress at Mayhew, 
resigned, and the office was moved to Routier's and Patterson was 
appointed jjostmaster. 

A. D. Patterson came to this country in 1849 and started the 
American Fork or Ten-mile House on the Coloma road, remaining 
there until 1871. The house was constructed principally of cloth, and 
was about ten miles from Sacramento. It became popular, and flour- 
ished so that in 1850 he built a wooden house costing, it was said, 
about $40,000, owing to the cholera season in that year. On Christmas 
Eve, 1850, a ball was held that realized $1500, of which Patterson paid 
$250 to Lothian's band for music. In 1853 the "Plank Road," built 
on the continuation of J street, reached Patterson's hotel, whicli was 
its eastern terminus. The house immediately became a great [)lace 
of resort, and flourished till he sold it in 1872. 

The Magnolia, also known as the Five-mile House, was l)uilt orig- 
inally in 1849, on the old Placerville and Jackson stage road, and was 
well known in its day. It was burned twice in 1863, and rebuilt the 
second time. The Twelve-Mile House was built in 1853 by a man 
named Caldwell, and was known as the Antelope ranch. The Four- 
teen-mile House was built on the old Coloma road in 1850, and sold 
to John Taylor in 1854. 

Among the early settlers in the townshii) we have gathered the 
folio-wing: N. J. Stevens settled near Patterson in 1850. Charles 
Malby settled here in 1849, and kept the Nine-mile House on the 
Coloma road. James T. Day came in 1849. Israel Luce came in 
1850. James Allen came with his family on the American river, and 
was driven out in the Squatter riot, the sheriff having been killed at 
his house, as heretofore narrated, and an adopted son of his having 
also been killed. He returned, and sold his place in 1861. W. B. 
Whitesides settled in the township in 1850, on what is known as the 
Rooney i)lace. A. B. Hawkins came in 1849. A. Cerytes came in 
1850, but moved away later. A. Kipp and- Charles Petit settled on 
the Allen i)lace in 1851, but when he returned they gave it up to him. 
John Rooney came in 1851. W. S. Manlove and Dr. Kellogg settled 
there in 1849. 

Mills station, formerly known as Hangtown Crossing, has a store 
kept by John Studarus, and a gristmill from which it takes its name. 

Walsh's station is situated on the Jackson road about nine miles 
from Sacramento, and a postoffice was established there in 1873. J. 
Walsh, who kept the store, being postmaster. Enterprise Grange hall 
was built there the same year by a business association connected 
with the Grange. 


Center township was established by the court of sessions in 1851. 
and comprised part of the present township, as well as parts of 


Brighton, Granite and Lee townships. The supervisors in 1853 
changed the boundaries of Brighton and Center townships, making 
the portions of both lying north of the American river, Center town- 
ship. In 1856 new boundaries were established. The township is al- 
most entirely composed of Spanish grants. About thirty thousand 
acres of the Norris grant, known now as the Eancho del Paso, are in 
the township; also about eight thousand acres of the old San Juan 
grant, the latter having been subdivided and sold iu smaller parcels. 
During the past two years the Eancho del Paso has been sold by J. B. 
Haggin to eastern capitalists, and is being rapidly cut up and sold 
in small farms to settlers. The price paid for it is stated to have 
been about one and a half millions. For fifty years its forty-four 
thousand acres has stood like a stone wall in the way of the city's 
expansion on the north, as Mr. Haggin refused to sell it, except as a 
whole. It is being rapidly settled up at present. The proprietors of 
the Norris grant made three separate attempts to reach artesiain 
water or to find a flowing well, but were unsuccessful, and the last 
of the three wells was abandoned in 1879. The depth of these wells 
was, respectively, nine hundred feet, six hundred and forty feet, and 
twentj'-one hundred and forty-seven feet. 

The Auburn road runs diagonally through the township, and in 
the early days houses of refreshment were located along it at short 
intervals, the most prominent of them being the Oak Grove House, 
about seven miles from Sacramento, which was a popular resort in 
1851-52. It was kept by D. B. Groat, and was the one at which the 
parties of the Denver-Gilbert duel took breakfast on the morning of 
the tragedy, the ground being only a few yards away. The house 
disapijeared long ago. This was one of the most noted duels in the 
early history of the state, and had its origin in a newspaper con- 
troversy in 1852. Denver was at the time in charge of the supplies 
for overland immigration, and Gilbert attacked him editorially, charg- 
ing members of the expedition with dishonesty. He finally sent Den- 
ver a challenge, which was accepted, Denver, as the challenged party, 
choosing rifles, and the distance thirty paces. At sunrise AugTist 2, 
1852, the combatants met on the ground, and in the toss for choice of 
position Denver won, and placed his back toward the rising sun. Ex- 
Mayor Teschemacher was Gilbert's second and V. E. Geiger was Den- 
ver's, while Dr. Wake Briarly was surgeon. The first fire resulted 
in the bullets of each striking the ground in front of the other. At 
the second shot Gilbert was shot in the bowels and fell into the arms 
of his friend, dying without a struggle. His body was carried to the 
Oak Grove House. Gilbert was born in Troy, N. Y., and worked him- 
self up from the printer's case to a seat in congress. He came to 
California with Stevenson's regiment in 1847, having previously been 
associate editor on the Albany Argus, though at the time of his death 
he was only thirty years of age. Early in 1849 he combined the 


("alifornia Star and the old Californian, from which sprung the Alta 
California. He was a delegate to the first constitutional convention, 
and the first man from the Pacific coast to take a seat in congress. 
His body was taken to the residence of J. H. Nevett in Sacramento, 
and impressive funeral services held bj^ Eev. 0. C. Wheeler at the 
First Baptist church, the procession being headed by a company of 
cavalry under command of Captain Fry. The body was taken to San 
Francisco, and final services held at Rev. T. Dwight Hunt's church, 
every newspaper editor and reporter in San Francisco attending the 

Antelope is a village on the Southern Pacific railway. In 1876 
a large brick warehouse was built by J. F. Cross, costing $3000. The 
first store was started in 1877 by the Antelope Business Association, 
and the second by R. Astile in 1879 in the hotel building. The post- 
ofKce was established in 1877, Joel Gardner being postmaster. For 
many years it has been a shipping place for hay and grain into the 
mountains, and of late fruit and almond raising is increasing in that 
section. Arcade is a way station on the Southern Pacific. Within 
the past three years the Western Pacific railway and the Northern 
Electric railway have been built through the township and have estab- 
lished some way stations. 


Cosumnes township originally embraced parts of Dry Creek and 
San Joaquin townships. Its present boimdaries were established by 
the board of supervisors in 1856, and the villages of Cosumnes, Mich- 
igan Bar, Sebastopol, Live Oak and Buckeye are within its limits. 

Michigan Bar was so named because the first settlers were from 
Michigan. Much mining has been done in Cosumnes township, gold 
having been discovered there in 1849, and it was probably discovered 
by the two Michigan men who founded the place. This was the 
largest mining camp in the district, and the first claims were only 
allowed to be sixteen feet. When hydraulic mining began the miners 
made their own rules. In the fall of 1851 the miners began working 
the gulches, hauling the dirt in carts to the river. This was the first 
dry mining done in this locality. In the summer most of the mining 
was done on the river and bars. The Knightsomer ditch in 1851 (the 
first built), and the Davidson ditch, built in 1854, were both on the 
north side of the river. In 1858 hydraulic mining began, and some 
two hundred to three hundred acres were washed off to the depth, 
sometimes, of twenty feet, the district being one of the best for placer 
mining in California. At one time Michigan Bar had from one thou- 
sand to fifteen hundred population, some estimating it as high as two 
thousand, and in the '50s it polled as high as five hundred votes. There 
are not more than fifty voters now. 

A toll bridge, built in 1853 by Samuel Putnam, was bought by the 


county ill 1879 and made free. A new iron bridge, 362 feet in length 
and costing $3300, was built in 1887. The Michigan Bar pottery 
works were built in 1859 by J. W. Orr, who discovered what was 
thought to be the best bank of clay for pottery in the state. 

A man named Prothero was the first settler, and brought his 
family of four sons and two daughters with him. Larkiii Lamb and 
wife settled there in 1851. 

Gold was discovered at Cook's Bar (named after a man named 
Dennis Cook, who settled there in 1849) about the same time as at 
Michigan Bar, and quite a large town, with a large hotel, stores and 
saloons and five hundred population sprang up, but practically ceased 
to exist in 1860. 

Sebastopol, a mining town, sprang up in 1854. The place was so 
named by the miners, the Crimean war then being in progress. During 
the lively times three hundred to four hundred ounces of gold dust 
were sold here weekly, but the town dwindled down to four houses by 
1859. Katesville, another mining town, was estahlished in 1854 and 
deserted in 1862. 

Live Oak was also established in 1854, and for several years gold 
to the amount of $2000 to $3000 was sold there weekly. Wells, Fargo 
& Co. had an office there from 1858 to 1861, and the Hamilton line of 
stages ran through Live Oak on their way from Mokelumne Hill to 
Sacramento. There were three stores, two hotels and other business 
houses, but the place went down in 1861. Among the early settlers 
were B. R. Roliinson, Henry Lancaster, W. S. Crayton, Thomas Olive, 
J. C. Dunn, Patrick Gaffney, John Gatfney, George Freeman, R. D. 
Reed, Alfred Ball and V. Perry. George McKinstry came to the state 
in 1847, and opened a store and trading post on the Cosumnes river 
in 1849. He owned a part of what was known as the Sacayac grant 
(later called the Pratt grant) on the Cosumnes river, and sold the 
ranch and store to Emanuel Pratt, who ran it till 1855, when he closed 
out the business. J. 0. Sherwood settled on the south side of the 
Cosumnes in 1850. Jacob A. Hutchinson, Sr., crossed the plains in 
1846, and settled on the Cosumnes river in 1849. He soon started on 
a prospecting trip to the northern mines, and was never heard of 
again. James Pollock came to the state in 1846 with his family, and 
settled on the Cosumnes in 1853. He claimed that his daughter, Mary, 
was the first white child born in the state, but the claim is disputed. 

Jared Sheldon, the owner of the Sheldon grant, in 1851 bought a 
piece of land half a mile above where McCabe's bridge was afterwards 
built. He built a costly dam and dug a race three-quarters of a mile 
long, the dam being built of square timbers, tied together with oak 
ties, and filled in with rocks, sixteen feet high. The miners learned 
of his intention and protested, on the ground that it would overflow 
their claims, but he disregarded their protest, and completed the dam. 
When the water began to reach the claims several meetings were 


held, both sides being represented. Sheldon built a fort on a point of 
rocks which commanded the dam, placed a cannon upon it, and em- 
ployed a number of men to defend it. Julj- 12, 1851, however, the 
fort was surprised and taken, Sheldon being absent. He was sent for 
to come and let the water off, and arrived soon after with a dozen 
men, but refused to let the water off, and the miners made an in- 
effectual attempt to blow up the dam. When it failed, one of the 
miners, of whom there were about a hundred present, seized an ax, 
and calling on the others to protect him, walked to the edge of the 
dam and began chopping. There is a dispute as to who fired the first 
shot, one account stating that Sheldon ordered one of his men to shoot 
the miner who was chopping the dam, and that this man and another 
fired at him, whereupon the miners fired at the Sheldon party, killing 
Sheldon, and Johnson and Cody, the two men who fired. The only 
man injured on the miners' side was the man on the dam, who was 
slightly wounded. The dam was opened and the water let out, and it 
was entirely swept away by the high water of 1851-52. 

Jordan H. Lowry settled at Michigan Bar in 1854, and lived there 
for many years. There were plenty of hotels in the township between 
1850 and 1862. The Public House, built at Coats' Ferry, 'closed in 
1858, and another hotel, built by Coats, on the other side of the river, 
was closed in 1857. The Hamilton House, on the Sacramento and 
Dry Town road, near the river, was burned in 1853, and never re- 
built. The Gold Spring House on the Gold Spring ranch, was built 
in 1849 and closed in 1853. The Mountain House was built in 1850 
by James Gordon, whose wife gave birth to twins the same year, the 
first twins born in the township. The Wilbur hotel, built by Y. S. 
Wilbur in 1850, and sold to Larkin Lamb in 1851, was closed by him 
in 1858. The Ohio House, built by a company from Ohio, was sold in 
i&o6 or 1857 to James Cummings, who changed its name to the Cum- 
mings House. It was located at Sebastopol and burned down in 1864 
and was never rebuilt. The Hamilton hotel was opened at Sebastopol 
by J. H. Hamilton in 1857. The Prairie Cottage, about a mile and a 
half above Sebastopol, on the lone road, was built in 1851 and closed 
in 1864. The Blue Tent House, on the Buckeye ranch, built in 1849 
by Sage & Co., closed as a hotel in 1870. The Niagara House was 
opened in 1849 on Willow Springs creek by Moore & Ball, and 
closed in 1856. Cook's Bar House, opened by Chenault & Hall, in 
1854, did a good business for several years, but closed in 1870. 

While there is some good agricultural land in Cosumnes township 
and some successful hopyards along the river, most of the land is 
classed as mineral and is but little worked now, being largely devoted 
to grazing. The march of progress and the new methods of treating 
the land will ]Drobably in the near future result in turning it to fruit 


The fix'st school in the township was opened in 1853, the whole 
township being included in the district. 


Dry Creek township was originally included in San Joaquin town- 
shijj, but was set off by itself in August, 1853, all the land southeast 
of the Cosnmnes river being set off. The boundaries were modified 
into their present form by the supervisors October 20, 1856. It is 
mostly included within the boundary line of the San Jon de los 
Mokelumne, or Chabolla grant. Dr. W. L. Mclntyre came into this 
county in 1849, with his family, settling in Dry Creek township in 

1851. He built the first frame house in the township in April, 1851, 
near Gait. Mrs. Rosanna Mclntyre died at the residence of Ephraim 
Ray in Gait, February 20, 1889, in her seventy-ninth year. 

Calvin T. Briggs and John Burroughs had large herds of cattle 
on both sides of the river as early as 1850, and Burroughs returned to 
the east in 1857. Briggs built the second frame house in the town- 
ship in 1851, they having j^reviously lived in an adobe house. Rev. 
N. Slater and family came in 1851 and engaged in stock-raising. He 
sold his five hundred acre farm in the Chabolla grant in 1869 and 
moved into Sacramento in 1876. 

Grant I. Taggart and the Ringgold brothers took up a claim in 

1852, but stayed only a few months. Taggart was afterwards clerk 
of the supreme court. Willis Wright purchased part of their claim 
in 1853. Thomas Armstrong came into possession of part of the Ring- 
gold ])lace in 1852, and engaged in the dairy business. Dr. Russell 
came in 1850, engaging in the cattle business about four miles from 
Gait until his death in 1861. William H. Young was among the early 
settlers. S. Fugitt and family settled on Dry creek in 1852 and 
kept a hotel for some years. Hiram Chase came in 1852. George 
Gray settled in the townshi]> in 1850, James Short in 1853, Andrew 
Whitaker in 1852 and John McFarland in 1851. Evan Evans came in 
1851, Henry D. Cantrell in 1853, Thomas McConnell in 1855, Thomas 
Lorin in 1851, George Need in 1852, Peter Planalp in 1852, H. Putney 
in 1853, Peter Williamson in 1852, David Davis in 1853, P. Green and 
wife in 1852 or 1853, Peter Riley in 1852, Samuel Wriston and 
Ephraim Ray in 1852. 

The first death in the township occurred February 14, 1851, and 
was that of a Mrs. Jackson, who was with her husband, visiting at 
Dr. Russell's house. There was only one white woman, Mrs. Mclntyre, 
present at the funeral, and most of those who attended it were In- 
dians. At the grave the Indians squatted around on the «Tound, mak- 
ing a strange picture. In 1853 a Fourth of July celebration was held 
at Mclntyre 's house. The settlers came from all over the county and 
many from San Joaquin county. A flag was. made by four of the 


ladies, the stripes being from a red window curtain and the blue (ield 
of a blue shawl. 

The stock interests later gave way to grain, and much wheat was 
raised for years. There was little, if any, mineral in the township. 

The town' of Gait was laid out by Obed Harvey and the Western 
Pacific Railroad Company in 1869, and the Gait House, an old hotel 
erected by S. Fugitt, was moved to the town. It was discontinued 
in 1872. 

Whitaker & Ray started their store in Gait in ]859, and amassed 
a fortune. The postoffice was established the same year, with John 
Brewster as the first postmaster. 

The First Congregational Church of Gait was established October 
13, 1877, Rev. William C. Stewart, pastor, and the first officers were 
James Ferguson and E. C. Morse, but religious services had been 
held in the schoolhouse at irregular times by various denominations 
since 1869. In 1884 the church erected a fine building through the 
energy of Dr. Harvey and John McFarland. The Methodists in 1879 
took a schoolhouse built in 1872 and converted it into a church. The 
Christian Church was organized in 1887 or 1888. The Catholics laid 
the cornerstone of their church October 12, 1885, and it being the 
393rd anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus, the 
church was named St. Christopher's Church. Rt. Rev. P. W. Riordan, 
Archbishop of San Francisco, officiated. 

Phoenix Lodge No. 259, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted in Gait Decem- 
ber 29, 1875, by Grand Master D. W. Welty. It now has ninety-two 
members. Gait Encampment No. 65, I. 0. 0. F., was organized May 
13, 1881. Rei Rebekah Lodge No. 132, I. 0. O. F., was organized 
March 20, 1888, with forty-eight charter members. There are eighty- 
seven members at present. Gait Lodge, F. and A. M., was organized 
in the fall of 1882 with fifteen charter members and S. W. Palin as 
master. The Knights of Pythias were organized February 12, 1883. 
Gait Lodge No. 113, A. O. U. W., was instituted Jime 21, 1879. Other 
organizations have been instituted from time to time. The Order of 
Chosen Friends was instituted in 1882; the Golden Shore Lodge in 
May, 1889 ; the Grand Army Post July 12, 1888, and the Order of the 
Iron Hall, an incorporated order, in 1889. 

Hicksville was named after "Uncle Billy Hicks," one of the oldest 
settlers in the township, who came in 1847 and began stock-raising. 
The postoffice was established at his place in 1854 and was transferred 
to the i3resent site of Hicksville in 1857. There is now a postoffice at 
Arno on the Valensin place, at Arno station, the Hicksville postoffice, 
which was off the railroad, having been discontinued a number of 
years ago. At present there are a number of subdivisions being 
carved out of the large farms in tlie township, the principal ones of 
which are the Valensin Colonv and Herald. The Central California 


electric road runs tlirough the township, and the colonies are on its 


Franklin township was formed out of the original Sutter township 
by the board of supervisors October 20, 1856. It lies between the 
Sacramento river, the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers, and Sutter 
township. The lands in this township are all either agricultural or 
marsh lands, the latter, where reclaimed, being very valuable for fruit, 
grain or vegetable raising, and much alfalfa is also produced on them. 
The agricultural lands have been mostly used for grain raising, being 
much of them adobe, with some sections of the red plains loam. 
There are also some vineyards among them. There is a chain of 
lakes running through the western part of the township and connect- 
ing with Snodgrass Slough. Along the river are some of the finest 
orchards to be found in the state, producing all kinds of fruit, berries, 
vegetables and alfalfa, which are carried to San Francisco and to Sac- 
ramento for shipment to the east. Almost every orchard has its river 
landing, where numerous fruit and produce boats ply daily through 
the fruit season. The titles were all procured from the United States, 
there being no Mexican or Spanish grants in the township. The 
largest business enterprise in the township is the brickyard on the 
river, owned by James 'Neil. 

Joseph Sims came to the state in 1847, with Stevenson's regiment, 
and is the youngest member living of the Sacramento Society of 
Pioneers. He settled in Franklin township in 1849, and has a valuable 
farm. J. B. Green came in 1849, J. C. Beach in 1850, Wm. H. Fry in 
1852, Joseph Green in 1851, Truman N. Fassett in 1852, George W. 
Hack in 1855, R. Kercheval in 1850, David T. Lufkin in 1850, Jacob 
Miller in 1853, John Reith in 1855, Solomon Runyon in 1850, Mj'ron 
Smith in 1853, Adam Warner in 1853. Union House was established 
in 1852 by Amos Butler, and has a postoffice. The Six-mile House was 
built by a man named Prewitt in 1853-54. The Twelve-mile House was 
built in 1850 by a man named Hesser. 

Freeport, eight miles from Sacramento on the river, was the 
place from which the Freeport Railroad Company projected its road 
in 1862-63 to connect with the Sacramento Valley road, and enjoyed 
quite a shipping trade to the mines for several years. A. J. Bump 
built the first store in 1863, and the first hotel was started by E. Greer 
the same year. There was a population of from three hundred to 
four hundred people at that time, but now only a few people remain. 
It has a postoffice. Freeport Lodge No. 26, I. O. G. T., was instituted 
in January, 1884, and built a lodge building. The order went down 
some years ago. 

Franklin, for many years known as Georgetown, has a postoffice, 
store, hotel and a number of residences, and was settled in 1856 by 


Andrew George. The schoolhouse was erected and run for two years 
as a high school, but abandoned as such on account of the expense. 
Franklin Grange, P. of 11., was instituted January !), 1874. 

Richland was started in 1860 as a landing, and had a hirge ware- 
house, a school, a Methodist church and a few residences. 

Courtland is a landing for all the steamers, and was established 
in 1870 by James V. Sims. It has a postoffice, telegraph and Wells- 
Fargo office, and a store. In December, 1879, a fire destroyed the 
part of it known as Chinatown, which was rebuilt. 

Onisbo, named after a chief of the Digger Indians there, was set- 
tled by A. Runyon in 1849. A postoffice was established in 1853, but 
was moved to Courtland in 1857. The schoolhouse, with the lodge 
room of Franklin Lodge No. 143, F. and A. M., overhead, was erected